Life is constant game of changes and people who can adapt to it and move on generally tend to find their pockets of happiness. From bad finances to lack of love to a near ones loss, each of us constantly face struggles that can leave us drained and depressed. People often work on these external factors to find their happiness. Those who suffer from depression as an illness though find it taking over multiple spheres of their lives disabling them from doing routine tasks with ease. Depression, like other diseases, can also have a biological origin.
Several theories concerning the biologically based cause of depression have been suggested over the years. Simply put, chemical imbalance in the brain can be a trigger to depression. As the 'command center' of our body, the brain uses a number of chemicals as messengers to communicate with other parts of itself and with the nervous system. These chemical messengers, called neurotransmitters are released and received by the brain's nerve cells called neurons. Neurons are constantly communicating with each other by way of exchanging neurotransmitters. This communication system is essential to all of the brain's functions.
Among the biological causes of depression, the most prominent and widely researched is the monoamine hypothesis. The three main monomine triggers of imbalances that trigger depression are neurotransmitters called serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine. Serotonin regulates functions like sleep, aggression, eating, sexual behavior, and mood. Similarly, the catecholamine hypothesis suggests that a deficiency of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline) in certain areas of the brain was responsible for creating depressed mood. Norepinephrine helps our bodies to recognize and respond to stressful situations.
Dopamine plays in important role in helping each of us seek out our 'high' or 'pleasure' from rewards. Low dopamine levels may in part explain why depressed people don't derive the same sense of pleasure out of activities or people that they did before becoming depressed.
Another leading cause of clinical depression is focused on the endocrine system. The endocrine system is responsible for making hormones and releasing them into the blood to regulate processes like reaction to stress and sexual development. Hormonal irregularities may lead to depressive symptoms like loss of appetite and sleep. It is further observed that those who have particular endocrine disorders sometimes develop depression, and some individuals who are depressed develop endocrine problems despite having healthy glands.
In a research done among depressed individuals, over half had a hormone called cortisol in excess in their body and abnormal times of secretion.
Depression can have many triggers and origins and it is important to see the right doctor who can treat the cause, triggers and symptoms in addition to the disease. Depression has a genetic predisposition. Also, the faulty thought pattern alters the physiology by upsetting the hormonal balance. Psychological professional help should be a priority in depression and its role should not be under emphasized.
What Is Love
Many people “in love” are addicted to it, just as people are addicted to alcohol, tobacco or other drugs. Love is difficult and requires work and practice. The number of definitions is almost endless. Poets, novelists, and theologians have struggled to define love, as have psychologists, psychiatrists, sociologists, family scientists, and journalists. Think about how you define love and how you know when you are “in love”.
Definitions on Love
-Erich Fromm, Psychiatrist
-Ursula K. Le Guin, Novelist
-James Leo Herlihy, Novelist
-Madame De Stael, Novelist
-H. L. Mencken, Journalist
-Harry Stack Sullivan, Psychiatrist
Dimensions of Love
The three dimensions of the love triangle (developed by Robert Sternberg) are
Combining these three dimensions of love in various ways, Sternberg identified eight types of love relationships: non-love, liking, infatuation, empty love, romantic love, fatuous love, companionate love, and consummate love.
Most people have experienced several of these types of love and can recognize that each of them feels rather different. Even within one relationship, it is possible to experience two or more types of love over time. A couple, for example, may start out as close friends (liking) and then two years later become sexually involved a year later they may decide to live together.
The Styles of Love
John Lee (1988) described six love styles. Similar to a colour wheel, there are three primary love styles (Eros, Ludus and Storage) and three secondary styles (Pragma, Mania and Agape). Each style has a unique character.
Primary Love Styles
The combination of two primary styles, like a chemical reaction, creates the three secondary styles.
Secondary Love Styles
To validate Lee’s approach, researchers found that
According to Hendrick and Hendrick (1986, 1989), the six love styles can also be related to sexual attitudes and behaviours.
It is unclear whether one’s love style is constant like personality traits, or whether it varies depending on the kind of relationship style a couple develops.
Diabetes is one major silent killer. Depression is another silent killer. According to the studies, a patient with diabetes has higher chances of getting depressed. Lack of social support, staying alone, lower income, the presence of diabetes complications and poorly controlled diabetes increase chances of depression in diabetes patients. Similarly depressed patient is at increased risk of development of diabetes. Thus, depression and diabetes have a cyclic relationship.
