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Cleidocranial Dysplasia Tips

Developmental Dysplasia Of Hip - Know Everything About It!

Dr. Gaurav Khera 91% (30 ratings)
MBBS, Diploma In Orthopaedics (D. Ortho), DNB - Orthopedics, Mch
Orthopedist, Delhi
Developmental Dysplasia Of Hip - Know Everything About It!

What is Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip?

Developmental dysplasia of the hip or DDH, is a condition that affects the hip joint in newborns and young children. The hip is like a ball-and-cup, formed by the round top of the thigh bone - called the femur - and a cup-shaped socket in the pelvis. The hip joint is stable in spite of its large range of motion and is kept in place by ligaments and other soft tissue structures. The normal infant hip is not mature at birth but develops into a strong and stable joint as the child grows.

What happens in hip dysplasia?

In DDH, the hip does not develop normally as the cup and ball are either partially or completely out of alignment. DDH can vary from mild to severe depending on whether the cup is shallow, soft tissue structures are lax or a combination of all. These problems may cause the hip to become unstable, and even come out of the joint. This is known as a dislocated hip and is believed to occur in around one in 1000 infants. One or both hips can be affected. DDH isn't painful in babies and young children. Untreated DDH can result in limping in young children. This can progress to hip pain and arthritis at a later date.

How common is it?

DDH is more common in girls and first-born children. It's more likely to occur if there's a family history or if the baby was breech. Swaddling or wrapping a baby's legs too tightly can also lead to DDH. Certain traditional practices like wrapping the children, etc. are known to increase the risk, while carrying them with limbs separated apart is known to decrease the risk of dysplasia. All newborns should have both hips carefully examined by a health professional. 

Treatment options

Treatment depends on the child's age and the severity of the condition. Young babies with confirmed DDH are usually treated in a brace or harness that holds the legs apart. This helps the hip socket to deepen and the hip to become stable with growth. Regular monitoring of the hip position is necessary to ensure good outcomes. Surgery may be necessary if brace treatment is unsuccessful, or if a hip dislocation is first noticed when the child is older.

What is the long-term outlook?

Most infants who are diagnosed and treated early do not have any hip problems in later life. Earlier the diagnosis and treatment, the better the outcome, as late diagnosis often requires surgical treatment and can mean a higher likelihood of ongoing hip problems. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2739 people found this helpful

Symptoms, Causes and Treatment of Cervical Dysplasia

Dr. Vishakha Munjal 88% (33 ratings)
Visiting Consultant - (Apollo Cradle - Nehru Enclave) , MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology, MBBS, Apollo Spectra - Kailash colony,Paras Bliss - East of kailash, Moolchand - Lajpat Nagar Neelkanth - Gurgaon
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Symptoms, Causes and Treatment of Cervical Dysplasia

Cervical dysplasia is a type of condition, which occurs before cancer. This condition is associated with abnormal cell growth occurring in the cervix, uterus, vagina and endocervical canal. Cervical dysplasia is most commonly caused by the human-papillomavirus and is a sexually transmitted infection or STI. This disease is common in young women under 30 years of age. It is worth noting however, that cervical dysplasia can occur at any age whatsoever. Here are the causes of cervical dysplasia.

Causes:

  1. HPV infection: An infection caused by the human papillomavirus is the main reason why cervical dysplasia occurs. It is worth noting that HPV is most commonly transmitted through sex.
  2. Smoking: People who smoke are twice as likely to suffer from cervical dysplasia in comparison to those who do not.
  3. Immunosuppressive drugs: These are more likely to cause cervical dysplasia because they weaken the immune system of your body.
  4. Organ transplant: Organ transplant also increases your chances of cervical dysplasia due to the fact that it weakens your immune system.
  5. HIV-AIDS: This is a disease, which also weakens your immune response and therefore increases your chances of contracting cervical dysplasia.

Symptoms:
There are not too many symptoms of cervical dysplasia and it can only be diagnosed using a Pap test without, which more complicated tests have to be performed.

