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Ectodermal Dysplasia-syndactyly Syndrome Tips

Developmental Dysplasia Of Hip - Know Everything About It!

Dr. Gaurav Khera 91% (30 ratings)
MBBS, Diploma In Orthopaedics (D. Ortho), DNB - Orthopedics, Mch
Orthopedist, Delhi
Developmental Dysplasia Of Hip - Know Everything About It!

What is Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip?

Developmental dysplasia of the hip or DDH, is a condition that affects the hip joint in newborns and young children. The hip is like a ball-and-cup, formed by the round top of the thigh bone - called the femur - and a cup-shaped socket in the pelvis. The hip joint is stable in spite of its large range of motion and is kept in place by ligaments and other soft tissue structures. The normal infant hip is not mature at birth but develops into a strong and stable joint as the child grows.

What happens in hip dysplasia?

In DDH, the hip does not develop normally as the cup and ball are either partially or completely out of alignment. DDH can vary from mild to severe depending on whether the cup is shallow, soft tissue structures are lax or a combination of all. These problems may cause the hip to become unstable, and even come out of the joint. This is known as a dislocated hip and is believed to occur in around one in 1000 infants. One or both hips can be affected. DDH isn't painful in babies and young children. Untreated DDH can result in limping in young children. This can progress to hip pain and arthritis at a later date.

How common is it?

DDH is more common in girls and first-born children. It's more likely to occur if there's a family history or if the baby was breech. Swaddling or wrapping a baby's legs too tightly can also lead to DDH. Certain traditional practices like wrapping the children, etc. are known to increase the risk, while carrying them with limbs separated apart is known to decrease the risk of dysplasia. All newborns should have both hips carefully examined by a health professional. 

Treatment options

Treatment depends on the child's age and the severity of the condition. Young babies with confirmed DDH are usually treated in a brace or harness that holds the legs apart. This helps the hip socket to deepen and the hip to become stable with growth. Regular monitoring of the hip position is necessary to ensure good outcomes. Surgery may be necessary if brace treatment is unsuccessful, or if a hip dislocation is first noticed when the child is older.

What is the long-term outlook?

Most infants who are diagnosed and treated early do not have any hip problems in later life. Earlier the diagnosis and treatment, the better the outcome, as late diagnosis often requires surgical treatment and can mean a higher likelihood of ongoing hip problems. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2739 people found this helpful

Symptoms, Causes and Treatment of Cervical Dysplasia

Dr. Vishakha Munjal 88% (33 ratings)
Visiting Consultant - (Apollo Cradle - Nehru Enclave) , MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology, MBBS, Apollo Spectra - Kailash colony,Paras Bliss - East of kailash, Moolchand - Lajpat Nagar Neelkanth - Gurgaon
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Symptoms, Causes and Treatment of Cervical Dysplasia

Cervical dysplasia is a type of condition, which occurs before cancer. This condition is associated with abnormal cell growth occurring in the cervix, uterus, vagina and endocervical canal. Cervical dysplasia is most commonly caused by the human-papillomavirus and is a sexually transmitted infection or STI. This disease is common in young women under 30 years of age. It is worth noting however, that cervical dysplasia can occur at any age whatsoever. Here are the causes of cervical dysplasia.

Causes:

  1. HPV infection: An infection caused by the human papillomavirus is the main reason why cervical dysplasia occurs. It is worth noting that HPV is most commonly transmitted through sex.
  2. Smoking: People who smoke are twice as likely to suffer from cervical dysplasia in comparison to those who do not.
  3. Immunosuppressive drugs: These are more likely to cause cervical dysplasia because they weaken the immune system of your body.
  4. Organ transplant: Organ transplant also increases your chances of cervical dysplasia due to the fact that it weakens your immune system.
  5. HIV-AIDS: This is a disease, which also weakens your immune response and therefore increases your chances of contracting cervical dysplasia.

Symptoms:
There are not too many symptoms of cervical dysplasia and it can only be diagnosed using a Pap test without, which more complicated tests have to be performed.

Treatment:
Once the diagnosis for this is complete, several factors will have to be considered before deciding, which treatment to give the patient. These include the age of the patient and the severity of the condition. However, in most of the cases women who have cervical dysplasia are not treated and the cell growth goes away on its own however when it is treated the following treatments are used.

  1. LEEP
  2. Cone biopsy
  3. Cryosurgery
  4. Electrocauterization
  5. Laser surgery
4440 people found this helpful

How Common Developmental Dysplasia Of Hip Is Treated?

Dr. Ravi C V 90% (15 ratings)
DNB, Fellowship in Pediatric Orthopedics
Orthopedist, Visakhapatnam
How Common Developmental Dysplasia Of Hip Is Treated?

What is Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip?

