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Dysphagia Diet Tips

Causes and Treatment of Dysphagia

Dr. Major Rajesh Kumar Bhardwaj 90% (250 ratings)
MS - ENT, DNB (ENT)
ENT Specialist, Delhi
Causes and Treatment of Dysphagia

Ever had tempting food calling out to you, but could not to swallow it? This could be a serious medical condition and should not be taken lightly. Sometimes, certain disorders in the throat or the esophagus culminate in acute difficulties in swallowing. Commonly termed dysphagia, this disease is directly linked to some sort of a neuro cardiac abnormality. Dysphagia is commonly noted in babies and aged people or in other words in those age groups whose immunity systems are not necessarily strong. Occasional troubles in swallowing can go unnoticed and may not necessarily raise the alarm, but if this condition prevails for a comparatively long period of time, then one really needs to get themselves checked.

Some of the most prominent causes of dysphagia have been enlisted below:

  • Muscular and nervous dysfunctions: On certain occasions, the nerves and the muscles that are responsible for transporting food through the food pipe may not be functioning properly. As a consequence of which, food particles find it difficult to navigate through the esophagus and reach the stomach. Such a condition may be spurred by a stroke or nervous diseases like Parkinson's, sclerosis or dystrophy. A weak immunity system, leading to an inflammation and thus narrowing of the esophageal walls may also cause such a disease.
  • Gastronomical distresses: Ulcers or inflammation of the food pipe due to some gastroenteric disorders is also a cause of dysphagia. Such a condition may arise out of innocuous situations like an allergic reaction or on account of more chronic medical distresses like cancers and tumors
  • Dryness inside the mouth: The saliva in the mouth helps in debilitating the food particles into digestible form.  However, due to some kind of a hormonal imbalance, if there isn't adequate saliva formation, it becomes a task to swallow the food and results in dysphagia. 

With timely diagnosis, dysphagia can be treated effectively. Treating dysphagia usually involves a few clinical methods as well as a few lifestyle changes.  Certain specialists advice exercising the throat muscles that can possibly ease out swallowing while others recommend specific changes in the diet for the same. Surgical procedures involve dilation and endoscopy which clears out the surface area of the esophagus as a result of which heals dysphagia to a great extent.

3593 people found this helpful

Dysphagia - Causes And Treatment!

Dr. Gladson Guddappa Uchil 94% (645 ratings)
MBBS, Diploma In Otorhinolaryngology (DLO)
ENT Specialist, Bangalore
Dysphagia - Causes And Treatment!

Ever had tempting food calling out to you, but could not to swallow it? This could be a serious medical condition and should not be taken lightly. Sometimes, certain disorders in the throat or the esophagus culminate in acute difficulties in swallowing. Commonly termed dysphagia, this disease is directly linked to some sort of a neuro cardiac abnormality. Dysphagia is commonly noted in babies and aged people or in other words in those age groups whose immunity systems are not necessarily strong. Occasional troubles in swallowing can go unnoticed and may not necessarily raise the alarm, but if this condition prevails for a comparatively long period of time, then one really needs to get themselves checked.

Some of the most prominent causes of dysphagia have been enlisted below:

  • Muscular and nervous dysfunctions: On certain occasions, the nerves and the muscles that are responsible for transporting food through the food pipe may not be functioning properly. As a consequence of which, food particles find it difficult to navigate through the esophagus and reach the stomach. Such a condition may be spurred by a stroke or nervous diseases like Parkinson's, sclerosis or dystrophy. A weak immunity system, leading to an inflammation and thus narrowing of the esophageal walls may also cause such a disease.
  • Gastronomical distresses: Ulcers or inflammation of the food pipe due to some gastroenteric disorders is also a cause of dysphagia. Such a condition may arise out of innocuous situations like an allergic reaction or on account of more chronic medical distresses like cancers and tumors
  • Dryness inside the mouth: The saliva in the mouth helps in debilitating the food particles into digestible form.  However, due to some kind of a hormonal imbalance, if there isn't adequate saliva formation, it becomes a task to swallow the food and results in dysphagia. 

With timely diagnosis, dysphagia can be treated effectively. Treating dysphagia usually involves a few clinical methods as well as a few lifestyle changes.  Certain specialists advice exercising the throat muscles that can possibly ease out swallowing while others recommend specific changes in the diet for the same. Surgical procedures involve dilation and endoscopy which clears out the surface area of the esophagus as a result of which heals dysphagia to a great extent. Consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2602 people found this helpful

3 Causes Of Dysphagia And Its Treatment!

Dr. Sudhanshu Pandey 88% (126 ratings)
MS- ENT
ENT Specialist, Jaipur
3 Causes Of Dysphagia And Its Treatment!

