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Adverse Reactions To Transfusions Tips

How Tobacco Adversely Affects Oral Health

Dr. Apurva Mittal 88% (14 ratings)
BDS, Diploma in Hospital Administration, Diploma in Pharmacy
Dentist, Delhi
Lung cancer is the first thing that comes to mind for most people when they think of the adverse effects of tobacco on the human body. However, all of the common ways that people use tobacco begin with the mouth, and the damage tobacco does to oral health can range from subtle to severe. Cigars, cigarettes, pipes, snuff, dip and chewing tobacco can all contribute to oral disfigurement, damage, and disease. Family dentists can be instrumental in the education of children and youth in the dangers of tobacco use, and cosmetic dentists can provide treatments for and repair damage already present in adults.

Nicotine stains and other discolorations on teeth and dentures, lips, and tongue are obvious but relatively harmless effects of every kind of tobacco use, as is halitosis, or bad breath. Less objectively obvious but more harmful effects of tobacco use are the loss or diminishing of the senses of taste and smell, smoker's palate (a reaction of the mucosal lining of the palate to elevated temperatures), contribution to the formation and advancement of cavities, sinusitis (which can cause pain similar to that of a toothache), and damage to dental implants. Tobacco use can also reduce the success of dental procedures, and contribute to delays in the healing of oral wounds.

The gums suffer more severe direct damage than the teeth in tobacco users. Periodontitis, a group of diseases that affect the tissues that support the teeth, is more prevalent and more severe among tobacco users than among those that have never used tobacco, and the majority of periodontitis patients that do not respond well to common treatment are users, particularly smokers. Smokers experience significantly greater bone loss; also tooth loss is two to three times higher in smokers than in non-smokers. Users of smokeless tobacco will often experience gingival recession (receding gums), and mucosal lesions.

All tobacco users are at elevated risk of developing oral cancers and pre-cancers. The lungs are considered to be the highest risk site for cancer in smokers, with the larynx and mouth being the next-highest risk site. Oral cancer is the eighth-most common cancer type in men, and can rise as high as the third-most common cancer in some parts of the world.

Nicotine use can suppress the immune and cardiovascular systems, and along with other compounds in tobacco, can lead to chronic inflammation, which can contribute to the risk of cancer. Tobacco use negatively affects the efficacy of drugs and other treatments, and can delay and complicate recovery.
2 people found this helpful

Adverse Respiratory Events in Anesthesia: How Does It Help?

Dr. Khomane Gorakshanath 88% (29 ratings)
M. S. , MBBS
General Surgeon, Mumbai
Adverse Respiratory Events in Anesthesia: How Does It Help?

Adverse respiratory events (AREs) are leading causes of post-operative morbidity and mortality. Anesthesia is the use of medicine to prevent or reduce the feeling of pain or sensation during surgery or other painful procedures (such as getting stitches). Giving as an injection or through inhaled gases or vapours, different types of anesthesia affect the nervous system in various ways by blocking nerve impulses and, therefore, pain.

Anesthesia can help control your breathing, blood pressure, blood flow, and heart rate. It may be used to:

  1. Relax you,
  2. Block pain,
  3. Make you sleepy or forgetful,
  4. Make you unconscious for your surgery.

Adverse Respiratory Events (ARE)
Adverse outcomes of such events are fatal and lead to Death & Brain Damage. Three mechanisms of injury are reported to account for highest adverse respiratory events:
Inadequate Ventilation: Insufficient Gas Exchange can produce the adverse outcome. Esophageal Intubation: Incubation between the two sides of the esophagus inadvertently.
Difficult tracheal intubation: Tracheal Intubation is the placement of a flexible plastic tube into the trachea (windpipe) to maintain an open airway. It is performed facilitate ventilation of lungs in severely ill, anesthetized patients.