Treatment:
Once the diagnosis for this is complete, several factors will have to be considered before deciding, which treatment to give the patient. These include the age of the patient and the severity of the condition. However, in most of the cases women who have cervical dysplasia are not treated and the cell growth goes away on its own however when it is treated the following treatments are used.

  1. LEEP
  2. Cone biopsy
  3. Cryosurgery
  4. Electrocauterization
  5. Laser surgery
4440 people found this helpful

How Common Developmental Dysplasia Of Hip Is Treated?

Dr. Ravi C V 90% (15 ratings)
DNB, Fellowship in Pediatric Orthopedics
Orthopedist, Visakhapatnam
How Common Developmental Dysplasia Of Hip Is Treated?

What is Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip?

Developmental dysplasia of the hip or DDH, is a condition that affects the hip joint in newborns and young children. The hip is like a ball-and-cup, formed by the round top of the thigh bone - called the femur - and a cup-shaped socket in the pelvis. The hip joint is stable in spite of its large range of motion and is kept in place by ligaments and other soft tissue structures. The normal infant hip is not mature at birth but develops into a strong and stable joint as the child grows.

What happens in hip dysplasia?

In DDH, the hip does not develop normally as the cup and ball are either partially or completely out of alignment. DDH can vary from mild to severe depending on whether the cup is shallow, soft tissue structures are lax or a combination of all. These problems may cause the hip to become unstable, and even come out of the joint. This is known as a dislocated hip and is believed to occur in around one in 1000 infants. One or both hips can be affected. DDH isn't painful in babies and young children. Untreated DDH can result in limping in young children. This can progress to hip pain and arthritis at a later date.

How common is it?

DDH is more common in girls and first-born children. It's more likely to occur if there's a family history or if the baby was breech. Swaddling or wrapping a baby's legs too tightly can also lead to DDH. Certain traditional practices like wrapping the children, etc. are known to increase the risk, while carrying them with limbs separated apart is known to decrease the risk of dysplasia. All newborns should have both hips carefully examined by a health professional. 

Treatment options

Treatment depends on the child's age and the severity of the condition. Young babies with confirmed DDH are usually treated in a brace or harness that holds the legs apart. This helps the hip socket to deepen and the hip to become stable with growth. Regular monitoring of the hip position is necessary to ensure good outcomes. Surgery may be necessary if brace treatment is unsuccessful, or if a hip dislocation is first noticed when the child is older.

What is the long-term outlook?

Most infants who are diagnosed and treated early do not have any hip problems in later life. Earlier the diagnosis and treatment, the better the outcome, as late diagnosis often requires surgical treatment and can mean a higher likelihood of ongoing hip problems.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4334 people found this helpful

Developmental Dysplasia Of Hip - How Common It Is?

Dr. Ravi C V 90% (15 ratings)
DNB, Fellowship in Pediatric Orthopedics
Orthopedist, Visakhapatnam
Developmental Dysplasia Of Hip - How Common It Is?

What is Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip?

Developmental dysplasia of the hip or DDH, is a condition that affects the hip joint in newborns and young children. The hip is like a ball-and-cup, formed by the round top of the thigh bone - called the femur - and a cup-shaped socket in the pelvis. The hip joint is stable in spite of its large range of motion and is kept in place by ligaments and other soft tissue structures. The normal infant hip is not mature at birth but develops into a strong and stable joint as the child grows.

What happens in hip dysplasia?

In DDH, the hip does not develop normally as the cup and ball are either partially or completely out of alignment. DDH can vary from mild to severe depending on whether the cup is shallow, soft tissue structures are lax or a combination of all. These problems may cause the hip to become unstable, and even come out of the joint. This is known as a dislocated hip and is believed to occur in around one in 1000 infants. One or both hips can be affected. DDH isn't painful in babies and young children. Untreated DDH can result in limping in young children. This can progress to hip pain and arthritis at a later date.