Ever had tempting food calling out to you, but could not to swallow it? This could be a serious medical condition and should not be taken lightly. Sometimes, certain disorders in the throat or the esophagus culminate in acute difficulties in swallowing. Commonly termed dysphagia, this disease is directly linked to some sort of a neuro cardiac abnormality. Dysphagia is commonly noted in babies and aged people or in other words in those age groups whose immunity systems are not necessarily strong. Occasional troubles in swallowing can go unnoticed and may not necessarily raise the alarm, but if this condition prevails for a comparatively long period of time, then one really needs to get themselves checked.

Some of the most prominent causes of dysphagia have been enlisted below:

  • Muscular and nervous dysfunctions: On certain occasions, the nerves and the muscles that are responsible for transporting food through the food pipe may not be functioning properly. As a consequence of which, food particles find it difficult to navigate through the esophagus and reach the stomach. Such a condition may be spurred by a stroke or nervous diseases like Parkinson's, sclerosis or dystrophy. A weak immunity system, leading to an inflammation and thus narrowing of the esophageal walls may also cause such a disease.
  • Gastronomical distresses: Ulcers or inflammation of the food pipe due to some gastroenteric disorders is also a cause of dysphagia. Such a condition may arise out of innocuous situations like an allergic reaction or on account of more chronic medical distresses like cancers and tumors
  • Dryness inside the mouth: The saliva in the mouth helps in debilitating the food particles into digestible form.  However, due to some kind of a hormonal imbalance, if there isn't adequate saliva formation, it becomes a task to swallow the food and results in dysphagia. 

With timely diagnosis, dysphagia can be treated effectively. Treating dysphagia usually involves a few clinical methods as well as a few lifestyle changes.  Certain specialists advice exercising the throat muscles that can possibly ease out swallowing while others recommend specific changes in the diet for the same. Surgical procedures involve dilation and endoscopy which clears out the surface area of the esophagus as a result of which heals dysphagia to a great extent. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Ent specialist.

2705 people found this helpful

5 Treatment Methods For Dysphagia

Dr. Kunal Das 90% (11 ratings)
DM - Gastroenterology, MD - Internal Medicine, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine & Bachelor of Surgery
Gastroenterologist, Noida
5 Treatment Methods For Dysphagia

Dysphagia is the difficulty in swallowing food or liquid. Most people suffering from dysphagia are unaware of their medical condition and only realize it in later stages. When not diagnosed and treated in time, it may lead to aspiration pneumonia (lung infection occurring due to food particles or saliva entering the lung), weight loss, dehydration and malnutrition. Some of the symptoms include:

  1. Heartburn
  2. Choking
  3. Drooling
  4. Having the feeling of food getting stuck in the chest or throat.
  5. Food or stomach acid coming back up into the throat
  6. Regurgitation
  7. Hoarseness of the throat
  8. Gagging and coughing while swallowing
  9. Experiencing pain while swallowing

There are two types of dysphagia:

Esophageal Dysphagia:
This is also known as low dysphagia and is the condition in which one can sense food getting stuck in the throat or chest area. The problem lies in the esophagus. Generally, the surgical procedure is required to solve the problem. Some of the causes of low dysphagia include-

  1. Achalasia- lower muscles in the esophagus do not allow food to enter the stomach.
  2. Diffuse spasm- Uncontrolled contractions of the lower esophagus after swallowing food.
  3. Esophageal stricture- Narrowing of the passage of esophagus making it difficult for food to pass. It often leads to GERD (Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease).
  4. Esophageal Ring- A narrowing of the lower portion of the esophagus
  5. Scleroderma- Autoimmune disease where it leads to hardening and stiffening of body tissues.

Oropharyngeal Dysphagia:
This is also known as high dysphagia and is the condition where the throat muscles become weak making it difficult to swallow food. Some of the causes for high dysphagia include- stroke, Parkinson’s disease, Zenker’s Diverticulum (a condition in which food particles get accumulated inside a small pouch in your throat) and cancer.


