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Encephalitis Tips

Cyclone Titli - Ways To Manage Diseases It Can Cause!

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
General Physician, Faridabad
Cyclone Titli - Ways To Manage Diseases It Can Cause!

Cyclone 'Titli', which has has been categorised as a 'very severe cyclonic storm', hit the coastal Odisha region at a daunting speed of 140-150 kmph. The cyclone has already caused a lot of destruction in the region and the government has deployed NDRF teams to carry out rescue operations.

Titli, which means 'Butterfly' in English, has uprooted many trees and electricity poles but fortunately has yet not caused any casualties. India Meteorological Department has said that the cyclone will weaken gradually with the decreasing wind speed, but the aftermath of this cyclone can be very unpleasant for the people living near the coastal areas.

Where Titli has created a havoc in India, Hurricane Michael, a category 4 monster storm, has reached Florida. Over half-a-million have been either ordered or advised to evacuate as it inched closer to Panama City. It has already caused 14 deaths in Central America and is still going strong.

Such cyclonic storms and hurricanes not only disturb the normal life during their stay in the region but also lead to spread of various diseases.

Diseases which can spread:

Apart from the risk of serious mental trauma during the cyclonic period, the possibility of spread of water and vector-borne diseases also increase.

Following are the waterborne diseases it can cause:

  • Cholera
  • Hepatitis A
  • Amoebiasis
  • Typhoid fever
  • Cryptosporidiosis
  • Cyclosporiasis
  • Giardiasis
  • Microsporidiosis
  • Naegleriasis
  • Botulism
  • Campylobacteriosis
  • Dysentery
  • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

Vector-borne diseases that can spread:

  • Chikungunya
  • Dengue fever
  • Lymphatic filariasis
  • Rift Valley fever
  • Yellow fever
  • Zika
  • Malaria
  • Lymphatic filariasis
  • Japanese encephalitis
  • Lymphatic filariasis
  • West Nile fever

Ways to prevent Vector-borne diseases:

Once the tragedy ends, people should ignore being in vegetated areas to avoid encounter with insects, like mosquitoes. People should wear protective clothing and avoid using perfumes which may attract mosquitos.

Pregnant women should also try not to go outside their houses during peak times of mosquito activity.

Here are some more preventive measures for vector-borne diseases:

  • Apply insect repellents to exposed by body parts as well as clothing
  • Do not apply it to wounds or irritated skin
  • Take a bath or wash your body after returning home
  • Wash the clothes after every single time you go out
  • Sleep in netted or screened area

Measures to prevent waterborne diseases:

Waterborne diseases transmit when contaminated water is used for purposes including drinking, washing uncooked vegetables, brushing teeth and washing dentures or contact lenses. Here are the other ways to prevent waterborne diseases:

  • Drink purified water only
  • If your area has sanitation problems, avoid coming in contact with outside water.
  • Do not use untreated water from a spring, river, lake or pond
  • Do not always consider boiled water safe for consumption as it does not contain chlorine to avoid recontamination
  • Avoid using ice cubes
  • Avoid eating outside
  • Maintain good hygiene by using soaps and sanitisers

The cyclonic storm will pass off soon but will create several issues that would require proper attention to be prevented. So, after surviving it, you must follow the above-mentioned measures to stay safe and healthy.

1 person found this helpful

Brain Size - How Is It Related To Intelligence?

Dr. R.V.Anand 90% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MD - General Medicine, DM - Neurology
Neurologist, Chennai
Brain Size - How Is It Related To Intelligence?

The relationship between intelligence and brain size, both among people and between various species, has never been precisely well defined. People often believe that their outstanding psychological capacities must mean that they are superior to all animals as far as brain size is concerned. However, it is not true since whales and elephants have much bigger brains than humans and humans have the same brain-to-body mass proportion as mice do.

Here are a number of ways by which the brain size can be determined:

  1. Encephalization remainder: Since it would be against human instinct to admit loss and defeat, researchers have created a measure to determine the brain size called the encephalization remainder. It is the proportion of actual brain mass with respect to the anticipated cerebrum mass for the animal’s size (based on the suspicion that bigger animals require somewhat less brain matter with respect to their size, compared to little animals). By this metric, human beings prove to be the best, with an EQ of 7.5 outperforming the dolphin's 5.3 and the mouse's 0.5.
  2. IQ testing: Without a solitary and evident method for measuring intelligence, some improved tests like IQ (Intelligence Quotient) are by and large acknowledged as a moderately decent working device. IQ estimations are not without issues, and there is a great deal of criticism about their significance. IQ testing uses government sanctioned tests, for example, the WAIS–III (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale). The normal IQ is somewhere around 90 and 110. The scores beneath the normal may demonstrate changing degrees of pathology, for example, marginal intellectual function, or mental hindrance of different severity. Over the normal range is regularly connected with knowledge, splendour, talent, or genius. However, as with computers of a few eras, size and intellect do not precisely relate. Present day portable computers weighing around one or two kilogrammes can store more data and perform a greater number of assignments than supercomputers from the 1980s that used to possess expansive structures. This is a contrast amongst quantity and quality. Numerous scientists now hold the view that it is not the whole brain, which is bigger in a human with a higher IQ, yet rather certain zones that are denser and might be bigger. A fascinating late revelation is that these ranges can be expanded in size and enhanced in usefulness during the course of our life.
  3. NeuroplasticityIt refers to the dynamic procedure of repair and maintenance that our brains are continually experiencing. We are conceived with around hundred billion neurones, yet lose around two hundred thousand a day to a procedure called pruning. As we develop and grow, pathways in the brain that are not required are detached, and the neurones pass on. However, in a compensatory procedure, new neurones are delivered and more detailed associations are built up between neurones that are more dynamic. This is the procedure of de-cluttering, in which our brains develop to work at most extreme effectiveness. 