How common is it?

DDH is more common in girls and first-born children. It's more likely to occur if there's a family history or if the baby was breech. Swaddling or wrapping a baby's legs too tightly can also lead to DDH. Certain traditional practices like wrapping the children, etc. are known to increase the risk, while carrying them with limbs separated apart is known to decrease the risk of dysplasia. All newborns should have both hips carefully examined by a health professional. 

Treatment options

Treatment depends on the child's age and the severity of the condition. Young babies with confirmed DDH are usually treated in a brace or harness that holds the legs apart. This helps the hip socket to deepen and the hip to become stable with growth. Regular monitoring of the hip position is necessary to ensure good outcomes. Surgery may be necessary if brace treatment is unsuccessful, or if a hip dislocation is first noticed when the child is older.

What is the long-term outlook?

Most infants who are diagnosed and treated early do not have any hip problems in later life. Earlier the diagnosis and treatment, the better the outcome, as late diagnosis often requires surgical treatment and can mean a higher likelihood of ongoing hip problems.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3471 people found this helpful

Cervical Dysplasia - 5 Common Causes

Dr. Anuradha Khurana 91% (163 ratings)
MBBS, DGO
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Cervical Dysplasia - 5 Common Causes

Cervical dysplasia is a type of condition which occurs before cancer. This condition is associated with abnormal cell growth occurring in the cervix, uterus, vagina and endocervical canal. Cervical dysplasia is most commonly caused by the human-papillomavirus and is a sexually transmitted infection or STI. This disease is common in young women under 30 years of age. It is worth noting however that cervical dysplasia can occur at any age whatsoever. Here are the causes of cervical dysplasia.
Causes:
1. HPV infection
An infection caused by the human papilloma virus is the main reason why cervical dysplasia occurs. It is worth noting that HPV is most commonly transmitted through sex.
2. Smoking
People who smoke are twice as likely to suffer from cervical dysplasia in comparison to those who do not.
3. Immuno suppresive drugs
These are more likely to cause cervical dysplasia because they weaken the immune system of your body.
4. Organ transplant

Organ transplant also increases your chances of cervical dysplasia due to the fact that it weakens your immune system.
5. HIV-AIDS
This is a disease which also weakens your immune response and therefore increases your chances of contracting cervical dysplasia.
Symptoms:
There are not too many symptoms of cervical dysplasia and it can only be diagnosed using a Pap test without which more complicated tests have to be performed.
Treatment:
Once the diagnosis for is complete, several factors will have to be considered before deciding which treatment to give the patient. These include the age of the patient and the severity of the condition. However, in most of the cases women who have cervical dysplasia are not treated and the cell growth goes away on its own however when it is treated the following treatments are used.
1. LEEP
2. Cone biopsy
3. Cyrosurgery
4. Electrocauterization
5. Laser surgery 

If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.

4556 people found this helpful

All About Hyperdontia

MDS Prosthodontics, BDS
Dentist, Hyderabad
All About Hyperdontia

Hyperdontia is a peculiar and quite rare dental problem which involves the growth of excess number of teeth. It can appear during birth and last till the primary teeth fall out to be replaced by the permanent set of teeth, or appear with the rise of the permanent teeth. If a person shows a tendency to grow more than 20 temporary teeth or more than 32 permanent teeth, he or she suffers from hyperdontia. 

Where do the additional teeth occur?
The additional teeth or supernumerary teeth can appear anywhere inside the mouth or dental arch, but the most common ones are called wisdom teeth and they grow as anterior molars after a certain age. Extra teeth in new born infants are called natal teeth. Occurrence of more than 4-6 supernumerary teeth is rare, although there have been known cases of more than 30 supernumerary teeth. 

Why does hyperdontia occur?
1. Hyperdontia often occurs in association with a few select disorders like cleidocranial dysplasia, Ehler - Danlos syndrome, Gardner syndrome, and cleft lip and palate

2. Although the exact cause of hyperdontia has not yet been discovered, some studies have shown that it might be a result of over activity of dental lamina during the phase of tooth development in infancy. 
3. It could also possibly be due to genetic or environmental factors. 

