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Rectal Cancer - Know Forms Of It!

Dr. Ashok Jain 90% (709 ratings)
MS ( General Surgery)
Oncologist, Mandsaur
Rectal Cancer - Know Forms Of It!

Rectal cancer is the growth of cancerous cells in the rectum, which is the colon’s lower part of the colon, connecting the large bowel and the anus. The basic function of the rectum is to collect the stool that is formed inside the human body before it is eliminated from the body. Cancer starts as a polyp, which is precancerous, and slowly develops and turns cancerous. This cancer will start spreading and penetrates into the walls of the rectum causing rectal cancer.

Surgery is the most common treatment available for rectal cancer. Depending on the location of cancer and the type of cancer, there are different types of rectal cancer surgeries available. One of the important things that are considered before deciding which kind of surgery is required is the location of the tumor from the anus.

Types of Surgeries for Rectal Cancer:
Here are different types of surgeries available for different stages of rectal cancer.

  1. Low Anterior Resection Surgery: When cancer or the tumor is located above the anus, then low anterior resection surgery is the best surgery. Rectal cancer, adjoining rectal tissues and the lymph nodes are removed. This surgery is done by making an incision in the lower part of the abdomen. This surgery is used for stage 1 cancer.
  2. Abdominoperineal Resection Surgery: Abdominoperineal resection surgery is preferred when the tumor is close to the anus. It can be used for treating stage 1 cancer and also can be used for stage II and stage III as well. Rectal cancer, the anus, adjusting rectal tissues and the lymph nodes are removed.
  3. Local transanal resection: When the cancer is in its early stage and is not far from the anus, your surgeon will opt for local transanal resection surgery. Usually, the tumor has to be small for performing this surgery.
  4. Proctectomy with colo-anal anastomosis: You may have to remove the entire rectum if the tumor is present in the middle or lower part of the rectum. This is usually in stage II or stage III. This kind of situation requires proctectomy with colo-anal anastomosis.
  5. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery: When the tumor is above the rectum and is in its early stage, transanal endoscopic microsurgery is the best method. But for performing this surgery, experts with special equipment are required.
  6. Pelvic exenteration: When rectal cancer starts growing to the organs near to rectum, pelvic exenteration is required. This is a time consuming major surgery. Usually, along with the rectum, other organs such as the bladder, uterus or prostate is also removed. The patient will take months to recover from this major surgery.
1554 people found this helpful

Laparoscopic Colon Cancer Surgeries!

Dr. Saurabh Bansal 88% (10 ratings)
MBBS, DNB, FNB - Minimal Access Surgery, Fellowship in Robotic and Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery (FRLCRS)
General Surgeon, Noida
Laparoscopic Colon Cancer Surgeries!

Cancer, in any form, is a deadly disease that requires immediate attention and treatment. Colon cancer is a common form of the disease, with over 10 lakh people reportedly affected in India each year.

In some cases, surgery is the only remedy for colon cancer. Depending on the progression of your cancer, if surgery becomes necessary, you should consider undergoing laparoscopic surgeries.

What is a laparoscopic surgery?

While most surgeries are open, where a large incision is made on the body to operate on the internal organs and tissues, it’s not the same with laparoscopic surgery. Here very small incisions are made on a particular body part to carry out the surgery. The procedure gets its name from the equipment used in the operation. A laparoscope is a tube-like instrument that has a camera on one end. During the surgery, this laparoscope is inserted in the patient’s body and the image relayed back by the camera is used to perform the surgery.

In case of laparoscopic colon cancer surgeries, the surgeon uses the same method to reach your the cancerous mass in your colon and remove it.

Why choose laparoscopic colon cancer surgeries?

As a person affected by cancer, you have already endured substantial pain and discomfort. You do not need additional discomfort from your surgery. This is why laparoscopic surgeries are so popular when it comes to colon cancer. Here are some benefits of the procedure over the standard surgery.

• Less pain after the surgery
• Limited stay at the hospital post surgery
• Allows you to return to a solid food diet sooner after the surgery
• Allows normal bowel function to resume quicker
• Less scaring from the procedure
• Faster return to a normal lifestyle

Not everyone is eligible for open surgery to treat colon cancer. For instance, open surgery on elderly people can be extremely dangerous. For them, laparoscopic surgeries are a better alternative.

