Common Specialities
{{speciality.keyWord}}
Common Issues
{{issue.keyWord}}
Common Treatments
{{treatment.keyWord}}

Neuroendoscopy Aqueductal Stenosis Tips

Know More About Spinal Stenosis

Dr. Pramod Saini 88% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics, FNB Spine surgery, Fellowship In Spine Surgery (AO Spine)
Orthopedist, Noida
Know More About Spinal Stenosis
  • A laminectomy relieves nerve pressure and pain caused by spinal stenosis. Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal that puts pressure on the nerves and causes pain throughout the spine and extremities. It can develop as a result of bone spurs or just from aging. In this procedure, a small section of bone that covers the back of the spinal cord, called the lamina, is removed to relieve the compression. A laminectomy is performed through the back of the spine under general anesthesia. The removal of the lamina and any bone spurs relieves the pressure on the spinal cord. The procedure may be done without fusion, or it can be performed in conjunction with a spinal fusion
4 people found this helpful

How Can Aortic Valve Stenosis Be Treated?

Dr. Rajiv Kumar Srivastava 88% (135 ratings)
M.Ch - Cardio Thoracic Surgery, MS - General Surgery, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Cardiologist, Durgapur
How Can Aortic Valve Stenosis Be Treated?

The heart is a wonderfully designed pump that takes care of proper functioning of the body. There are two separate channels, through which pure and impure blood flows through. Blood flow in these two designated networks is one-sided completely and controlled by valves. There are 2 sets of valves as below:

  1. Aortic and pulmonary valves which controls blood flow from the ventricles to the aorta and to the lungs respectively
  2. The mitral and tricuspid valves control blood flow from the atria (upper chambers) to the ventricles (lower chambers).

These valves are meant to be elastic and fibrous and open and close freely to allow for blood flow. Due to various reasons, they can become stenosed (hard and narrow) and depending on which valve is affected, complications arise accordingly.

The aortic valve is extremely important in that its proper functioning ensures that pure, oxygenated blood reaches various parts of the body. Due to various reasons, this valve may not open and/or close properly. Some causes include calcium deposits, advanced age, rheumatic fever, endocarditis, etc. With age or deposits, the valve opening can become narrow and reduce the amount of blood flowing into the aorta. The following symptoms and complications arise out of this.

  1. The heart needs to put extra pressure to pump out blood into the aorta
  2. The left ventricle therefore grows thicker
  3. The symptoms will take a long time to manifest, as the heart will work on alternate measures, but after a certain point, symptoms will show up including chest pain, fatigue with minimal exertion, shortness of breath, and racing heartbeats.
  4. As the heart has its own compensating mechanisms, symptoms show up when the condition is much serious. Therefore, onset of these symptoms requires immediate medical attention.

Diagnosis: This could be diagnosed with routine medical exam when the heart is being checked or it could only be diagnosed when the symptoms are seen as above. Treatment is easier in the earlier case, and requires more rigorous attention.

Management: If the stenosis is mild and was detected on routine exam, then it needs to be monitored periodically. Surgery is usually not done, unless it is very severe. However, preventive measures can be taken including

  1. Avoiding over-exertion
  2. Heart-healthy diet can be taken to prevent further damage
  3. Reduce sodium intake
  4. Quit smoking

If the stenosis is severe, then surgery is the only definitive treatment measure. Valve surgery can be either a

  1. Balloon valvuloplasty – the valve opening is enlarged
  2. Replacement – valve replacement is usually done as an open heart surgery.

Though aortic stenosis is a serious condition, it is also rare and can be managed by adopting an overall healthy lifestyle.

3516 people found this helpful

Symptoms Of Spinal Stenosis And Its Treatment

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, D.Ortho
Orthopedist, Guwahati
Symptoms Of Spinal Stenosis And Its Treatment

What is Spinal Stenosis: The narrowing of the gaps in the spine or the backbone is called as Spinal stenosis. This leads to pressure on the nerves and the spinal cord. 5% of cases of spinal stenosis are seen in the low back of the lumbar spine. In some cases the narrowing of the spine leads to the compressing of the nerve root, which leads to pain in the leg.