What problems does it pose and how can hyperdontia be corrected?
1. The existence of extra teeth often causes problems in speaking.
2. It may also cause deformation in the mouth region, and impediments in a lot of other functional activities like eating. 
3. In rare cases, the extra tooth/teeth may be agents of tumors or cysts
4. Therefore, treatment must be swiftly undertaken so as to remove the extra teeth and prevent rise of further teeth in the same spot. 
5. Sometimes, hyperdontia also leads to overcrowding and misshapen rows of teeth; this can also be corrected with extensive procedures.

3224 people found this helpful

All About Hyperdontia

Master of Dental Surgery
Dentist, Gurgaon
All About Hyperdontia

Hyperdontia is a peculiar and quite rare dental problem which involves the growth of excess number of teeth. It can appear during birth and last till the primary teeth fall out to be replaced by the permanent set of teeth, or appear with the rise of the permanent teeth. If a person shows a tendency to grow more than 20 temporary teeth or more than 32 permanent teeth, he or she suffers from hyperdontia. 

Where do the additional teeth occur?
The additional teeth or supernumerary teeth can appear anywhere inside the mouth or dental arch, but the most common ones are called wisdom teeth and they grow as anterior molars after a certain age. Extra teeth in new born infants are called natal teeth. Occurrence of more than 4-6 supernumerary teeth is rare, although there have been known cases of more than 30 supernumerary teeth. 

Why does hyperdontia occur?
1. Hyperdontia often occurs in association with a few select disorders like cleidocranial dysplasia, Ehler - Danlos syndrome, Gardner syndrome, and cleft lip and palate

2. Although the exact cause of hyperdontia has not yet been discovered, some studies have shown that it might be a result of over activity of dental lamina during the phase of tooth development in infancy. 
3. It could also possibly be due to genetic or environmental factors. 

What problems does it pose and how can hyperdontia be corrected?
1. The existence of extra teeth often causes problems in speaking.
2. It may also cause deformation in the mouth region, and impediments in a lot of other functional activities like eating. 
3. In rare cases, the extra tooth/teeth may be agents of tumors or cysts
4. Therefore, treatment must be swiftly undertaken so as to remove the extra teeth and prevent rise of further teeth in the same spot. 
5. Sometimes, hyperdontia also leads to overcrowding and misshapen rows of teeth; this can also be corrected with extensive procedures.

2 people found this helpful

MVSc, BVSc
Veterinarian,
WHAT IS CANINE HIP DYSPLASIA?
Canine hip dysplasia is the abnormal development and growth of a dog's hip joint. It occurs commonly in large breed dogs such as Labrador retrievers, German Shepherds, Rottweilers, and Saint Bernards, but it can occur in dogs of any breed and size, and even in cats. There is no single cause of hip dysplasia; rather it is caused by multiple factors, some of which include genetics and nutrition. The abnormal development of the hip joint that occurs in young dogs with dysplasia leads to excessive hip joint laxity (looseness). This laxity causes stretching of the supporting ligaments, joint capsule, and muscles around the hip joint, leading to joint instability, pain, and permanent damage to the anatomy of the affected hip joint. If left untreated, dogs with hip dysplasia usually develop osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease).
Dogs with hip dysplasia commonly show clinical signs of hind limb lameness, pain, and muscle wasting (atrophy). Owners report that their dogs are lame after exercise, run with a "bunny-hopping" gait, are reluctant to rise or jump, or aren't as active as other puppies. Many dysplastic dogs will show these signs early in life (6-12 months of age), but some dogs do not show signs of pain until they are older.
Diagnosis: Examination by touch and confirmation by radiographs.
Treatment and care: Conservative treatment benefits many patients when they experience signs of hip dysplasia. This treatment includes enforced rest, anti-inflammatory drugs and pain medication. Once the clinical signs are controlled, the therapy includes weight reduction if needed and an exercise program designed to improve the strength of your pet’s rear legs. Such an exercise program might include swimming and walking uphill. Surgical treatment being more invasive, is not practiced regularly, and does not preclude the need of conservative therapy.
The signs may aggravate during the season transition and patients may need support of pain medications during such period.
Nutrition: For younger patients – food that supports development and tissue repair may be offered. Optimal nutrition is also targeted to reduce health risks associated with excessive calcium and phosphorus (which may cause skeletal problems), and excess calories (which may cause obesity). Dietary therapy for dogs with hip dysplasia includes a diet that will help dogs run better, play better and rise more easily while maintaining optimal body weight. A joint diet should have added EPA (eicosapentanoic acid) an omega-3 fatty acid that has been shown to help maintain joint function, enhanced levels of glucosamine and chondroitin to provide the building blocks of healthy cartilage
and L-carnitine to maintain optimal weight.
Pets with hip dysplasia should not be mated/bred, as they can potentially transmit the “Defective Gene” to their progeny!
2 people found this helpful