    In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3034 people found this helpful

Brain Size - How It Is Related With Intelligence?

Dr. Sumit Singh 86% (37 ratings)
DM - Neurology, MD - Medicine, MBBS
Neurologist, Gurgaon
Brain Size - How It Is Related With Intelligence?

The relationship between intelligence and brain size, both among people and between various species, has never been precisely well defined. People often believe that their outstanding psychological capacities must mean that they are superior to all animals as far as brain size is concerned. However, it is not true since whales and elephants have much bigger brains than humans and humans have the same brain-to-body mass proportion as mice do.

Here are a number of ways by which the brain size can be determined:

  1. Encephalization remainder: Since it would be against human instinct to admit loss and defeat, researchers have created a measure to determine the brain size called the encephalization remainder. It is the proportion of actual brain mass with respect to the anticipated cerebrum mass for the animal’s size (based on the suspicion that bigger animals require somewhat less brain matter with respect to their size, compared to little animals). By this metric, human beings prove to be the best, with an EQ of 7.5 outperforming the dolphin's 5.3 and the mouse's 0.5.
  2. IQ testing: Without a solitary and evident method for measuring intelligence, some improved tests like IQ (Intelligence Quotient) are by and large acknowledged as a moderately decent working device. IQ estimations are not without issues, and there is a great deal of criticism about their significance. IQ testing uses government sanctioned tests, for example, the WAIS–III (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale). The normal IQ is somewhere around 90 and 110. The scores beneath the normal may demonstrate changing degrees of pathology, for example, marginal intellectual function, or mental hindrance of different severity. Over the normal range is regularly connected with knowledge, splendour, talent, or genius. However, as with computers of a few eras, size and intellect do not precisely relate. Present day portable computers weighing around one or two kilogrammes can store more data and perform a greater number of assignments than supercomputers from the 1980s that used to possess expansive structures. This is a contrast amongst quantity and quality. Numerous scientists now hold the view that it is not the whole brain, which is bigger in a human with a higher IQ, yet rather certain zones that are denser and might be bigger. A fascinating late revelation is that these ranges can be expanded in size and enhanced in usefulness during the course of our life.
  3. NeuroplasticityIt refers to the dynamic procedure of repair and maintenance that our brains are continually experiencing. We are conceived with around hundred billion neurones, yet lose around two hundred thousand a day to a procedure called pruning. As we develop and grow, pathways in the brain that are not required are detached, and the neurones pass on. However, in a compensatory procedure, new neurones are delivered and more detailed associations are built up between neurones that are more dynamic. This is the procedure of de-cluttering, in which our brains develop to work at most extreme effectiveness. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Neurologist.
2828 people found this helpful

Zika Virus - How You Can Prevent Yourself?

Dr. Tarun Jhamb 90% (18 ratings)
MD - Internal Medicine, MBBS
General Physician, Gurgaon
Zika Virus - How You Can Prevent Yourself?

Zika virus causes a deadly disease called Zika fever or Zika virus disease that spreads by the bite of the Aedes mosquito. The Zika virus is a member of the virus family FLAVIVIRIDAE and is closely related to the dengue, yellow fever, Japanese Encephalitis, and West Nile viruses. It was isolated in the Zika forest of Uganda in 1947 and is known to be prevalent in continents like Africa and Asia primarily, though it’s slowly making headway in the developed world and has spawned the deadly 2015-2016 Zika virus epidemic.

What are symptoms of Zika fever?
People with Zika virus disease can have symptoms which are similar to Dengue, like-

  • Fever
  • Diarrhea
  • Red Eye 
  • Muscle Pain
  • Skin Rash
  • Headache

These symptoms usually last for 2-7 days.

Complications of Zika virus disease
According to WHO, Zika virus infection during pregnancy causes congenital brain abnormalities like microcephaly. And the infection can also trigger the Guillain-Barré syndrome. Microcephaly is a condition where a child is born with a small head or the head stops growing after birth and the Guillain-Barré syndrome is a rare condition in which a person’s immune system attacks the peripheral nerves which control muscle movement and sensation.