Other’s are as listed below:

  • Airway Obstruction
  • Inadequate inspired oxygen delivery
  • Aspiration
  • Endobronchial Intubation
  • Premature Extubation

Residual neuromuscular blockade is an important postoperative complication associated to the use of neuromuscular blocking drugs and is commonly observed in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) after non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are administered intra-operatively. Incomplete neuromuscular recovery can be minimized with acceleromyography monitoring. The risk of adverse respiratory events during early recovery from anesthesia can be reduced by intra-operative acceleromyography use.

Reintubation is a serious adverse respiratory event and the consequences include increased cardiac and respiratory complications, prolonged length of stay at the PACU, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital, prolonged mechanical ventilator support, higher costs, and increased mortality. Overweight and obesity have also been identified as risk factors for postoperative respiratory complications. Most adverse respiratory events are considered preventable with improved monitoring such as:

  • Pulse Oximetry
  • Capnometry
  • Combination of Both

Closed observation of the clinical factors and appropriate monitoring by well trained people are factors necessary to prevent adverse outcome.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2611 people found this helpful

Adverse Respiratory Events in Anesthesia

Dr. S.K. Bansal 89% (145 ratings)
Fellowship in Indian Association of Gastrointestinal Endo-Surgeons, Fellowship in Minimal Access Surgery, M.S. - Master of Surgery, MBBS
General Surgeon, Delhi
Adverse Respiratory Events in Anesthesia

Adverse respiratory events (AREs) are leading causes of post-operative morbidity and mortality. Anesthesia is the use of medicine to prevent or reduce the feeling of pain or sensation during surgery or other painful procedures (such as getting stitches). Giving as an injection or through inhaled gases or vapours, different types of anesthesia affect the nervous system in various ways by blocking nerve impulses and, therefore, pain.

Anesthesia can help control your breathing, blood pressure, blood flow, and heart rate. It may be used to:

  1. Relax you,
  2. Block pain,
  3. Make you sleepy or forgetful,
  4. Make you unconscious for your surgery.

Adverse Respiratory Events (ARE)
Adverse outcomes of such events are fatal and lead to Death & Brain Damage. Three mechanisms of injury are reported to account for highest adverse respiratory events:
Inadequate Ventilation: Insufficient Gas Exchange can produce the adverse outcome. Esophageal Intubation: Incubation between the two sides of the esophagus inadvertently.
Difficult tracheal intubation: Tracheal Intubation is the placement of a flexible plastic tube into the trachea (windpipe) to maintain an open airway. It is performed facilitate ventilation of lungs in severely ill, anesthetized patients.

Other’s are as listed below:

  • Airway Obstruction
  • Inadequate inspired oxygen delivery
  • Aspiration
  • Endobronchial Intubation
  • Premature Extubation

Residual neuromuscular blockade is an important postoperative complication associated to the use of neuromuscular blocking drugs and is commonly observed in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) after non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are administered intra-operatively. Incomplete neuromuscular recovery can be minimized with acceleromyography monitoring. The risk of adverse respiratory events during early recovery from anesthesia can be reduced by intra-operative acceleromyography use.

Reintubation is a serious adverse respiratory event and the consequences include increased cardiac and respiratory complications, prolonged length of stay at the PACU, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital, prolonged mechanical ventilator support, higher costs, and increased mortality. Overweight and obesity have also been identified as risk factors for postoperative respiratory complications. Most adverse respiratory events are considered preventable with improved monitoring such as:

  • Pulse Oximetry
  • Capnometry
  • Combination of Both

Closed observation of the clinical factors and appropriate monitoring by well trained people are factors necessary to prevent adverse outcome. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a general surgeon.

1941 people found this helpful

How To Manage Adverse Respiratory Events?

Dr. Avaneesh Hasiza 88% (10 ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, DNB - General Surgery, MS - General Surgery
General Surgeon, Gurgaon
How To Manage Adverse Respiratory Events?

Adverse respiratory events (AREs) are leading causes of post-operative morbidity and mortality. Anesthesia is the use of medicine to prevent or reduce the feeling of pain or sensation during surgery or other painful procedures (such as getting stitches). Giving as an injection or through inhaled gases or vapours, different types of anesthesia affect the nervous system in various ways by blocking nerve impulses and, therefore, pain.