ORAL BRUSH BIOPSY

MDS, BDS
Dentist, Delhi
ORAL BRUSH BIOPSY

Oralcdx (oralcdx laboratories, inc. Suffern, ny), the oral brush biopsy with computer aided analysis, is a diagnostic tool that identifies dysplasia in common oral spots that often have no suspicious clinical features. In comparison to exfoliative cytology, the brush biopsy technique collects cells from the full thickness of the oral epithelium. An oral brush biopsy is a chair-side, painless, easy to perform a test that can be used to identify any suspicious lesion including common small white and red oral lesions to rule out dysplastic features. Since most oral lesions are benign in nature, most test results are likely to be benign. Almost 10% of all cases usually turn out to be abnormal. Based on the results, the laboratory advises specific guidance on these abnormal cases sometimes recommending scalpel biopsy, observation or retesting.

2 people found this helpful

Who Should Opt For Pap Smear Test?

Dr. Surpreet Kaur Sandhu 89% (142 ratings)
MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Who Should Opt For Pap Smear Test?

Regular medical checkups and tests can be very helpful in prevention of cancer and growth of malignant cells or tumours. With the increase in the rates of cervical cancer, gynaecological checkups are of utmost need. For effective cervical cancer prevention, Pap smear bears the maximum number of success rates.

Pap smear is a medical procedure that helps to detect cancer or signs of other cervical infections. The Pap smear test however cannot detect ovarian cell cancer or uterine cancer. It is known to detect changes only in the vaginal cells and cervical dysplasia. Cervical dysplasia refers to the growth of pre-cancerous cells.

How this test is conducted?
1. Pap smear is conducted when the woman is not menstruating.
2. An instrument called speculum is inserted into one’s vagina to be able to access the cervix more easily.
3. Pap smear involves the collection of sample cells from the outer cervix area.
4. Cervical brush is inserted into the speculum and the sample cells are collected.
5. Then, the samples are put on a glass slide for further evaluation.

6. The Pap smear procedure takes only a few minutes bu can prevent serious medical problems in the long run.
7. The Pap smear is not a painful procedure, though it may be slightly uncomfortable for a few minutes only.

Who can undergo Pap smear?
1. Women can undergo Pap smear procedures once they are of 21 years of age and are generally sexually active
2. Women can go for pap smears up to the age of 70
3. Pap smears should be conducted preferably every two or three years
4. Women aged 65 and above and who have had no abnormalities in the last three consecutive tests, may stop taking pap smears
5. Before undergoing the test, it is important to stop douching and using vaginal creams for at least 2 days.
6. If there has been a case of multiple and frequent change of sexual partners, then you must go for Pap smear frequently
7. Women with weak immune system and who bear the risk of HIV Aids
8. Women who are heavy smokers. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.

3394 people found this helpful
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