Even as we read this, intense efforts are being expended to investigate the link between Zika virus and a number of other neurological disorders.

How does Zika spread?
The causes of Zika are:

  1. The bite of the Aedes mosquito that is infected with the Zika virus. This mosquito is the same that spreads dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. It bites primarily in the daytime.
  2. Unprotected sexual intercourse
  3. Zika’s transmission through blood transfusion is being investigated.

How can you prevent Zika infection?
Protection against mosquito bites is the most foolproof ways to prevent a Zika virus infection. Other ways to prevent Zika infection via mosquito bites are:

  1. Just like Dengue prevention, you must cover your body properly, especially during daytime
  2. Use physical barriers such as window screens or closing doors and windows against the mosquitoes
  3. Sleep under mosquito nets
  4. Using insect repellents containing DEET, IR3535 or icaridin
  5. Take extra care of young children, sick and  elderly people
  6. Cover, empty or clean mosquito breeding sites in and around your house or colony like empty buckets, drums, flower pots and used tyres that can fill-up with water and breed mosquitoes
  7. Encourage your family and community to support local government efforts to reduce mosquitoes in their localities
  8. Insist on regular spraying of insecticide for mosquito control in your locality.

For stemming sexual transmission of Zika, the WHO recommends that sexually active men and women be counselled to practice safe sex using condoms. WHO also recommends that people who have come back after travelling from Zika virus zones should be extremely careful in practising safe sex or abstinence for the first 6 months at least, for preventing a pregnancy.

If affected, what is the treatment?
Zika virus disease is usually mild and requires no specific treatment as such.
Infected people are advised plenty of rest, asked to drink enough fluids, and treat pain and fever with common medicines like Ibuprofen. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a General Physician.

 

4347 people found this helpful

Headache - Certain facts one should know

Dr. Santosh Kumar Soni 88% (709 ratings)
MBBS
General Physician, Durg
Headache - Certain facts one should know

Headache is a pain in any part of the head, including the scalp, upper neck, face (including the eye area).

A primary headache is caused by problems with or overactivity of pain-sensitive structures in your head. A primary headache isn't a symptom of an underlying disease.

What are the causes and triggers?

The three most common causes of a primary headache are:

  1. Cluster headache
  2. Tension-type headache
  3. Migraine

Some primary headaches can be triggered by lifestyle factors, including:

  • Alcohol, particularly red wine
  • Certain foods, such as processed meats that contain nitrates
  • Changes in sleep or lack of sleep
  • Poor posture
  • Skipped meals
  • Stress

Doctors focus on determining whether a headache has another cause. They also check for symptoms suggesting that a headache is caused by a serious disorder. If no cause is identified, they focus on identifying which type of a headache is present.

Tips that could help before seeking consultation:

  • Try to keep stress in check. Stay organized and prepared to minimize stressful situations. Have some fun, and don't overdo it at work.
  • Try incorporating meditation or yoga in your daily regime
  • Apply a heating pad, hot water bottle or warm compress to aching muscles. Or take a hot shower.
  • Apply an ice pack wrapped in a towel to the neck.
  • Practice good posture to ease muscle strain. While standing, keep shoulders back and head level, buttocks and abdomen pulled in. While sitting, keep your head straight and thighs parallel to the floor.

When to seek consultation?

In people with headaches, certain characteristics are cause for concern; these people should immediately seek medical consultation:

  • It occurs more frequently than usual
  • Are more severe than usual
  • Worsen or don't improve with appropriate use of over-the-counter drugs
  • Prevent you from working, sleeping or participating in normal activities
  • Headaches that cause you distress, and you would like to find treatment options that enable you to control them better
  • Tenderness at the temple (as when combing hair) or jaw pain when chewing
  • The presence of cancer or a disorder that weakens the immune system
  • Use of a drug that suppresses the immune system
  • Red eyes and halos seen around lights
  • If you are experiencing certain other symptoms like- headaches that increase in frequency or severity, headaches that begin after age 50, worsening vision, weight loss

A headache can be a symptom of a serious condition, such as a stroke, meningitis or encephalitis. Go to a hospital emergency room or your local emergency number if you have the worst headache of your life, a sudden, severe headache or a headache accompanied by:    

  • Confusion or trouble understanding speech
  • Fainting, drowsiness, confusion
  • High fever, greater than 102 f to 104 f (39 c to 40 c)
  • Numbness, weakness or paralysis on one side of your body
  • Stiff neck
  • Trouble seeing, speaking or walking
  • Nausea or vomiting (if not clearly related to the flu or a hangover)

If people with none of the above symptoms or characteristics start having headaches that are different from any they have had before or if their usual headaches become unusually severe, they should call a doctor.

Doctors can usually determine the type or cause of headaches based on the medical history, symptoms, and results of a physical examination. Depending on their other symptoms, the doctor may advise taking an analgesic or ask them to come for an evaluation.

5224 people found this helpful
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