Causes of spinal stenosis: It can be caused by aging, arthritis, trauma to the spine, spondylolisthesis and tumor of the spine

Symptoms of spinal stenosis: There is constant pain in the back and legs as stenosis pinches the nerve responsible for sensation and muscle power. Other symptoms are numbness and tingling in the legs, frequent falling and pain while walking.

Treatment of spinal stenosis:

-  A routine program with exercises and physical therapy are the best treatment for spinal stenosis. The exercises are not a complete cure but they are beneficial in keeping the patient active. A physical therapy can be supervised and once the period of the same is over people easily transition to the exercise program. The key for exercise is starting slowly in order to build strength.

-  Generally, the patients are counseled not to perform strenuous activities as that might worsen the symptoms of spinal stenosis. In case of lumbar stenosis, patients find it comfortable when they are flexed forward. The doctor might recommend walking while being bent over and leaning when using a walker if not walking upright; sitting in recliners is also recommended instead of straight back chairs.

-  Injections of cortisone are usually given in the epidural space. This is believed to relieve the symptoms of spinal stenosis temporarily. Though there have been studies which question the use of these injections as they lead to the risk of osteoporosis related fractures. This is still being pondered over by the doctors as a suitable treatment option as it has its own benefits and risks.

-  Medications such as the antiinflammatory medicines like ibuprofen or aspirin are helpful in controlling the symptoms of spinal stenosis. Narcotic drugs might also prove to be helpful if used with care and for a short while. This is helpful for severe pain related to the nerves. Muscle relaxants like gabapentins might also be recommended. In some case anti depressants might also be given to provide relief from pain. 

Though side effects are a concern when using these medications and the patient should let the doctor knows about their allergies.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3546 people found this helpful

How To Deal With Spinal Stenosis?

Dr. Shobhit Tandon 89% (822 ratings)
MBBS, PG-Diploma In Clinical Pathology
General Physician, Sri Ganganagar
How To Deal With Spinal Stenosis?

What is spinal stenosis: The narrowing of the gaps in the spine or the backbone is called as spinal stenosis. This leads to pressure on the nerves and the spinal cord. 5% of cases of spinal stenosis are seen in the low back of the lumbar spine. In some cases the narrowing of the spine leads to the compressing of the nerve root, which leads to pain in the leg.

Causes of spinal stenosis: It can be caused by aging, arthritis, trauma to the spine, spondylolisthesis and tumor of the spine

Symptoms of spinal stenosis: There is constant pain in the back and legs as stenosis pinches the nerve responsible for sensation and muscle power. Other symptoms are numbness and tingling in the legs, frequent falling and pain while walking.

Treatment of spinal stenosis:

  1. A routine program with exercises and physical therapy are the best treatment for spinal stenosis. The exercises are not a complete cure but they are beneficial in keeping the patient active. A physical therapy can be supervised and once the period of the same is over people easily transition to the exercise program. The key for exercise is starting slowly in order to build strength.
  2. Generally, the patients are counseled not to perform strenuous activities as that might worsen the symptoms of spinal stenosis. In case of lumbar stenosis, patients find it comfortable when they are flexed forward. The doctor might recommend walking while being bent over and leaning when using a walker if not walking upright; sitting in recliners is also recommended instead of straight back chairs.
  3. Injections of cortisone are usually given in the epidural space. This is believed to relieve the symptoms of spinal stenosis temporarily. Though there have been studies which question the use of these injections as they lead to the risk of osteoporosis related fractures. This is still being pondered over by the doctors as a suitable treatment option as it has its own benefits and risks.
  4. Medications such as the anti-inflammatory medicines like ibuprofen or aspirin are helpful in controlling the symptoms of spinal stenosis. Narcotic drugs might also prove to be helpful if used with care and for a short while. This is helpful for severe pain related to the nerves. Muscle relaxants like gabapentins might also be recommended. In some case antidepressants might also be given to provide relief from pain. 