Developmental dysplasia of the hip or DDH, is a condition that affects the hip joint in newborns and young children. The hip is like a ball-and-cup, formed by the round top of the thigh bone - called the femur - and a cup-shaped socket in the pelvis. The hip joint is stable in spite of its large range of motion and is kept in place by ligaments and other soft tissue structures. The normal infant hip is not mature at birth but develops into a strong and stable joint as the child grows.

What happens in hip dysplasia?

In DDH, the hip does not develop normally as the cup and ball are either partially or completely out of alignment. DDH can vary from mild to severe depending on whether the cup is shallow, soft tissue structures are lax or a combination of all. These problems may cause the hip to become unstable, and even come out of the joint. This is known as a dislocated hip and is believed to occur in around one in 1000 infants. One or both hips can be affected. DDH isn't painful in babies and young children. Untreated DDH can result in limping in young children. This can progress to hip pain and arthritis at a later date.

How common is it?

DDH is more common in girls and first-born children. It's more likely to occur if there's a family history or if the baby was breech. Swaddling or wrapping a baby's legs too tightly can also lead to DDH. Certain traditional practices like wrapping the children, etc. are known to increase the risk, while carrying them with limbs separated apart is known to decrease the risk of dysplasia. All newborns should have both hips carefully examined by a health professional. 

Treatment options

Treatment depends on the child's age and the severity of the condition. Young babies with confirmed DDH are usually treated in a brace or harness that holds the legs apart. This helps the hip socket to deepen and the hip to become stable with growth. Regular monitoring of the hip position is necessary to ensure good outcomes. Surgery may be necessary if brace treatment is unsuccessful, or if a hip dislocation is first noticed when the child is older.

What is the long-term outlook?

Most infants who are diagnosed and treated early do not have any hip problems in later life. Earlier the diagnosis and treatment, the better the outcome, as late diagnosis often requires surgical treatment and can mean a higher likelihood of ongoing hip problems.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4334 people found this helpful

Developmental Dysplasia Of Hip - How Common It Is?

Dr. Ravi C V 90% (15 ratings)
DNB, Fellowship in Pediatric Orthopedics
Orthopedist, Visakhapatnam
Developmental Dysplasia Of Hip - How Common It Is?

What is Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip?

Developmental dysplasia of the hip or DDH, is a condition that affects the hip joint in newborns and young children. The hip is like a ball-and-cup, formed by the round top of the thigh bone - called the femur - and a cup-shaped socket in the pelvis. The hip joint is stable in spite of its large range of motion and is kept in place by ligaments and other soft tissue structures. The normal infant hip is not mature at birth but develops into a strong and stable joint as the child grows.

What happens in hip dysplasia?

In DDH, the hip does not develop normally as the cup and ball are either partially or completely out of alignment. DDH can vary from mild to severe depending on whether the cup is shallow, soft tissue structures are lax or a combination of all. These problems may cause the hip to become unstable, and even come out of the joint. This is known as a dislocated hip and is believed to occur in around one in 1000 infants. One or both hips can be affected. DDH isn't painful in babies and young children. Untreated DDH can result in limping in young children. This can progress to hip pain and arthritis at a later date.

How common is it?

DDH is more common in girls and first-born children. It's more likely to occur if there's a family history or if the baby was breech. Swaddling or wrapping a baby's legs too tightly can also lead to DDH. Certain traditional practices like wrapping the children, etc. are known to increase the risk, while carrying them with limbs separated apart is known to decrease the risk of dysplasia. All newborns should have both hips carefully examined by a health professional. 

Treatment options

Treatment depends on the child's age and the severity of the condition. Young babies with confirmed DDH are usually treated in a brace or harness that holds the legs apart. This helps the hip socket to deepen and the hip to become stable with growth. Regular monitoring of the hip position is necessary to ensure good outcomes. Surgery may be necessary if brace treatment is unsuccessful, or if a hip dislocation is first noticed when the child is older.

What is the long-term outlook?

Most infants who are diagnosed and treated early do not have any hip problems in later life. Earlier the diagnosis and treatment, the better the outcome, as late diagnosis often requires surgical treatment and can mean a higher likelihood of ongoing hip problems.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3471 people found this helpful

Cervical Dysplasia - 5 Common Causes

Dr. Anuradha Khurana 91% (163 ratings)
MBBS, DGO
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Cervical Dysplasia - 5 Common Causes