Are you eligible for laparoscopic surgery?

Before you opt for laparoscopic surgery to treat your colon cancer, consult an expert. The surgeon will help you understand whether you meet the requirements for laparoscopic surgeries. Your doctor will evaluate your case and let you know which procedure will have the maximum impact on your long-term recovery from cancer.

Is laparoscopic surgery as effective in treating colon cancer as open surgery?

According to a study performed by a Canadian team of researchers, the laparoscopic procedure is just as useful in treating colon cancer as the standard surgery. However, each case of colon cancer is different and the outcome of surgery may vary from person to person.

2224 people found this helpful

Colon Cancer - Signs You Should Never Ignore!

Dr. Mukul Roy 91% (635 ratings)
MBBS, DNB ( Radiation Oncology), Fellowship in Uro Oncology, Fellowship in Brachytherapy
Oncologist, Mumbai
Colon Cancer - Signs You Should Never Ignore!

Colon cancer is believed to be one of the common types of cancer affecting people. As the name suggests, here, the point of origin of the cancer is the colon or the large intestine. Though colon cancer can affect anyone, people with unhealthy lifestyle (sedentary) and habits (excess smoking and consumption of alcohol), obesity, certain medical conditions like diabetes, or exposed to radiations (radiation therapy) are at a greater risk of colon cancer. Colon cancer may also be hereditary.

Colon cancer usually proceeds through five stages, stage 0 (zero), stage I, II, III and IV.

  1. In stage 0, cancer remains in situ, (it remains confined within the innermost layer of the colon).
  2. In stage I, cancer slowly starts spreading to the other layers (second and third) of the inner walls of the colon.
  3. In stage II, cancer spreads further to the muscular walls of the colon (the lymph nodes, are, however, still not affected by this condition).
  4. In stage III, cancer spreads outside the colon, affecting one or more lymph nodes.
  5. Stage IV is more severe and metastatic. Here cancer has spread to and affected vital organs like the liver and the lungs.

Many of the symptoms do not appear at the initial stages. As a result, colon cancer mostly gets detected at a later (often metastatic) stage. Thus, a person should be alert. The initial symptoms, no matter how trivial, should be taken seriously. There is no harm in seeking medical help. It will only help you in the long run.

The following symptoms are often the initial or first signs of something as big as colon cancer:

  1. Unexplained poor appetite followed by sudden and rapid weight loss. Losing weight at an alarming rate without sweating it out needs thorough investigation. More than often, colon cancer interferes with the digestion process in a person. A person is not able to eat well. There is a feeling of being full (irrespective of how much you eat) all the time.
  2. Constipation, gas or (and) diarrhea. Often overlooked and mistaken for common bowel disorder, these are some of the initial symptoms of colon cancer. The symptoms may be an outcome of polyps (abnormal tissue growths that can take place in any organs. These polyps are mostly benign in nature) or malignant tumors in the colon. Seek medical help if the conditions persist for more than a week. It is better to be safe than to be sorry.
  3. A person feels exhausted, sleepy and weak all the time. The symptom may be an outcome of iron deficiency and anemia. Colon cancer can cause injury to the digestive tract. There may be bleeding followed by blood loss and hence the associated symptoms.
  4. Mild to severe abdominal pain. The abdomen also appears tender than usual (in the case of metastatic tumor).
  5. Stomach upset accompanied by painnauseavomiting, cramps and at times, indigestion (an outcome of intestinal obstruction and inflammation).
  6. There may be blood while passing stool.
2 people found this helpful

Can Chronic Constipation Lead To Colon Polyps?

Dr. Heena Talreja Lalla 89% (28 ratings)
MS (Shalya) General Surgery, Diploma in Proctology, BAMS, Masters in Minimally Invasive Proctology
Proctologist, Mumbai
Can Chronic Constipation Lead To Colon Polyps?


Constipation refers to infrequent, painful bowel movements that are hard to pass. It is a common digestive issue, affecting about 22% of Indians. Although constipation is likely to affect all age groups, elderly people above age 65 suffer the most.