Though side effects are a concern when using these medications and the patient should let the doctor knows about their allergies.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2598 people found this helpful

Things To Know About Spinal Stenosis Treatment!

Dr. Vinod Raina 88% (5788 ratings)
MD - General Medicine
Sexologist, Delhi
Things To Know About Spinal Stenosis Treatment!

Spinal Stenosis is basically the narrowing of the spaces in the spine that further causes pressure on the spinal cord as well as nerves. It has been observed that nearly 75% of cases, mainly occur in the low back that requires lumbar spine treatment. The type of spinal stenosis treatments received for this problem may vary, as it totally depends on the location of the stenosis and the severity of your signs as well as symptoms.

Here are some treatments offered by a spine specialist:

1. Medications 
Sometimes, medications are prescribed by spine physicians to control the pain associated with spinal stenosis. Some of the common medicines prescribed are mentioned below.

• NSAIDs (Onsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that help to ease the pain and reduce the inflammation. These mainly include ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) and naproxen (Aleve), that are easily available without prescription.

• Muscle relaxants help to calm the muscle spasms that occasionally occur and these medicines includes cyclobenzaprine (Amrix, Fexmid).

• Antidepressants like amitriptyline are recommended to be given as tricyclic nightly doses to ease chronic the pain.

• Anti-seizure drugs are commonly used to reduce pain caused by damaged nerves and these medicines include names like gabapentin (Neurontin, Gralise, Horizant) and pregabalin (Lyrica).

2. Therapy 
People suffering from stenosis tend to become less active to reduce the pain caused by physical activities. This further leads to weakness in the muscles that is even more painful. Therefore a physiotherapist teaches some exercises to build up the strength, maintain stability as well as flexibility in the spine and improvement in maintaining balance.

3. Steroid injections 
Because of this ailment nerve roots become a little irritated the spots that are pinched gets swollen. Thus injecting corticosteroid around that constriction that reduces the inflammation and gives relief to the pressure. Theses injections sometimes don't work for everyone and if they are repetitive, they can cause weakness in the nearby bones as well as the connective tissue. Therefore, only a few injections per year are suggested.

4. Surgery 
Surgery is considered, only if the other treatments don't work or a patient is disabled by its symptoms. The main aim of a surgery is to relieve the pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots which is done by creating more space within the spinal canal. The main examples of surgeries suggested includes Laminectomy, Laminotomy and Laminoplasty.

In most cases, these space-creating operations help in the reduction of the symptoms of spinal stenosis. But sometimes the symptoms do not fully disappear or even get worse after surgery. Surgery even includes some risks like infections, blood clot in a leg vein, neurological deterioration or even a tear in the membrane that covers the spinal cord.

 

4 people found this helpful

How To Diagnose Aortic Valve Stenosis?

Dr. Nishith Chandra 91% (695 ratings)
DM Cardiology
Cardiologist, Delhi
How To Diagnose Aortic Valve Stenosis?

Aortic valve stenosis is a heart condition in which the valve to the biggest artery- the one which provides oxygen-rich blood to our body, called aorta, is narrowed. This prevents the valve from opening fully, obstructing the blood flow from your heart into your body.

When the aortic valve doesn’t open, your heart needs to work harder to pump blood to your body making the heart muscle weak. If left undiagnosed aortic stenosis is fatal.

Symptoms

These symptoms should spur you on to seek medical care right away:

  1. Chest pain or tightness

  2. Feeling faint with exertion

  3. Shortness of breath

  4. Fatigue after increased activity

  5. Heart palpitations — rapid, fluttering heartbeat

  6. Heart murmur

The disorder doesn’t produce symptoms right away and is usually diagnosed during routine physical exams when your doctor listens to your heart with a stethoscope. He usually hears a heart murmur resulting from turbulent blood flow through the narrowed aortic valve.