Cervical dysplasia is a type of condition which occurs before cancer. This condition is associated with abnormal cell growth occurring in the cervix, uterus, vagina and endocervical canal. Cervical dysplasia is most commonly caused by the human-papillomavirus and is a sexually transmitted infection or STI. This disease is common in young women under 30 years of age. It is worth noting however that cervical dysplasia can occur at any age whatsoever. Here are the causes of cervical dysplasia.
Causes:
1. HPV infection
An infection caused by the human papilloma virus is the main reason why cervical dysplasia occurs. It is worth noting that HPV is most commonly transmitted through sex.
2. Smoking
People who smoke are twice as likely to suffer from cervical dysplasia in comparison to those who do not.
3. Immuno suppresive drugs
These are more likely to cause cervical dysplasia because they weaken the immune system of your body.
4. Organ transplant

Organ transplant also increases your chances of cervical dysplasia due to the fact that it weakens your immune system.
5. HIV-AIDS
This is a disease which also weakens your immune response and therefore increases your chances of contracting cervical dysplasia.
Symptoms:
There are not too many symptoms of cervical dysplasia and it can only be diagnosed using a Pap test without which more complicated tests have to be performed.
Treatment:
Once the diagnosis for is complete, several factors will have to be considered before deciding which treatment to give the patient. These include the age of the patient and the severity of the condition. However, in most of the cases women who have cervical dysplasia are not treated and the cell growth goes away on its own however when it is treated the following treatments are used.
1. LEEP
2. Cone biopsy
3. Cyrosurgery
4. Electrocauterization
5. Laser surgery 

If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.

4556 people found this helpful

premenstrual syndrome

Dr. Kamaksha Prasad 90% (2068 ratings)
DSTD,MBBS
Sexologist, Howrah
premenstrual syndrome
nearly all women suffers some mood changes/breast pain/abdominal pain/hot flushes headache, fatigue, insomnia, bloating, uncontrollable food cravings, irritability, depression, feelings of loneliness, rejection … days just before their periods. sexual desires also changes in those days. so, irritation/ feel of unsatisfaction wipe off the peace of mind..
its due to sex hormone changes in your body during that time mainly estrogen & FSH.
try to control your emotion by doing yoga- it acts like miracle. eyes closed & deep breathing in & out in the early morning makes you calm & control your sex steroid releasing hormones through hypothalamus.slow body twisting improves your circulation in lower abdominal organs.
for abdominal/breast pain-try to use home remedies like cold compress/ cold cod oil massage.
diet- raw onion and pumpkin seeds. flaxseed oil, evening primrose oil lavender and tea in the evening. try to have vegetables and fish- avoid meats.
**do not let your hormones to control your mind**
in severe cases, you may need medicines, consult your physician- we are always their to solve your problems.
184 people found this helpful

Piriformis Syndrome

Dr. Punnam Gupta 88% (174 ratings)
BPTh/BPT; certificate in sports medicine, PGCR, Diploma in Sports Medicine
Physiotherapist, Delhi
Piriformis Syndrome

Piriformis Syndrome

1 person found this helpful

Surfing Syndrome!

Dr. Kishore Sabbu 92% (388 ratings)
MBBS, Diploma in Child Health (DCH), MD Internal Medicine
General Physician, Visakhapatnam
Surfing Syndrome!
  • Referring internet extensively regarding health issues is creating confusion and a lot of psychological stress to the persons reading the information.
  • Always consult your doctor whom you believe for your health issues.

Klinefelter Syndrome

Dr. Sharath Kumar C 87% (1355 ratings)
Ph.D (Male Infertility), M.S (Infertility), D.G.L.S, D.R.C.O.G, C.Sc., D.M.R.D, M.B.B.S
Sexologist, Bangalore
Klinefelter Syndrome

Klinefelter syndrome, also known as the xxy condition, is a term used to describe males who have an extra x chromosome in most of their cells.

Klinefelter syndrome is named after Dr. Henry klinefelter, who first described a group of symptoms found in some men with the extra x chromosome. About one of every 500 males has an extra x chromosome, but many don't have any symptoms.

Symptoms:

  • Symptoms depend on how many xxy cells a man has, how much testosterone is in his body, and his age when the condition is diagnosed.
  • As xxy males enter puberty, they may have a taller, less muscular body, less facial and body hair, and broader hips than other boys. As teens, xxy males may have larger breasts, weaker bones, and a lower energy level than other boys.
  • Xxy adult males look similar to males without the condition, although they are often taller and may have autoimmune disorders, breast cancer, vein diseases, osteoporosis, and tooth decay.

Fertility:
Xxy males can have normal or subnormal sex lives, but they usually make little or no sperm and are infertile. Some times, they are impotent also.

Treatment:

  • The xxy chromosome pattern cannot be changed. Treatments involve physical, speech, occupational, behavioral, mental health, and family therapists, and testosterone replacement therapy.
  •  Even though all men with klinefelter syndrome have the extra x chromosome, not every xxy male has all of those symptoms. 
  • Because not every male with an xxy pattern has all the symptoms of klinefelter syndrome, it is common to use the term xxy male to describe these men, or xxy condition to describe the symptoms. 
     