Anesthesia can help control your breathing, blood pressure, blood flow, and heart rate. It may be used to:

  1. Relax you
  2. Block pain
  3. Make you sleepy or forgetful
  4. Make you unconscious for your surgery

Adverse Respiratory Events (ARE)
Adverse outcomes of such events are fatal and lead to Death & Brain Damage. Three mechanisms of injury are reported to account for highest adverse respiratory events:

  1. Inadequate Ventilation: Insufficient Gas Exchange can produce the adverse outcome. Esophageal Intubation: Incubation between the two sides of the esophagus inadvertently.
  2. Difficult tracheal intubation: Tracheal Intubation is the placement of a flexible plastic tube into the trachea (windpipe) to maintain an open airway. It is performed facilitate ventilation of lungs in severely ill, anesthetized patients.

Other’s are as listed below:

  1. Airway Obstruction
  2. Inadequate inspired oxygen delivery
  3. Aspiration
  4. Endobronchial Intubation
  5. Premature Extubation

Residual neuromuscular blockade is an important postoperative complication associated to the use of neuromuscular blocking drugs and is commonly observed in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) after non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are administered intra-operatively. Incomplete neuromuscular recovery can be minimized with acceleromyography monitoring. The risk of adverse respiratory events during early recovery from anesthesia can be reduced by intra-operative acceleromyography use.

Reintubation is a serious adverse respiratory event and the consequences include increased cardiac and respiratory complications, prolonged length of stay at the PACU, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital, prolonged mechanical ventilator support, higher costs, and increased mortality. Overweight and obesity have also been identified as risk factors for postoperative respiratory complications. Most adverse respiratory events are considered preventable with improved monitoring such as:

  1. Pulse Oximetry
  2. Capnometry
  3. Combination of Both

Closed observation of the clinical factors and appropriate monitoring by well trained people are factors necessary to prevent adverse outcome.

2734 people found this helpful

Preservatives In Food And Its Adverse Effect!

Dt. Neha Suryawanshi 90% (14865 ratings)
M.Sc. in Dietetics and Food Service Management , Post Graduate Diploma In Computer Application, P.G.Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics , B.Sc.Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Mumbai
Preservatives In Food And Its Adverse Effect!

Preservatives In Food And Its Adverse Effect!

Allergic Reaction To Hair Dye

Dr. Amey Kelkar 87% (55 ratings)
MD - Dermatology , Venereology & Leprosy, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Dermatologist, Pune
Allergic Reaction To Hair Dye

Recently, a large section of our population has started using hair colours and hair dyes. Different shades of hair colours as well as dye enhances the looks and makes a person look younger.  This contributes to the immense popularity of these products in the market. In the earlier period Henna or mehendi was used as a colouring agent for hair. It has gradually been replaced with a lot of synthetic dyes and colours.

Exposure to such dyes as well as colours has long been known to be a significant risk factor in the development of various skin conditions like allergic contact dermatitis as well as pigmentary changes.

Most of the hair dyes as well as hair colours have para-phenylenediamine (PPD) as the main important as well as potent allergen. (Allergy causing compound).

Exposure to PPD leads to allergic reactions and eczematous changes amongst the people using these dyes as well as the hair dressers who come in contact with these dyes and colours.

How to identify hair dye allergy?

Hair dye allergy can occur with a few minutes of applying the agent, or may also occur 1 to 2 days after the application. It generally starts as an itching or burning sensation. Redness or patches of red skin might be noted. The common areas involved are the forehead, neck, chin or the back of the ear. In case of hair dressers, the hands as well as forearms might be involved.

The reactions range from very mild to severe. In rare cases, anaphylactic reactions can also be noted in which the patient has difficulty in breathing. Immediate medical attention is needed in such cases.

How to manage?

Hair dye allergies are a common occurrence worldwide, and it leads to a lot of discomfort for the patient. The offending agent must be immediately washed or removed from the body.

Strong anti histaminics are prescribed along with a short course of oral steroids. Topical creams may also be prescribed depending upon the severity of the condition.