A person is said to have constipation under the following conditions –

• Fewer than three bowel movements in a week

• Trouble passing stools

• Having dry, hard, unusually large stools The reasons why people get constipation include a poor diet that lacks fibre and fluids, inadequate exercise, and stress.

A person with constipation might experience the following symptoms –


Pain or strain during a bowel movement

• Bouts of blood in the stool

Fortunately, constipation is avoidable and curable on most occasions. However, some of the symptoms may be an indication of a more severe condition that calls for immediate medical attention. One such condition is colon polyps.

What are colon polyps?

Colon polyps show up as small clusters of cells in the lining of the colon wall. These develop when there is a loss of control in the way cells grow and divide. Environmental factors, poor diet, genetics and others contribute to the loss of control.

Colon polyps are characterized by symptoms such as pain, rectal bleeding, change in bowel movement, change in colour of stools etc.

The link between Chronic Constipation and Colon Polyps

Doctors suggest, your diet has a lot to do with constipation leading to colon polyps. Constipation results from not eating enough fibre-rich foods like fruits, vegetables and whole grains, and consuming foods that are high in fats (red meat, eggs, dairy) instead.

In constipation, the colon muscles contract too slow or sluggishly, making it difficult for the stool to pass smoothly through the colon. Chronic constipation that lasts for more than a week may be an indication of colon polyps. A large colon polyp that blocks your bowel can further induce unbearable abdominal pain and cramps.

Although colon polyps are usually benign, on rare occasions, they can later lead to cancer of the colon.

Doctors recommend eating a healthy diet that incorporates calcium, fibre, and vitamin D, as it will help you heal from chronic constipation and lower your risk of developing colon polyps. Nevertheless, consult a proctologist and seek treatment if the problem persists despite following a balanced diet.


2336 people found this helpful

Colonoscopy - Know Utility Of It!

Dr. Amitava Chakraborty 89% (13 ratings)
MS - General Surgery, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
General Surgeon, Kolkata
Colonoscopy - Know Utility Of It!

Colonoscopy is a testing method that helps a doctor to witness the inner lining of the large intestine. A thin tube known as the colonoscope is used to perform this test. The distinct advantage of this test is the fact that unlike another test, a colonoscopy gives a full view of the rectum and the full colon. This procedure is often used by doctors to eradicate polyps and perform a biopsy.

Detection and eradication of polyps-A polyp size, which has a diameter of more than 1 cm call for a full examination of the colon. Although many doctors suggest colonoscopy with a polyp that is less than 1 cm due to the presence of cancer cells present in preexisting polyps. Colonoscopy is preferred over other tests due to their unique ability to distinguish between malignant and benign structures. It is also very effective in searching for lesions and effectively brings out samples to perform a biopsy.

  1. The case of bowel resection: For patients who are suffering from colon cancer and needs a bowel resection should have a colonoscopy done. This is all the more true for patients who have already undergone bowel removal surgery. While many authorities suggest that patients of this nature should undergo colonoscopy every year, other authorities believe that a colonoscopy in every 3 years serves the purpose.
  2. Cancer in the family: Individuals having a history of adenomatous polyposis are often recommended to under colonoscopy once in every 12 months. The testing should start at the age of 12 and go up to 35 years. Post this screening can happen after every 3 years. Patients suffering from hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer should also go for a yearly colonoscopy from the age of 10 years until the age of 40 years.
  3. Managing IBD: Patients suffering from Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) should get a colonoscopy done to better manage the disease. Colonoscopy is considered to be more effective than barium enema in comprehending the extent of the inflammation process. Colonoscopy can further distinguish between Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis where clinical and radiologic study fails.
  4. Detecting and treating acute bleeding: Colonoscopy can successfully trace the site of bleeding for patients suffering from lower gastrointestinal bleeding. It is also believed to have a therapeutic intervention. Correctly determining the bleeding source is one key advantage of colonoscopy. If it fails, the doctor might suggest for an angiography.
  5. Colon decompression: When an intestine twists in the cecum or sigmoid colon, it results in bowel obstruction and can compound to ischemia. This condition is known as a volvulus. Some common symptoms of this disease include nausea, abdominal pain, and obstipation. Typically the surgical procedure is necessary to arrest this situation. Colonoscopy is used in decompressing the colon.
1538 people found this helpful

Colorectal Cancer - Early Symptoms In Men & Women!