2 people found this helpful

Boerhaave Syndrome

Dr. Mirza Nimmat Baig 90% (144 ratings)
md general phisician
General Physician, Hyderabad
Boerhaave Syndrome

Boerhaave first described the spontaneous rupture of the esophagus in 1724. It typically occurs after forceful emesis. Boerhaave syndrome is a transmural perforation of the esophagus to be distinguished from mallory-weiss syndrome, a nontransmural esophageal tear also associated with vomiting. Because it often is associated with emesis, boerhaave syndrome usually is not truly spontaneous. However, the term is useful for distinguishing it from iatrogenic perforation, which accounts for 85-90% of cases of esophageal rupture.
Diagnosis of boerhaave syndrome can be difficult because often no classic symptoms are present and delays in presentation for medical care are common. Approximately one third of all cases of boerhaave syndrome are clinically atypical. Prompt recognition of this potentially lethal condition is vital to ensure appropriate treatment. Mediastinitis, sepsis, and shock frequently are seen late in the course of illness, which further confuses the diagnostic picture.
See can't-miss gastrointestinal diagnoses, a critical images slideshow, to help diagnose the potentially life-threatening conditions that present with gastrointestinal symptoms.
A reported mortality estimate is approximately 35%, making it the most lethal perforation of the gi tract. The best outcomes are associated with early diagnosis and definitive surgical management within 12 hours of rupture. If intervention is delayed longer than 24 hours, the mortality rate (even with surgical intervention) rises to higher than 50% and to nearly 90% after 48 hours. Left untreated, the mortality rate is close to 100%.
 

Pathophysiology
Esophageal rupture in boerhaave syndrome is postulated to be the result of a sudden rise in intraluminal esophageal pressure produced during vomiting, as a result of neuromuscular incoordination causing failure of the cricopharyngeus muscle to relax. The syndrome commonly is associated with overindulgence in food and/or alcohol. The most common anatomical location of the tear in boerhaave syndrome is at the left posterolateral wall of the lower third of the esophagus, 2-3 cm proximal to the gastroesophageal junction, along the longitudinal wall of the esophagus. The second most common site of rupture is in the subdiaphragmatic or upper thoracic area. [1, 2]

Although likely underreported, the incidence of boerhaave syndrome is relatively rare. A 1980 review by kish cited 300 cases in the literature worldwide. [3] a 1986 summary by bladergroen et al described 127 cases. [4] of these, 114 were diagnosed antemortem; the others were diagnosed at autopsy. Overall, boerhaave syndrome accounts for 15% of all cases of traumatic rupture or perforation of the esophagus.

Race-, sex-, and age-related demographics
Cases have been reported in all races and on virtually every continent, affecting males more commonly than females, with ratios ranging from 2: 1 to 5: 1.
Boerhaave syndrome is seen most frequently among patients aged 50-70 years. Reports suggest that 80% of all patients are middle-aged men. However, this condiction has also been described in neonates and in persons older than 90 years. Although no clear explanation exists for this, the least susceptible age group appears to be children aged 1-17 years.
Mortality/morbidity

Prognosis
Prognosis is directly contingent on early recognition and appropriate intervention. Early diagnosis of boerhaave syndrome allows prompt surgical repair. Diagnosis and surgery within 24 hours carry a 75% survival rate. This drops to approximately 50% after a 24-hour delay and approximately 10% after 48 hours.
 

Morbidity/mortality
The mortality rate is high. Esophageal perforation is the most lethal perforation of the gi tract. Survival is contingent largely upon early recognition and appropriate surgical intervention.
Overall, the mortality rate is approximately 30%. Mortality is usually due to subsequent infection, including mediastinitis, pneumonitis, pericarditis, or empyema.
Patients who undergo surgical repair within 24 hours of injury have a 70-75% chance of survival. This falls to 35-50% if surgery is delayed longer than 24 hours and to approximately 10% if delayed longer than 48 hours.
Cases of patients surviving without surgery exist but are rare enough to warrant case reports in the medical literature.
 

Complications
Esophageal rupture may lead to the development of septicemia, pneumomediastinum, mediastinitis, massive pleural effusion, empyema, pneumomediastinum, or subcutaneous emphysema.
If the esophageal rupture extends directly into the pleura, hydropneumothorax is expected. In adults, this occurs more commonly on the left side of the pleura. In neonates, esophageal rupture usually occurs on the right side.
After esophageal rupture, free air enters the mediastinum and also may spread to the adjacent structures, resulting in mediastinal abscess or superimposed secondary infection.
Other complications include acute respiratory distress syndrome, pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, and hydrothorax.

1 person found this helpful
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