Treatments:
Depending on the type of dysphagia, you will be advised any one of the treatment courses available. It can range from swallowing therapy, dietary changes, feeding tubes and medications to even surgery. The treatment is carried out by a multidisciplinary team. A multidisciplinary team includes- a speech-language pathologist, primary physician, gastroenterologist, dietitian, therapist, radiologist and pharmacist. The treatments for dysphagia include:

 

  1. Swallowing Therapy- If you are suffering from high dysphagia, you will be referred to speech and language therapists. You will be taught a number of exercises to make the process of swallowing easier and simple.
  2. Dietary Changes- In this method, you will be referred to a dietician or nutritionist. You will be advised a well-balanced and healthy diet that may include more liquid and semi-liquid food.
  3. Feeding Tube- When swallowing becomes extremely difficult and the patient is at risk of suffering from malnutrition and dehydration, the patient is usually fed through a nasogastric tube which passes through the nose and into the stomach. PEG (percutaneous endoscopic gastronomy) tube which is directly implanted in your stomach.
  4. Dilation- People suffering from low dysphagia have to undergo surgery. One of the methods is dilation. Through endoscopy, images of inside the throat is taken and a small balloon is inserted.
  5. Botulinum Toxin (Botox) - One of the causes for low dysphagia is achalasia. In such cases, botulinum toxin is used to relax and weaken the stiff and hardened muscles of the esophagus.

These were some of the treatment options for dysphagia that prove it is treatable and can be cured easily. Generally, dysphagia occurs in older people and babies. Whatever may be the cause, the main purpose of the treatment of dysphagia is to make the patient go back to oral feeding.

2913 people found this helpful

DYSPHAGIA (SWALLOWING PROBLEM) IN BRIEF AND IT'S MANAGEMENT

Mr. Satyabrata Panigrahi 93% (246 ratings)
Master of Hospital Administration, Bachelor of Audiology & Speech Language Pathology (B.A.S.L.P), MASTER IN AUDIOLOGY AND SPEECH LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY
Speech Therapist, Bangalore
DYSPHAGIA (SWALLOWING PROBLEM) IN BRIEF AND IT'S MANAGEMENT

What are some signs or symptoms of swallowing disorders?

Several diseases, conditions, or surgical interventions can result in swallowing problems.

General signs may include:

 

  •     Coughing during or right after eating or drinking
  •     Wet or gurgly sounding voice during or after eating or drinking
  •     Extra effort or time needed to chew or swallow
  •     Food or liquid leaking from the mouth or getting stuck in the mouth
  •     Recurring pneumonia or chest congestion after eating
  •     Weight loss or dehydration from not being able to eat enough

As a result, adults may have:

 

  •     Poor nutrition or dehydration
  •     Risk of aspiration (food or liquid entering the airway), which can lead to pneumonia and chronic lung disease
  •     Less enjoyment of eating or drinking
  •     Embarrassment or isolation in social situations involving eating

Most swallowing problems can be treated, although the treatment you receive will depend on the type of dysphagia you have.

Treatment will depend on whether your swallowing problem is in the mouth or throat (oropharyngeal, or 'high' dysphagia), or in the oesophagus (oesophageal, or 'low' dysphagia).

The cause of dysphagia is also considered when deciding on treatment. In some cases, treating the underlying cause, such as mouth cancer or oesophageal cancer, can help relieve swallowing problems.

Treatment for dysphagia may be managed by a group of specialists known as a multidisciplinary team (mdt). Your mdt may include a speech and language therapist (slt), a surgeon, and a dietitian.

High (oropharyngeal) dysphagia

High dysphagia is swallowing difficulties caused by problems with the mouth or throat.

It can be difficult to treat if it's caused by a condition that affects the nervous system. This is because these problems can't usually be corrected using medication or surgery.

There are three main treatments for high dysphagia:

 

  •     Swallowing therapy
  •     Dietary changes and
  •     Feeding tubes

Swallowing therapy

You may be referred to a speech and language therapist (slt) for swallowing therapy if you have high dysphagia.

An slt (speech language therapist) is a healthcare professional trained to work with people with feeding or swallowing difficulties.

Slts use a range of techniques that can be tailored to your specific problem, such as teaching you swallowing exercises.

Dietary changes

You may be referred to a dietitian (specialist in nutrition) for advice about changes to your diet to make sure you receive a healthy, balanced diet.

An slt can give you advice about softer foods and thickened fluids that you may find easier to swallow. They may also try to ensure you're getting the support you need at meal times.

Feeding tubes

Feeding tubes can be used to provide nutrition while you're recovering your ability to swallow. They may also be required in severe cases of dysphagia that put you at risk of malnutrition and dehydration.

