Dyslexia is a condition that makes learning harder and causes reading difficulties due to the problems in identifying speech sounds, learning and how they relate them with letters and words. This reading disability affects the brain areas that process language. Dyslexia people possess normal intelligence and normal vision. Many dyslexia children successfully complete their studies with the help of specialised education programs.
Even though this condition does not have a permanent cure, still, early assessment and intervention help with the best outcome. This is not a visual problem whereas it is a linguistic one. Many people with dyslexia are seemed to be highly intelligent. Though it is a neurological condition, anyway it does not affect a person's intelligence and the condition’s effect varies from each person. The similarity among the dyslexic people is slow reading levels compared to normal persons.
Spotting dyslexia is really hard initially. When children step into school, they might struggle to read, spell, and comply with the instructions in the classroom.
The cause of this learning issue is not yet clear. But, researchers are looking at many factors like brain and genes. Dyslexia condition runs in families. While researching the specific genes, it has been found that several genes are linked to reading and language processing issues. Some of them have an impact on brain development. If any of your family members is affected by dyslexia, then the risk factor is high to pass on to others.
It is common to have both dyslexia and ADHD (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder). Acquired forms of dyslexia say stroke and trauma could be considered as environmental issues.
Some brain imaging studies reveal that phonological deficit occurs in the left hemisphere of the brain which is linked to processing words and language. So, when the dyslexic person reads, the left hemisphere does not work in the same way as in the normal person. In dyslexic people, the two hemispheres of the brain may communicate differently.
Since the exact cause for dyslexia is unknown, there is no option to prevent it. Some interventions may help out to prevent further problems and the disorder’s effects. Since learning impairment is the core problem in dyslexia, feeding the children with proper nutrition is important.
Though it may not prevent this disorder, still, it might prevent other factors that may cause learning impairment. So, mothers should give proper supplements once their pregnancy is confirmed. If your child starts late talking, consult a pediatrician. The doctor might recommend a speech and language evaluation test that would help to assess your child. Being attentive to your children development and diagnosing the problem can prevent long-term learning problems.
There are different types of diagnoses procedure for dyslexia. If you think, your child has dyslexia but not sure about that, then tests like decoding, rapid naming, phonological awareness, comprehension and reading fluency have to be checked out.
For dyslexic children, professionals help is mandatory to help them in reading and improving language skills. Although there is no medicine for dyslexia, medications for other issues will be treated that include depression, ADHD and anxiety. Multisensory structured language education (MSLE) is a compact standard for teaching kids to read. Since the children have phonological issues, many specialists are there to train kids in connecting letters with sounds, blending sound into words etc. Depression and anxiety are treated with cognitive behavioral therapy and ADHD is well supported with behavior therapy. There are many apps, games, teaching software available for dyslexic kids to make their reading easy.