Diagnostic Tests

There are other ways to diagnose aortic valve stenosis and gauge the severity of the problem, like:

  1. Echocardiogram – This produces an image of your heart using sound. It is the primary test to diagnose a heart valve problem. Sound waves are directed at your heart here and these bounce off your heart and are processed electronically to provide images of your heart. This test helps your doctor check diagnose aortic valve stenosis and its severity plus chalk out a treatment plan.

  2. Electrocardiogram (ECG) –  In this test, patches with electrodes are attached to your chest to measure electrical impulses given out by your heart. These are then recorded as waves on a monitor and printed on paper. Though this can’t diagnose aortic stenosis directly, it can tell you that the left ventricle in your heart is thickened which normally happens due to aortic stenosis.

  3. Chest X-ray This allows the doctor to see the shape and size of your heart directly. If the left ventricle is thickened, it points to aortic stenosis. It also helps doctor check the lungs. Aortic stenosis leads to fluid and blood in the lungs, causing congestion.

  4. Exercise Tests – Exercise is used to increase your heart rate and make your heart work harder. This test is done to see how your heart reacts to exertion.

  5. Computerised Tomography (CT) Scan –  This means a series of X-rays to create images of your heart and observes the heart valves. It is also used to measure the size of aorta and the aortic valve.

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) –  This uses powerful magnets and radio waves to create images of your heart and valves.

Once aortic valve stenosis is confirmed, you may have to go in for monitoring or heart valve surgery according to your doctor’s advice.

3589 people found this helpful

Spinal Stenosis - Know Treatment Of It!

Dr. Neelabh 91% (59 ratings)
DNB (Orthopedics), Diploma in Orthopedics, MBBS
Orthopedist, Delhi
Spinal Stenosis - Know Treatment Of It!

What is Spinal Stenosis?

The narrowing of the gaps in the spine or the backbone is called as Spinal stenosis. This leads to pressure on the nerves and the spinal cord. 5% of cases of spinal stenosis are seen in the low back of the lumbar spine. In some cases the narrowing of the spine leads to the compressing of the nerve root, which leads to pain in the leg.

Causes of spinal stenosis: It can be caused by aging, arthritis, trauma to the spine, spondylolisthesis and tumor of the spine

Symptoms of spinal stenosis: There is constant pain in the back and legs as stenosis pinches the nerve responsible for sensation and muscle power. Other symptoms are numbness and tingling in the legs, frequent falling and pain while walking.

Treatment of spinal stenosis:

-  A routine program with exercises and physical therapy are the best treatment for spinal stenosis. The exercises are not a complete cure but they are beneficial in keeping the patient active. A physical therapy can be supervised and once the period of the same is over people easily transition to the exercise program. The key for exercise is starting slowly in order to build strength.

-  Generally, the patients are counseled not to perform strenuous activities as that might worsen the symptoms of spinal stenosis. In case of lumbar stenosis, patients find it comfortable when they are flexed forward. The doctor might recommend walking while being bent over and leaning when using a walker if not walking upright; sitting in recliners is also recommended instead of straight back chairs.

-  Injections of cortisone are usually given in the epidural space. This is believed to relieve the symptoms of spinal stenosis temporarily. Though there have been studies which question the use of these injections as they lead to the risk of osteoporosis related fractures. This is still being pondered over by the doctors as a suitable treatment option as it has its own benefits and risks.

-  Medications such as the antiinflammatory medicines like ibuprofen or aspirin are helpful in controlling the symptoms of spinal stenosis. Narcotic drugs might also prove to be helpful if used with care and for a short while. This is helpful for severe pain related to the nerves. Muscle relaxants like gabapentins might also be recommended. In some case anti depressants might also be given to provide relief from pain. 

Though side effects are a concern when using these medications and the patient should let the doctor knows about their allergies.

