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Cerebral Edema Tips

Know More About EDEMA!

Dr. Paramjeet Singh 90% (1400 ratings)
MBBS, Dip.Cardiology, Fellowship in Clinical Cardiology(FICC), Fellowship in Echocardiology
Cardiologist, Ghaziabad
Know More About EDEMA!

Edema means swelling caused by fluid in your body's tissues. It usually occurs in the feet, ankles and legs, but it can involve your entire body.

Causes of edema include:

To keep swelling down, your health care provider may recommend keeping your legs raised when sitting, wearing support stockings, limiting how much salt you eat, or taking a medicine called a diuretic - also called a water pill.

1 person found this helpful

All About Cerebral Palsy!

Dr. Ramakanth Reddy 94% (157 ratings)
MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
All About Cerebral Palsy!

Cerebral Palsy: What You Need to Know

  • Injuries to the brain before, during or after birth can cause cerebral palsy.

  • Symptoms of cerebral palsy are usually noticed in infants and toddlers.
  • There is currently no cure for cerebral palsy, but treatment options are available to treat associated orthopaedic conditions.
  • The functional abilities and intellect of a person with cerebral palsy can vary greatly.

What is cerebral palsy?

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a condition that is a result of a brain injury. This injury can occur before, during or shortly after birth. Cerebral palsy affects movement and muscle tone.

What are the symptoms of cerebral palsy?

Signs of CP are usually noticed during infancy or in toddlers. It can be associated with exaggerated reflexes, floppiness in the trunk or limbs, or stiffness in the trunk and limbs. It can present with involuntary movements and abnormal gait.

Cerebral Palsy Treatment

There is no cure for CP, but there are many treatment options to help with the orthopaedic problems associated with CP.

Common Orthopaedic Conditions Seen in Children with Cerebral Palsy

Hip Dysplasia

This is a deformity of the hip that can be found on one or both hips in children with an underlying neuromuscular condition, such as CP. Increased or decreased tone in the muscles can lead to migration of the femoral head out of the hip socket, requiring additional treatment.

Treatment:

  • Proximal Femoral osteotomy:This surgical procedure can be used to correct hip subluxation or dislocation in children who have an underlying neuromuscular disorder. It is used to correct the position of the proximal femur for better coverage by the acetabulum, leading to better distribution of weight on the femur. A wedge of bone is typically removed to place the proximal femur into the hip joint. A plate and screws are used to secure the femur bone properly in place.
  • Acetabular osteotomy: This surgical procedure can be used to provide better coverage of the femoral head by the acetabulum. A wedge of bone is cut and placed in a position to add coverage. Hardware is used to secure the bone in place.

Neuromuscular Scoliosis

Neuromuscular scoliosis is a condition of the spine associated with an underlying neuromuscular condition, such as cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy or spinal cord injury. The underlying condition typically causes changes in the muscles, leaving them unable to support the spine adequately. This leads to a curvature of the spine. The typical presentation is an abnormal S- or C-shaped curvature. The spine can also have rotation creating a multidimensional curve. The curvature can be progressive, especially with growth spurts.

Treatment:

  • Bracing: A back brace may assist in better positioning and supply better support, but it usually does not stop the progression of the curve. In children who are nonambulatory, modifications to the wheelchair can also assist in better spine support and sitting position.
  • Spinal usion surgery: This is a common treatment option for neuromuscular scoliosis when the curvature of the spine interferes with function or becomes a high degree of curvature. The spinal fusion surgery fuses the spine with metal hardware to stabilize the curve and secure the spine.  

Equinovarus Foot

This is a foot deformity commonly seen in children with CP. Due to muscle imbalance, the deformity can make weight-bearing activities challenging.

Treatment:

  • Split anterior tibial tendon transfer: This surgical intervention releases and transfers tendons in the foot to correct the deformity.
  • Calcaneal Osteotomy: This bony surgical procedure is used in patients who have more rigidity of the deformity in the hind foot.

Neuromuscular Flatfoot

This is a deformity of the foot due to an underlying neuromuscular condition. The abnormality of the muscles in the feet leads to a flat foot with minimal or no arch. This condition is commonly seen in children with hypotonia or low tone.

Treatment:

Orthotics: In children with flexible flatfoot, a brace or orthotic may be helpful to provide better arch support and decrease pain. In children with rigid or painful flatfoot, a surgery may be recommended to correct this deformity and improve the alignment of the foot.

Toe Walking

This is a condition in children with an underlying neuromuscular disorder that leads to high tone or muscle tightness in a child’s ankles, and can cause them to walk on the toes or balls of the feet.

Treatment:

  • Physical therapy: Several sessions to work on stretching the tight muscles may be beneficial to decrease the amount of toe walking.
  • Serial casting: Short leg casts can be applied for two-week intervals to progressively work on stretching the tight muscles to improve the position of the foot and ankle. The addition of Botox injections to help stretch the tight muscles in casts may be more effective in some children.
  • Achilles tendon or gastrocnemius lengthening: When physical therapy and serial casting are ineffective in correcting the tight ankle, a surgery may be necessary to achieve a flat foot position with walking. A lengthening is a surgical procedure in which the tight Achilles tendon or gastrocnemius muscle is lengthened to allow greater range of motion and function of the foot and ankle. The lengthening also allows children to better tolerate ankle-foot orthosis and achieve a flat foot position with walking.