Dr. Sourav Kumar Mishra 89% (57 ratings)
DM - Oncology, MD - Internal Medicine
Oncologist, Bhubaneswar
Colorectal Cancer - Early Symptoms In Men & Women!

The lower part of the digestive system is known as the large intestine (colon), and colon cancer is the name given to the type of cancer that affects it. The rectal cancer is the cancer that affects the last few inches of the colon. Collectively they are known as colorectal cancers. In most of the cases, small, noncancerous (benign) clumps of cells called adenomatous polyps are formed in the intestine. They are not harmful on their own, but over a period, they enlarge to become colon cancers. Let us have a look at the early symptoms.

Polyps and its symptoms

Polyps are very small and do not display symptoms on their own. Doctors advise regular screening test to find polyps and destroy them before they can aggravate to colon cancer. In most of the cases, the symptoms start to appear only in the advanced levels. These include:

  1. Changes in the bowel movement: There can be severe diarrhea or constipation. There can also be changes in the consistency of the stool.
  2. Blood clots in the stool: There can be a persistent bleeding when passing out the stools. In some cases, there can be a general discomfort and pain while passing the stool.
  3. Severe abdominal discomforts: Abdominal cramps and gas can be a regular occurrence. They would not respond to any digestive medications.
  4. Weakness or fatigue: The body tends to get weak and fatigued easily. Even performing essential activities can be a daunting task.
  5. Unexplained weight loss: Even after a proper diet, the body tends to lose weight. Weight loss can be categorized as one of the advanced stages of the disease.

The symptoms vary drastically depending on the size of cancer and the location in the large intestine. It is advisable to consult an oncologist if the symptoms mentioned above persist and it is also mandatory to have regularized screening after the age of 50.

Risk Factors

There are also certain important factors that have to be looked that may increase the risk of colon cancer. These include:

  1. Old age: It usually affects people more than the age of 50. Chances of it occurring in young people are very minimal.
  2. Inflammation of the intestine: Chronic inflammatory diseases of the intestine such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease can increase the risk of colon cancer.
  3. Genetics: Chances are that the genes could be passed on through the generation and family; thereby enhancing the likelihood of colorectal cancer.
  4. Diet: Fatty foods and foods that are low in fiber content can be one of the causes of colon cancer. People who are overweight and obese also increase their risk drastically.
  5. Smoking and alcohol: Smoking and drinking in excess levels increase the chances of getting colon cancer.
2548 people found this helpful

Ulcerative Colitis Surgery - Know Forms Of It!

Dr. Hari Ram Gupta 84% (10 ratings)
MS - General Surgery
General Surgeon, Alwar
Ulcerative Colitis Surgery - Know Forms Of It!

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory condition whereby tiny abscesses and ulcers are formed on the inner lining of the large intestine, or on the colon or rectum. These ulcers may burst frequently resulting in diarrhea and bloody stools. This disease may also be responsible for causing anemia as well as harsh abdominal pain.
Ulcerative colitis normally alternates periodically from flaring up to receding quickly. These periods of remission can either last for weeks or maybe, even for years at a stretch. They are, however, not permanent and although the disease may seem to have disappeared completely, it can soon show up again in no time. Usually beginning in the rectum, it can by and by, spread rapidly to other parts of the colon. If it is, however, limited only to the rectum, then it is more commonly referred to as ulcerative proctitis.

Surgery is generally obligatory and mandatory when it comes to treating ulcerative colitis. If surgery is not performed, you may suffer long-lasting side effects, including cancer and colon rupture.

Here are the different types of surgery that you may undergo:

1. Colectomy: This is done when the entire colon needs to be removed and is usually performed to eliminate the perils of acquiring colon cancer.
2. Proctocolectomy: This concerns the total removal of both colon and rectum, and is usually the standard procedure when dealing with ulcerative colitis.
3. Ileal Pouch Anal Anastomosis: If the treatment does not require a permanent stoma, and if you can still manage to let out stool from your anus, then this surgery, also called restorative proctolectomy, would be most appropriate. Here, both colon and rectum are removed but at the same time, the small intestine is utilized to form an internal reservoir, called a J-pouch, which is linked to the anus and can hereafter serve as your new rectum.