Aortic Valve Stenosis: Tests and Diagnosis

Dr. Sunil Beniwal 90% (55 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Internal Medicine, DM - Cardiology
Cardiologist, Jaipur
Aortic Valve Stenosis: Tests and Diagnosis

Aortic valve stenosis is a heart condition in which the valve to the biggest artery- the one which provides oxygen-rich blood to our body, called aorta, is narrowed. This prevents the valve from opening fully, obstructing the blood flow from your heart into your body.

When the aortic valve doesn’t open, your heart needs to work harder to pump blood to your body making the heart muscle weak. If left undiagnosed aortic stenosis is fatal.

Symptoms

These symptoms should spur you on to seek medical care right away:

  1. Chest pain or tightness

  2. Feeling faint with exertion

  3. Shortness of breath

  4. Fatigue after increased activity

  5. Heart palpitations — rapid, fluttering heartbeat

  6. Heart murmur

The disorder doesn’t produce symptoms right away and is usually diagnosed during routine physical exams when your doctor listens to your heart with a stethoscope. He usually hears a heart murmur resulting from turbulent blood flow through the narrowed aortic valve.

Diagnostic Tests

There are other ways to diagnose aortic valve stenosis and gauge the severity of the problem, like:

  1. Echocardiogram – This produces an image of your heart using sound. It is the primary test to diagnose a heart valve problem. Sound waves are directed at your heart here and these bounce off your heart and are processed electronically to provide images of your heart. This test helps your doctor check diagnose aortic valve stenosis and its severity plus chalk out a treatment plan.

  2. Electrocardiogram (ECG) –  In this test, patches with electrodes are attached to your chest to measure electrical impulses given out by your heart. These are then recorded as waves on a monitor and printed on paper. Though this can’t diagnose aortic stenosis directly, it can tell you that the left ventricle in your heart is thickened which normally happens due to aortic stenosis.

  3. Chest X-ray This allows the doctor to see the shape and size of your heart directly. If the left ventricle is thickened, it points to aortic stenosis. It also helps doctor check the lungs. Aortic stenosis leads to fluid and blood in the lungs, causing congestion.

  4. Exercise Tests – Exercise is used to increase your heart rate and make your heart work harder. This test is done to see how your heart reacts to exertion. Exercise test may be contraindicated in severe AS. MRI and X ray not much helpful to diagnose AS. 

  5. Computerised Tomography (CT) Scan –  This means a series of X-rays to create images of your heart and observes the heart valves. CT is helpful in planning for nonsurgical valve replacement. Cardiac Catheterisation is usually needed prior to surgery.

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) –  This uses powerful magnets and radio waves to create images of your heart and valves.

Once aortic valve stenosis is confirmed, you may have to go in for monitoring or heart valve surgery according to your doctor’s advice. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Cardiologist.

2764 people found this helpful

What Are The Symptoms Of Aortic Valve Stenosis?

Dr. Rajiv Agarwal 86% (73 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Medicine, DM - Cardiology, Fellowship in Interventional Cardiology
Cardiologist, Delhi
What Are The Symptoms Of Aortic Valve Stenosis?

The heart is a wonderfully designed pump that takes care of proper functioning of the body. There are two separate channels, through which pure and impure blood flows through. Blood flow in these two designated networks is one-sided completely and controlled by valves. There are 2 sets of valves as below:

  1. Aortic and pulmonary valves which controls blood flow from the ventricles to the aorta and to the lungs respectively
  2. The mitral and tricuspid valves control blood flow from the atria (upper chambers) to the ventricles (lower chambers).

These valves are meant to be elastic and fibrous and open and close freely to allow for blood flow. Due to various reasons, they can become stenosed (hard and narrow) and depending on which valve is affected, complications arise accordingly.

The aortic valve is extremely important in that its proper functioning ensures that pure, oxygenated blood reaches various parts of the body. Due to various reasons, this valve may not open and/or close properly. Some causes include calcium deposits, advanced age, rheumatic fever, endocarditis, etc. With age or deposits, the valve opening can become narrow and reduce the amount of blood flowing into the aorta. The following symptoms and complications arise out of this.