A feeding tube can also make it easier for you to take the medication you may need for other conditions.

There are two types of feeding tubes:

  1.     A nasogastric tube - a tube that is passed down your nose and into your stomach
  2.     A percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (peg) tube - a tube that is implanted directly into your stomach

Nasogastric tubes are designed for short-term use. The tube will need to be replaced and swapped to the other nostril after about a month. Peg tubes are designed for long-term use and last several months before they need to be replaced.

Most people with dysphagia prefer to use a peg tube because it can be hidden under clothing. However, they carry a greater risk of complications compared with nasogastric tubes.

Minor complications of peg tubes include tube displacement, skin infection, and a blocked or leaking tube. Two major complications of peg tubes are infection and internal bleeding.

Resuming normal feeding may be more difficult with a peg tube compared with using a nasogastric tube. The convenience of peg tubes can make people less willing to carry out swallowing exercises and dietary changes than those who use nasogastric tubes.

You should discuss the pros and cons of both types of feeding tubes with your treatment team.

Low (oesophageal) dysphagia

Low dysphagia is swallowing difficulties caused by problems with the oesophagus.

Medication

Depending on the cause of low dysphagia, it may be possible to treat it with medication. For example, proton pump inhibitors (ppis) used to treat indigestion may improve symptoms caused by narrowing or scarring of the oesophagus. 

Botulinum toxin

Botulinum toxin can sometimes be used to treat achalasia. This is a condition where the muscles in the oesophagus become too stiff to allow food and liquid to enter the stomach.

It can be used to paralyse the tightened muscles that prevent food from reaching the stomach. However, the effects only last for around six months.

Surgery

Other cases of low dysphagia can usually be treated with surgery.

Endoscopic dilatation

Endoscopic dilation is widely used to treat dysphagia caused by obstruction. It can also be used to stretch your oesophagus if it's scarred.

Endoscopic dilatation will be carried out during an internal examination of your oesophagus (gastroscopy) using an endoscopy.

An endoscope is passed down your throat and into your oesophagus, and images of the inside of your body are transmitted to a television screen.

Using the image as guidance, a small balloon or a bougie (a thin, flexible medical instrument) is passed through the narrowed part of your oesophagus to widen it. If a balloon is used, it will be gradually inflated to widen your oesophagus before being deflated and removed.

You may be given a mild sedative before the procedure to relax you. There's a small risk that the procedure could cause a tear or perforate your oesophagus.

Find out more about gastroscopy.

Inserting a stent

If you have oesophageal cancer that can't be removed, it's usually recommended that you have a stent inserted instead of endoscopic dilatation. This is because, if you have cancer, there's a higher risk of perforating your oesophagus if it's stretched.

A stent (usually a metal mesh tube) is inserted into your oesophagus during an endoscopy or under x-ray guidance.

The stent then gradually expands to create a passage wide enough to allow food to pass through. You'll need to follow a particular diet to keep the stent open without having blockages.

Congenital dysphagia

If your baby is born with difficulty swallowing (congenital dysphagia), their treatment will depend on the cause.

Cerebral palsy

Dysphagia caused by cerebral palsy can be treated with speech and language therapy. Your child will be taught how to swallow, how to adjust the type of food they eat, and how to use feeding tubes. 

Cleft lip and palate

Cleft lip and palate is a facial birth defect that can cause dysphagia. It's usually treated with surgery. 

Narrowing of the oesophagus

Narrowing of the oesophagus may be treated with a type of surgery called dilatation to widen the oesophagus. 


Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (gord)

Dysphagia caused by gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (gord) can be treated using specially thickened feeds instead of your usual breast or formula milk. Sometimes medication may also be used.
 

What Is Dysphagia?

Dr. Preeti Mishra 90% (32 ratings)
BASLP (Bachelor of Audiology Speech Language Pathology)
Speech Therapist, Kolkata

Difficulty in swallowing your food or your own saliva is called dysphagia. It takes more time and effort to move food from mouth to stomach.

Symptoms:-

  • Pain while swallowing
  • Unable to swallow
  • Drooling
  • Loss of weight
  • Cough or gagging while swallowing

Dysphagia - Know More About It In Detail!

Dr. Anurag Tandon 86% (68 ratings)
MS - ENT, Diploma in Otorhinolaryngology (DLO), MBBS
ENT Specialist, Delhi
Dysphagia - Know More About It In Detail!