Need to break
It is very important to break the vicious cycle as it can affect the sugar control, quality of life and patient care. The depressed patient is less likely to follow diet and exercise. They do not take medicines regularly. The depressed patients will have bad control of sugar and increased complications of diabetes. It affects the quality of life of the patient.
1. Speak out
Depression remains underdiagnosed and untreated. One of the reason is the stigma associated with psychiatric illness in the society. Unless and until patient doesn't talk about it they are not going to improve. Hence ADA recommends evaluating for depression in patients with poorly controlled diabetes.
Psychotherapy or in particular cognitive behavioral therapy has been proven beneficial towards treating depression.
3. Regular Exercise
Regular exercise is very beneficial towards treating, both depression and diabetes. Exercise helps regulate blood sugar levels and hence can help control diabetes. It also helps in reducing excess weight, which can enhance your self-image and make you feel happier. Simultaneously, it also releases endorphins or the 'feel good' brain chemical. This can help alleviate depression symptoms.
These are the medicines given to improve depression. Under the guidance of a psychiatrist, they help a lot. So don't say no to these medicines when prescribed by the psychiatrist.
Diabetes is a state where the body suffers from lack of energy due to poor metabolic state. This is construed as depression in many patients as they already feel lethargic and subdued. The fatigued state of body in diabetes can be alleviated by exercise which raises endorphins - substances which are released in the body especially by exercise - providing us the necessary elation so much necessary for our recovery
Managing diabetes may make a person feel alone and set apart from their friends and family due to the number of dietary restrictions they need to follow. Additionally, if the person has trouble controlling their blood sugar level, it may make him frustrated and anxious. Over time, these negative emotions can build up into depression.
Depression can make a person lose his sense of purpose and can make regular tasks feel like too much to handle. Thus, a depressed person may stop taking care of himself. The lack of energy can lead to a loss of appetite or unhealthy snacking. This can trigger fluctuations in blood sugar levels that worsen diabetes.
Thus, depression and diabetes have a cyclic relationship. The good news is that these two diseases can be treated together and managing one of these diseases can have a positive effect on the other as well.
Here are a few ways to treat diabetes and depression:
Depression is recognized as a mood disorder characterized by the prolonged feeling of sadness and loss of interest in otherwise regular activities. The symptoms include loss of sleep and appetite, loss of interest, persistent feeling of sadness and lowered self-esteem. These symptoms should last for a minimum of 4 weeks for the individual to be diagnosed with depression. Sometimes, at its later stages, depression can also be accompanied by suicidal tendencies.
How it can be treated?
Depression is a fairly common mental health disorder today, affecting a large population. Depression must be acknowledged as a proper mood disorder and not just a passing phase. It is completely curable with proper medicine and therapeutic sessions. The individual is able to move over the feelings of unhappiness and lack of interest with proper care and acceptance from loved ones in addition to therapy and the drugs, of course.
Manic depression, also known as bipolar disorder in recent days, is a major mood disorder characterized by hypomanic or manic episodes (deviation from one's usual mood along with abnormally high energy levels). Mania involves sleeplessness, along with psychosis, hallucinations, rage, grandiose delusions or paranoia. Mania or hypomania isn’t usually harmful to the patient and they might exhibit increased capacity for work and creativity. Depressive episodes however, can be debilitating and often life threatening as the person becomes self-destructive and suicidal in many instances.
The extent of mood swings can vary from extreme to very mild. They can occur progressively or suddenly and might last for few days to weeks. Patients affected by bipolar disorder may experience disturbances in thinking apart from depressive or manic episodes. Distortions of perception and impaired social functioning are also not uncommon. The cause of bipolar disorder is not fully understood like most mental health conditions and is often thought to be hereditary.
The extent of the seriousness of the bipolar symptoms varies from person to person. In some people, the disorder is not full blown and they don’t exhibit all the symptoms. Others who aren’t that lucky might have to be hospitalized multiple times in their lives as the symptoms creep into their work and personal life and make living a normal life a tough challenge.
Psychotic symptoms such as disorganized thinking, hallucinations and delusions might make a person do things that demand the urgency of hospitalization to keep them safe from their suicidal impulses. These symptoms might need to be urgently addressed by a psychiatrist and with the help of medications, the person might be able to regain control of their lives.
In depressive phase, doctors recommend anti-depressant also. Depressive symptoms required 15days duration to call depression and main symptoms are low mood and lacke of interest in pleausarable activity. In mania, symptoms required atleast 4 days duration to call manic episode. Cause of disorder are any stressful or traumatic life event like divorce, nearby persons death, loss of job, loss of money, etc.