 

  1. The heart needs to put extra pressure to pump out blood into the aorta
  2. The left ventricle therefore grows thicker
  3. The symptoms will take a long time to manifest, as the heart will work on alternate measures, but after a certain point, symptoms will show up including chest pain, fatigue with minimal exertion, shortness of breath, and racing heartbeats.
  4. As the heart has its own compensating mechanisms, symptoms show up when the condition is much serious. Therefore, onset of these symptoms requires immediate medical attention.

Diagnosis: This could be diagnosed with routine medical exam when the heart is being checked or it could only be diagnosed when the symptoms are seen as above. Treatment is easier in the earlier case, and requires more rigorous attention.

Management: If the stenosis is mild and was detected on routine exam, then it needs to be monitored periodically. Surgery is usually not done, unless it is very severe. However, preventive measures can be taken including

  1. Avoiding over-exertion
  2. Heart-healthy diet can be taken to prevent further damage
  3. Reduce sodium intake
  4. Quit smoking

If the stenosis is severe, then surgery is the only definitive treatment measure. Valve surgery can be either a

  1. Balloon valvuloplasty – the valve opening is enlarged
  2. Replacement – valve replacement is usually done as an open heart surgery.

Though aortic stenosis is a serious condition, it is also rare and can be managed by adopting an overall healthy lifestyle. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2728 people found this helpful

Renal Artery Stenosis - What Causes It?

Dr. Suraj Kumar 90% (116 ratings)
DM - Nephrology, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine & Bachelor of Surgery, MD - Medicine
Nephrologist, Gurgaon
Renal Artery Stenosis - What Causes It?

The blood vessels are elastic tubules controlled by valves through which blood flows. Depending on the organ and the distance from the heart, these vessels should be of certain thickness to ensure proper blood supply, this maintains a constant normal pressure of the blood flow. In this condition, the blood vessels are narrowed, which results in reduced blood supply, affecting optimal function.

Causes:

  1. With age, the elasticity of these vessels reduce and therefore blood flow and blood pressure can be affected. This is known as arteriosclerosis – hardening of the arteries.
  2. In parallel, with blood cholesterol levels on the rise, the vessels are narrowing due to the accumulation of plaque in the blood vessels. As blood is flowing through the arteries, the fat molecules, being sluggish and heavier, settle down along the vessel walls. They attract more fat molecules and so the fat deposit layer continues to grow thicker and the vessel narrows further. This is known as atherosclerosis.

Both conditions result in narrowed blood vessels, and when the vessels supplying the kidneys are affected, there is reduced blood flow, which is interpreted as low blood pressure, leading to hormone release which increases the blood pressure. So, one of the main symptoms of renal artery stenosis is uncontrollable blood pressure.

Risk factors: The following factors put an individual at a higher risk of developing renal artery stenosis.

Symptoms: Though there are no obvious manifestations, uncontrolled high blood pressure can require renal artery stenosis to be ruled out. Some tests to be done include:

  1. Blood and urine tests to identify abnormal kidney function tests
  2. Ultrasound to check for structural effects
  3. Doppler to measure blood flow
  4. Advanced imaging like MRI to study for structural changes in the kidneys and its blood vessels

Treatment: This would be a two-pronged approach in terms of reducing risks and improving blood pressure.

  1. Better control of blood pressure levels, either with alternate drugs or increased doses
  2. Monitor and rigorously control sugar levels
  3. Cholesterol levels to be controlled
  4. Quit smoking

In very severe cases, angioplasty and stenting may be required. A catheter (tube) is inserted into the affected blood vessel and a balloon is then inflated to open up the artery. A stent may also be placed to keep the vessel open and ensure optimal blood flow. This comes with its own complications and requires long-term care and monitoring.

  1. - In very severe cases, bypass of the artery or surgical removal of the affected portion of the kidney may also be required.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3206 people found this helpful
Icon

Book appointment with top doctors for Neuroendoscopy Aqueductal Stenosis treatment

View fees, clinic timings and reviews