Swallowing food comes naturally to human beings. But when there is a problem, it is usually called Dysphagia. Esophagus, a muscular tube-like organ located at the back of our throat, usually helps in swallowing food and transferring them to our stomach. When esophagus does not function properly, dysphagia happens. Patients suffering from brain or nerve disorder, seniors and babies might have this problem.

People with dysphagia might witness the following issues:

  • Difficulty in swallowing solids and liquids.
  • Gaging, choking or coughing usually occurs when trying to swallow.
  • Experience pain when trying to swallow and also heartburn.
  • Swallowed food might come back up either through mouth or nose.
  • A chronic problem might result in weight loss.

Causes:
There are 2 main reasons, why the Esophagus might become dysfunctional.

  1. Due to some medical condition the muscles and nerves that help the esophagus work have stopped working.
  2. The esophagus is blocked by something.

There can be a number of reasons for both the condition. Here are the reasons why the muscles and nerves might not work.

Certain diseases can create problems with your nervous system, which in turn can affect the esophagus. These diseases are polio, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, Parkinson’s disease.

 

  1. A brain stroke, spinal cord injury or brain injury can also affect swallowing.
  2. Polymyositis or Dermatomyositis are immune system problems that can cause swelling or weakness.
  3. The muscles of esophagus suddenly squeeze, which is called esophagus spasm.
  4. Scleroderma causes the esophagus to become thin and weak.

The esophagus might be blocked because of these reasons:

  1. Esophagus might have malignant or non-malignant tumours.
  2. Esophagitis is a medical condition when the esophagus is infected, got some allergy or even if a pill got stuck on it.
  3. People suffering from reflux diseases often experience the acid that backs up into the esophagus. This can cause an ulcer on it resulting in scars. Scars make Esophagus narrower, making it difficult to swallow.
  4. There are small sacs called Diverticula on the esophagus or the throat, often making it difficult to swallow.
  5. Lymph nodes, tumours, bone spurs can also obstruct esophagus and create difficulty in swallowing.
1 person found this helpful

Difficulty Swallowing (Dysphagia) - Know The Causes Behind It!!

Dr. J. K.Gupta 91% (83 ratings)
MS ENT, MBBS
ENT Specialist, Noida
Difficulty Swallowing (Dysphagia) - Know The Causes Behind It!!

Swallowing food comes naturally to human beings. But when there is a problem, it is usually called Dysphagia. Esophagus, a muscular tube-like organ located at the back of our throat, usually helps in swallowing food and transferring them to our stomach. When esophagus does not function properly, dysphagia happens. Patients suffering from brain or nerve disorder, seniors and babies might have this problem.

People with dysphagia might witness the following issues:

  • Difficulty in swallowing solids and liquids.
  • Gaging, choking or coughing usually occurs when trying to swallow.
  • Experience pain when trying to swallow and also heartburn.
  • Swallowed food might come back up either through mouth or nose.
  • A chronic problem might result in weight loss.

Causes:
There are 2 main reasons, why the Esophagus might become dysfunctional.

  1. Due to some medical condition the muscles and nerves that help the esophagus work have stopped working.
  2. The esophagus is blocked by something.

There can be a number of reasons for both the condition. Here are the reasons why the muscles and nerves might not work.
Certain diseases can create problems with your nervous system, which in turn can affect the esophagus. These diseases are polio, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, Parkinson’s disease.

  1. A brain stroke, spinal cord injury or brain injury can also affect swallowing.
  2. Polymyositis or Dermatomyositis are immune system problems that can cause swelling or weakness.
  3. The muscles of esophagus suddenly squeeze, which is called esophagus spasm.
  4. Scleroderma causes the esophagus to become thin and weak.

The esophagus might be blocked because of these reasons:

  1. Esophagus might have malignant or non-malignant tumours.
  2. Esophagitis is a medical condition when the esophagus is infected, got some allergy or even if a pill got stuck on it.
  3. People suffering from reflux diseases often experience the acid that backs up into the esophagus. This can cause an ulcer on it resulting in scars. Scars make Esophagus narrower, making it difficult to swallow.
  4. There are small sacs called Diverticula on the esophagus or the throat, often making it difficult to swallow.
  5. Lymph nodes, tumours, bone spurs can also obstruct esophagus and create difficulty in swallowing.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2606 people found this helpful

Difficulty in Swallowing - Are You at Risk of Dysphagia?

Dr. Sumit Mrig 90% (35 ratings)
MBBS, MS - ENT, DNB (ENT)
ENT Specialist, Delhi
Difficulty in Swallowing - Are You at Risk of Dysphagia?