Manic symptoms include:
Depressive symptoms include:
Mood stabilizers, such as lithium are commonly employed to treat bipolar disorder. Anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines and anti psychotics can also be used in the treatment. Along with medications, support from family and friends is of the utmost importance as they need to help provide all the support required in making the person functional and healthy.
PMS is often treated as a joke but for many women, it is a monthly nightmare. Muscle cramps, headaches, bloating, breast tenderness, anxiety and depressionare common symptoms of PMS. Though there is no set cure for PMS here are afew tips that will help you deal with it.
While cold and cough are common, diseases like Addison’s disease are rare. It is also known as chronic adrenal insufficiency or hypocortisolism as it is a result of insufficient production of hormones like cortisol and aldosterone by the adrenal glands. This disease can affect men and women of any age.
There are two types of Addison’s disease. These are:
Primary adrenal insufficiency is more common of the two. This could be triggered as a result of autoimmune diseases or a long lasting infection such as HIV, tuberculosis and some fungal infections. Cancer can also cause this type of Addison’s disease.
Secondary adrenal insufficiency is usually caused by a problem with the pituitary gland or the hypothalamus as they are responsible for the production of hormones that stimulate the adrenal glands. Damage caused to the pituitary gland by tumors or radiation and surgery can also interfere with hormone production. Prolonged and improper use of steroid hormones can also trigger this condition.
Addison’s disease has a very slow progression and its symptoms develop gradually over time. Some of these symptoms are:
Treatment for Addison’s disease involves hormone replacement therapy. This aims at correcting the hormone levels in the body. Hormone replacement therapy includes oral corticosteroids and corticosteroid injections. The dosage of these steroids could vary depending on the situation. For example, the doctor may suggest a temporary high dosage when the patient is in a stressful condition. Along with this, sodium is also recommended especially during the summer months and while exercising. This medication must be taken regularly as skipping a single dose can be dangerous.
In some cases this condition can become life threatening. An addisonian crisis causes a drop in blood pressure, sugar and a spike in potassium levels in the body. This requires immediate medical attention and can be treated with intravenous injections of hydrocortisone, saline solution and sugar.
Emotional abuse is a regular pattern of threat, constant criticism, and manipulation to control and suppress the other person. It doesn’t always lead to physical abuse but equally harmful as Physical Abuse. It is extremely damaging to your self-esteem and confidence. Any relationship can be emotionally abusive like parent-child, siblings, friendship, intimate relationship (boyfriend-girlfriend) and husband-wife relationship. The most common emotionally abusive relationship is of husband and wife.
Sometimes for years, victim person doesn’t see ill-treatment as abuse. Victim person lives in denial to deal with stress and this cause individual further severe Emotional Trauma, Depression, Anxiety and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder. Abusive People have their own set of insecurities n they don’t know how to have positive healthy relationships. They mostly feel hurt, anger and powerless. Most abusers are suffering from different personality disorders like Borderline Personality Disorder, Narcissistic Personality Disorder, and Antisocial Personality Disorder and so on. If you face few of following behaviours, you need professional help and it’s a possibility of an emotionally abusive relationship:
If you are facing such issues, first thing is verbal abuse is a choice and you have to accept that it’s happening with you. You have to identify the patterns of controlling behaviour abuser use and accept the responsibility of your behaviour and start taking steps how to overcome it and finally approach us for professional help.
Once the reality of the positive pregnancy test sets in, dreaming about the yet-to-arrive begins. Curiosity about gender, options for names, ways to manage, shopping ideas, etc., begin to get discussed. And then totally out of the blue the news comes that there is a miscarriage. This is one of the most depressing phases. It is very important for the family to be around and support each other. While the entire family is upset and hurt over the news, the mother needs most care as there is just not emotional but a huge physical component also to the episode. On the other hand, remember that miscarriages are extremely common, and is no indication of a fertility issue.
The first step would be to diagnose and confirm the miscarriage. After that, depending on whether it was complete or incomplete, some medical intervention might be required. In most cases, medications like misoprostol are given to expel the uterine contents. These help by clearing out the contents in about a couple of days' time. In some cases, a D and C might be required if your doctor suspects that medication will not suffice. This also helps identify if there is any issue in the uterus that could have caused the miscarriage.
While the above takes care of the physical part, the emotional component also requires cautious management. Needless to say, this is trickier than the earlier one.
As much as it is painful and traumatic, it is not very uncommon or unnatural. Get back on your feet, the sooner you do, the better.