951 people found this helpful

Bariatric Surgery - Can It Reduce Cancer Risk?

Dr. Harshad Mahatme 85% (10 ratings)
MS - General Surgery, Fellowship In Laparoscopic & Bariatric Surgery, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
General Surgeon, Nashik
Bariatric Surgery - Can It Reduce Cancer Risk?

Obesity can make life miserable. From unhealthy eating habits to unhealthy lifestyles and medical conditions, obesity can be an amalgamation of many factors. Obese people are at a greater risk of suffering from many serious health complications like type-2 diabetes, mood swings, and depression, cardiac problems, high blood pressure and high cholesterol, to name a few. It does not stop there. More alarming is the fact that obese people are at increased risk of suffering from different types of cancer.

Bariatric surgery comes as a saviour for highly obese people (with a BMI over 40), who have tried every possible treatment under the sun to lose weight without any success. Bariatric surgery has helped many severely obese people attain a healthy weight. Bariatric surgery can be of three types;

  1. Gastric bypass surgery (Roux-en-Y): This is one of the most common types of weight-loss surgery practised worldwide. The procedure involves rearranging (dividing) the stomach into a smaller upper pouch and a larger lower part. The smaller pouch is then connected to the small intestine. The food consumed will pass into the small intestine through the pouch. The idea is to rearrange the stomach in such a way that a person consumes a lesser quantity of food.
  2. Gastric banding (Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Band): In this procedure, the surgeon creates a small pouch at the upper part of the stomach by placing a band (lap band or A-band) around it. The pouch, true to its name, is used to hold the food consumed. The purpose of placing a band around the stomach (upper part) is to reduce the intake of food.
  3. Sleeve Gastrectomy (Gastric Sleeve surgery): In Sleeve Gastrectomy, surgeons remove a large portion of the stomach, leaving behind only a small sleeve-like pouch (hence the name). Like the other two surgeries, sleeve gastrectomy also aids in limiting the consumption of food.
  4. Duodenal switch: The fourth type of bariatric surgery, Duodenal switch with biliopancreatic diversion, is not very commonly used. Bariatric surgery has several health benefits. In addition to weight loss, it plays a pivotal role in lowering the incidences of Type-2 Diabetes, depression, anxiety, coronary artery problems, sleep apnea cardiovascular diseases.

Research also suggests that bariatric surgery has been instrumental in reducing the chances of cancer (especially colon and breast cancer) by as much as 60%. The correlation between weight loss and reduced cancer instances is still a debatable topic. Some researchers and oncologists believe that the weight loss (bariatric surgery) brings about a hormonal modification which prevents the growth of tumour cells. Another study links obesity with increased inflammation. In many cases, inflammation acts as a catalyst, accelerating the growth of cancer cells. Research is still going on to understand this correlation (obesity and reduced cancer rates) better.

Bariatric surgery has its share of risks and demerits. Consult your physician and get yourself thoroughly examined before opting for the surgery.

3095 people found this helpful

Colon Cancer - What Should You Know?

Dr. Manish Bhatia 89% (45 ratings)
MS - General Surgery, MCH - Oncology , MBBS
Oncologist, Pune
Colon Cancer - What Should You Know?

Cancer is the biggest menace humans have to encounter at this point in time. It is an issue that afflicts thousands of people worldwide and to this day this is no particular cure for this epidemic affliction. It’s an ugly disease that makes people suffer, drains every resource they own and puts a humongous strain not only on the patient, but also on everyone surrounding them, and interpersonal relationships. Cancer is a disease that progresses in stages and that is why it is important to get checked regularly. In case you are unfortunate enough to have been diagnosed with colorectal cancer, or colon cancer, as it is commonly known, here is a quick guide to the different stages and how to proceed.

Stage Zero: It is also called carcinoma in situ. This is the earliest stage where the cancerous cells have not spread beyond the inner lining of the rectum or colon.
What to do: Stage zero colon cancer means that it hasn’t spread beyond the colon to other organs or areas so it only just requires surgery to remove the cancerous cells. This is called local excision performed using a colonoscope.