Swallowing food comes naturally to human beings. But when there is a problem, it is usually called Dysphagia. Esophagus, a muscular tube-like organ located at the back of our throat, usually helps in swallowing food and transferring them to our stomach. When esophagus does not function properly, dysphagia happens. Patients suffering from brain or nerve disorder, seniors and babies might have this problem.

People with dysphagia might witness the following issues:

  • Difficulty in swallowing solids and liquids.
  • Gaging, choking or coughing usually occurs when trying to swallow.
  • Experience pain when trying to swallow and also heartburn.
  • Swallowed food might come back up either through mouth or nose.
  • A chronic problem might result in weight loss.

Causes:
There are 2 main reasons, why the Esophagus might become dysfunctional.

  1. Due to some medical condition the muscles and nerves that help the esophagus work have stopped working.
  2. The esophagus is blocked by something.

There can be a number of reasons for both the condition. Here are the reasons why the muscles and nerves might not work.
Certain diseases can create problems with your nervous system, which in turn can affect the esophagus. These diseases are polio, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, Parkinson’s disease.

  1. A brain stroke, spinal cord injury or brain injury can also affect swallowing.
  2. Polymyositis or Dermatomyositis are immune system problems that can cause swelling or weakness.
  3. The muscles of esophagus suddenly squeeze, which is called esophagus spasm.
  4. Scleroderma causes the esophagus to become thin and weak.

The esophagus might be blocked because of these reasons:

  1. Esophagus might have malignant or non-malignant tumours.
  2. Esophagitis is a medical condition when the esophagus is infected, got some allergy or even if a pill got stuck on it.
  3. People suffering from reflux diseases often experience the acid that backs up into the esophagus. This can cause an ulcer on it resulting in scars. Scars make Esophagus narrower, making it difficult to swallow.
  4. There are small sacs called Diverticula on the esophagus or the throat, often making it difficult to swallow.
  5. Lymph nodes, tumours, bone spurs can also obstruct esophagus and create difficulty in swallowing. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an ENT specialist.
2618 people found this helpful

Difficulty In Swallowing - Are You At Risk Of Dysphagia?

Dr. Ajay Singhal 88% (10 ratings)
MBBS, Diploma In Otorhinolaryngology (DLO), DNB (ENT)
ENT Specialist, Delhi
Difficulty In Swallowing - Are You At Risk Of Dysphagia?

Swallowing food comes naturally to human beings. But when there is a problem, it is usually called Dysphagia. Esophagus, a muscular tube-like organ located at the back of our throat, usually helps in swallowing food and transferring them to our stomach. When esophagus does not function properly, dysphagia happens. Patients suffering from brain or nerve disorder, seniors and babies might have this problem.

People with dysphagia might witness the following issues:

  • Difficulty in swallowing solids and liquids.
  • Gaging, choking or coughing usually occurs when trying to swallow.
  • Experience pain when trying to swallow and also heartburn.
  • Swallowed food might come back up either through mouth or nose.
  • A chronic problem might result in weight loss.

Causes:
There are 2 main reasons, why the Esophagus might become dysfunctional.

  1. Due to some medical condition the muscles and nerves that help the esophagus work have stopped working.
  2. The esophagus is blocked by something.

There can be a number of reasons for both the condition. Here are the reasons why the muscles and nerves might not work.
Certain diseases can create problems with your nervous system, which in turn can affect the esophagus. These diseases are polio, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, Parkinson’s disease.

  1. A brain stroke, spinal cord injury or brain injury can also affect swallowing.
  2. Polymyositis or Dermatomyositis are immune system problems that can cause swelling or weakness.
  3. The muscles of esophagus suddenly squeeze, which is called esophagus spasm.
  4. Scleroderma causes the esophagus to become thin and weak.

The esophagus might be blocked because of these reasons:

  1. Esophagus might have malignant or non-malignant tumours.
  2. Esophagitis is a medical condition when the esophagus is infected, got some allergy or even if a pill got stuck on it.
  3. People suffering from reflux diseases often experience the acid that backs up into the esophagus. This can cause an ulcer on it resulting in scars. Scars make Esophagus narrower, making it difficult to swallow.
  4. There are small sacs called Diverticula on the esophagus or the throat, often making it difficult to swallow.
  5. Lymph nodes, tumours, bone spurs can also obstruct esophagus and create difficulty in swallowing.
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