The patient has to be counselled never to use the particular hair dye or colour in future.

Hair dyes and hair colours are extremely popular as they help in enhancing the look of the person using it. However care should always be taken to prevent allergic reactions to the same.

In case of allergic reaction one should always consult a certified dermatologist and take the requisite treatment.

Medications And Drug Allergic Reactions

Dr. Pankaj Tiwary 92% (42 ratings)
MD - Dermatology, MBBS
Dermatologist, Patna
Medications And Drug Allergic Reactions

All drugs carry within themselves the potential to treat and harm the skin. Side effects of medicines are a common phenomenon, with variation in the intensities. Sometimes they are minor and do not require medications; however at other times they may require urgent attention and treatment.

Some allergies caused due to medications that primarily affect your skin are:

  1. Itches and rashes: Sometimes your body may be allergic to certain type of medications. If these drugs are taken by you then the immune system treats them as foreign invasions and triggers a reaction against them. In certain cases, on consuming a drug that your body is allergic to, a kind of white blood cell called T cells expand. Itching, rashes on the skin are common repercussions in such a scenario.
  2. Swelling on the face and throat: Often it happens that, on being administered a medicine or an injection, you may experience severe swelling on face and throat. This is an extreme case of medicinal side effect and is commonly known as anaphylaxis. This must be immediately treated and brought to the notice of a trained doctor. 
  3. Blisters: This is also an important potential side effect of a drug. On being administered a drug, you may experience an erosion on the surface of lips and eyes as a reaction against it. Immediate treatment and a consult to the doctor is imperative if you experience these symptoms. 
  4. Swelling of the tongue: If you have high blood pressure and if you take angiotensin converting enzyme, a swollen tongue and persistent cough are the possible side effects. 
  5. Flushing and itching: You may suffer from symptoms of flushing and itching as a possible side effect of the intravenous dyes that are used in the X-rays.
2729 people found this helpful

Know The Adverse Affects Of Diabetes On Wound Healing!

Dr. Bharat Saboo 86% (10 ratings)
M.B.B.S, Diploma in Diabetology, Fellowship in Diabetology(Boston School of Medicine, USA)
Endocrinologist, Indore
Know The Adverse Affects Of Diabetes On Wound Healing!

Diabetes is a chronic condition where glucose level of your body rises too high. There are two types of diabetes type 1 and type 2. In case of type 1 diabetes, the body fails to produce insulin and people suffering from this condition have to depend on insulin injections for the rest of their life. In case of type 2 diabetes the body produces less amount of insulin which is not enough for the proper functioning of the body. This type of diabetes can be kept under control by following a healthy diet and practicing exercise regularly.

Why diabetic wounds can cause severe problems?
Diabetes can cause a number of complications that makes it harder for certain wounds to heal. These include:

  1. Nerve damage: Until a cut or blister worsens and becomes inflamed, in case of neuropathy, you will not experience the pain. Diabetics often suffer from neuropathy, making it difficult for wounds to heal.
  2. Weak immune system: A minor wound may even get severe and become infected if your immune system fails to exercise its natural defenses.
  3. Narrow arteries: Blocked arteries may cause severe wounds which becomes difficult to heal. Clogged arteries make it difficult for the blood to flow to the affected area which slows the process of wound healing.

Treating a diabetic wound
You can follow the methods mentioned below to avoid getting infected:

  1. Taking care of the wound immediately. If the wound is not cleaned and taken care of, letting bacteria to build up, it can lead to infection.
  2. Avoid using soaps and hydrogen peroxide to irritate the injury. Use antibiotic lotions to prevent infection and use a sterile bandage to keep the affected area covered.
  3. Consult your doctor before any minor problems turn to larger ones
  4. Since the bottom of the foot is a common place for developing blisters and calluses in case of diabetic people, try to keep pressure off the wound as it slowly heals.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

1740 people found this helpful

Adverse Respiratory Events - How They Can Be Controlled?

MBBS, MS - General Surgery, MCh - Cardio Thoracic Surgery
General Surgeon, Lucknow
Adverse Respiratory Events - How They Can Be Controlled?