Stage One: This stage is where cancer has spread further into the lining of the colon but has not reached the outside walls of the colon or any other area for that matter.
What to do: If the cancer was removed at stage zero as a unit (the polyp) and nothing was left behind then nothing further needs doing. Although if the polyp is “high grade” then more surgery will be required, additionally if some get left behind after the first surgery then more will be required. Cancers that have developed otherwise require removing of a part of the colon, a partial colectomy.

Stage Two: The stage where cancer has advanced through the lining into growing over the walls of the colon but has not proceeded towards the lymph nodes.
What to do: Requires surgery, partial colectomy along with removing some of the surrounding lymph nodes. Chemotherapy post-surgery may be suggested by your doctor. Discuss before you agree to it.

Stage Three: Cancer has spread beyond the wall of the colon and reached the surrounding lymph nodes. It has not yet spread to other areas of the body or organs.
What to do: Partial colectomy including post-surgery chemotherapy but if the patient is not strong enough for surgery they are suggested chemotherapy or radiation therapy as an alternative.

Stage Four: Cancer has spread widely to several organs, to the liver, lungs, and even to the brain.
What to do: Surgery will not do much good, unless it can be used to remove the specific areas where the cancer is clustered. Mostly it is suggested to alleviate the pain but there is a chance that surgery might cure you too. Chemotherapy is absolutely required.

In stages 2, 3 and 4 there is an emerging role of targeted therapies along with the traditional chemotherapy. The same are chosen on the basis of biomarkers. In liver metastases, there is now a strong role for SBRT to liver lesions for high local control and potential cure in many. SBRT is a valuable alternative to liver surgery.

3 people found this helpful

Colon Polyp Removal Surgery - How To Recover After It?

Dr. Manash Ranjan Sahoo 85% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MS (General Surgery), Fellowship in Surgical Gastroenterology
General Surgeon, Cuttack
Colon Polyp Removal Surgery - How To Recover After It?

Colon polyp removal, also known as colon polypectomy, refers to the removal of abnormally grown tissues from the mucous membrane or the inside lining of the large intestine or colon. Since there are some particular types of polyps that tend to develop into cancer, early removal of polyps through surgery is essential, once diagnosed. Like every surgery, colon polyp removal has its own set of post-op guidelines to aid recovery and avoid risks and complications.

The procedure of polyp removal surgery is non-invasive and is typically carried out at the same time when performing colonoscopy or examination of the large intestines. However, there are a few recovery tips that can be helpful in ensuring fast recovery after polypectomy.

Let's have a look at them here.

  1. No strenuous activities: Patients are strongly advised to refrain from driving for at least 24 hours following a colon polyp removal surgery and avoid any strenuous activities for a minimum of four weeks following the surgery. There can be minor side-effects such as bloating, cramps and passages which resolves within a day. Patients are suggested to resume their regular daily activities slowly as otherwise, it may delay the full recovery.
  2. Opt for a healthy diet: The diet instructions may vary from one patient to another, depending on their overall physical health and other medical conditions. However, all patients are strongly recommended to not consume certain foods, such as coffee, soda, tea, spicy and processed foods, alcohol, etc. So, the bottom line is, any food items that may irritate the digestive system must be avoided for a few weeks.
  3. Go for regular check-ups: Until a patient fully recovers from colon polypectomy, it is advised to opt for regular checkups for a healthy recovery. In case any discolouration of urine is noticed after the first bowel movements, the patient needs to contact his/her gastroenterologist right away. Completing the entire prescribed medicine course and following the do's and don'ts, suggested by the doctor, is a must.
  4. Be careful with medications: To quickly recover from colon polyp removal surgery, patients are strongly suggested to avoid the intake of any non-prescription medications such as aspirin. However, patients may consider taking stool softeners to prevent constipation and antibiotic medications for preventing infections but only after consulting with the doctors.

One needs to be aware of the fact that depending on the acceptance of and response of the patient's body to a colon polyp removal surgery and of course their physical health, the recovery time may vary. However, the more careful a patient is in following the post-surgery recovery tips, the quicker he or she may resume the daily activities. Usually, in the majority of cases, it takes around two to three weeks to recover from a colon polyp removal surgery completely.

2824 people found this helpful

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