Adverse respiratory events (AREs) are leading causes of post-operative morbidity and mortality. Anesthesia is the use of medicine to prevent or reduce the feeling of pain or sensation during surgery or other painful procedures (such as getting stitches). Giving as an injection or through inhaled gases or vapours, different types of anesthesia affect the nervous system in various ways by blocking nerve impulses and, therefore, pain.

Anesthesia can help control your breathing, blood pressure, blood flow, and heart rate. It may be used to:

  1. Relax you
  2. Block pain
  3. Make you sleepy or forgetful
  4. Make you unconscious for your surgery

Adverse Respiratory Events (ARE)
Adverse outcomes of such events are fatal and lead to death & brain damage. Three mechanisms of injury are reported to account for highest adverse respiratory events:

  1. Inadequate Ventilation: Insufficient Gas Exchange can produce the adverse outcome.
  2. Esophageal Intubation: Incubation between the two sides of the esophagus inadvertently.
  3. Difficult tracheal intubationTracheal Intubation is the placement of a flexible plastic tube into the trachea (windpipe) to maintain an open airway. It is performed facilitate ventilation of lungs in severely ill, anesthetized patients.

Other’s are as listed below:

  • Airway Obstruction
  • Inadequate inspired oxygen delivery
  • Aspiration
  • Endobronchial Intubation
  • Premature Extubation

Residual neuromuscular blockade is an important postoperative complication associated to the use of neuromuscular blocking drugs and is commonly observed in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) after non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are administered intra-operatively. Incomplete neuromuscular recovery can be minimized with acceleromyography monitoring. The risk of adverse respiratory events during early recovery from anesthesia can be reduced by intra-operative acceleromyography use.

Reintubation is a serious adverse respiratory event and the consequences include increased cardiac and respiratory complications, prolonged length of stay at the PACU, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital, prolonged mechanical ventilator support, higher costs, and increased mortality. Overweight and obesity have also been identified as risk factors for postoperative respiratory complications. Most adverse respiratory events are considered preventable with improved monitoring such as:

  • Pulse Oximetry
  • Capnometry
  • Combination of Both

Closed observation of the clinical factors and appropriate monitoring by well trained people are factors necessary to prevent adverse outcome.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2818 people found this helpful

How too much sugar can adversely affect your sex life

Dr. Imran Khan 86% (3747 ratings)
Bachelor of Unani Medicine & Surgery (B.U.M.S), PGD(Sexual Medicine & Councelling)
Sexologist, Gurgaon
How too much sugar can adversely affect your sex life

Sugar is an important source of calories in the body as it can provide immediate energy to the body after consumption. Sugar being a simple carbohydrate is digested quickly and released into the bloodstream to be used as energy. However, too much sugar in the bloodstream at once can cause a host of disorders in the body including affecting one's sex life. Outlined below are the ways how sugar adversely affects sex life-

1. Impairs the gene that regulates sex hormones - Glucose and fructose are synthesized in the liver, where the excess is converted into fat. When fat synthesis rate goes up in the body, it affects SHBG (sex hormone binding globulin) gene in the body. This gene is responsible for regulating the levels of testosterone and estrogen in the body. Hence, in this case, the affected person becomes highly susceptible to infertility.

2. Lowers testosterone levels - Indulging in a diet that consists of too much sugar affects insulin resistance. Due to this, testosterone levels drop in both men and women. This causes disorders related to sexual function such as erectile dysfunction and also reduces sex drive.


3. Fatigue and reduced energy levels - Foods high in sugar cause temporary spikes in blood sugar which in turn results in fatigue, thus reducing sex drive. It also decreases levels of Orexin, a neurotransmitter that regulates feelings of arousal in the body, causing fatigue and lethargy.

4. Increases stressIncreased stress levels as a result of sugar consumption occur when high insulin levels cause the body to produce cortisol, a stress hormone. Too much cortisol in the body decreases libido

'Consult'.

Related Tip: High Blood Pressure and Sex?

6030 people found this helpful
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