Limb Length Inequality

Limb length inequality is a difference in the lengths of a child’s lower extremities (legs). The difference in length can be found in children with hemiplegic CP.

Treatment:

The application of a shoe lift inside a child’s shoe on the shorter side assists in lessening the discrepancy. Surgical treatment to shorten the longer leg is also a way to decrease the discrepancy in children with a greater than 2-centimeter discrepancy. The procedure is called epiphysiodesis, and it is a carefully calculated surgery to close the growth plate in the longer leg and allow the shorter leg to continue to grow and balance out the discrepancy.

Torsional Disorders

Some children with CP develop an inward or outward twist in their lower extremities. When this is excessive, it can interfere with their gait pattern.

Treatment:

Tibial or femoral rotational osteotomy: This surgical procedure is used to correct deformity of the tibia or femur bone. The bone is cut, placed in a corrected position and secured with hardware. The deformities can be surgically corrected with different techniques to provide improved function, especially with gait.

Muscle Contracture

In a child with an underlying neuromuscular disorder, muscle tone can be increased, which can lead to a contracture of the muscle. This means the muscle does not stretch well. Common muscles involved are the hamstrings, adductors, hip flexors and gastrocnemii.

Treatment:

  • Physical therapy and bracing: Physical therapy and bracing techniques can help keep muscles stretched to improve range of motion and assist in preventing a muscle contracture.
  • Botox: An injection of this is used to temporarily weaken the muscle to allow for stretching of the muscle. The effects of Botox typically last about three months and then wear off. During this time, it is important to aggressively stretch the affected muscle to optimize the medication. Physical therapy and serial casting are commonly used in conjunction with Botox treatment.
  • Tendon lengthening surgery: When stretching and bracing are not effective in improving range of motion, tendon lengthening surgery can be used to provide additional stretch and function at various muscle sites. Common muscles lengthened include hamstrings, gastrocnemii and adductors.
6 people found this helpful

Treatment of Edema!

Dr. Radhika A (Md) 85% (10 ratings)
MD - Acupuncture, Diploma In Accupuncture, Advanced Diploma In Accupuncture
Acupuncturist, Delhi
Treatment of Edema!

Treatment of Edema

Homeopathic Treatment of Edema
Acupuncture & Acupressure Treatment of Edema
Psychotherapy Treatment of Edema
Conventional / Allopathic Treatment of Edema
Surgical Treatment of Edema
Dietary & Herbal Treatment of Edema
Other Treatment of Edema
What is Edema
Symptoms of Edema
Causes of Edema
Risk factors of Edema
Complications of Edema
Lab Investigations and Diagnosis of Edema
Precautions & Prevention of Edema
Treatment of Edema

Homeopathic Treatment of Edema

Homeopathic Treatment of Edema reduces swelling especially in legs and ankle. It is also helpful when puffy swelling develops below the eyes or in the extremities. Homeopathy improves the root cause of swelling thus prevents it developing further. Some of the homeopathic remedies for treatment of edema are:

Apis mellifica
Calcarea carbonica
Graphites
Ledum palustre
Kali carbonicum
Pulsatilla

Acupuncture and Acupressure Treatment of Edema

Acupuncture improves energy flow, removes blocks and relieves edema. It cures underlying blockage of energy channels to stop edema from occurring.

Psychotherapy and Hypnotherapy Treatment of Edema

Psychotherapy and hypnotherapy can help in stress relief. They can help in better coping and early relief.

Conventional / Allopathic Treatment of Edema

Allopathic Treatment of Edema involves the use of drugs that help your body expel excess fluid in the form of urine. One of the most common diuretics is furosemide (Lasix).

Dietary & Herbal Treatment of Edema

Reduce your sodium intake
Eat foods high in vitamin B such as dark leafy greens, oatmeal, lima beans, and asparagus.

What is Edema?

Edema is swelling caused by excess fluid trapped in your body’s tissues. It usually occurs in the feet, ankles and legs, but it can involve your entire body.

Symptoms of Edema

Swelling of the tissue directly under your skin
Stretched skin
Skin that retains a dimple after being pressed for several seconds
Increased abdominal size

Causes of Edema

Sitting or staying in one position for too long
Eating too much salty food
Kidney disease
Liver disease
Premenstrual signs and symptoms
Weak or damaged leg veins
Pregnancy
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Estrogens
Congestive heart failure
Cirrhosis

Risk factors of Edema

Taking certain medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, estrogens, calcium channel blockers and diabetes medications

Complications of Edema

Difficulty in walking
Decreased blood circulation
Decreased elasticity of arteries, veins, joints and muscles
Painful swelling
Stiffness
Stretched skin,
infection in the swollen area
Scarring between layers of tissue
Increased risk of skin ulcers 

Diagnosis of Edema

Diagnosis of Edema involves the following tests:

Physical exam and medical history
X-rays and ultrasound exams
Blood tests or urine analysis

Precautions & Prevention of Edema

Prevention of edema can be achieved by the treatment.

Treatment of Edema!

Dr. Radhika A (Md) 85% (10 ratings)
MD - Acupuncture, Diploma In Accupuncture, Advanced Diploma In Accupuncture
Acupuncturist, Delhi
Treatment of Edema!

Treatment of Edema

Homeopathic Treatment of Edema
Acupuncture & Acupressure Treatment of Edema
Psychotherapy Treatment of Edema
Conventional / Allopathic Treatment of Edema
Surgical Treatment of Edema
Dietary & Herbal Treatment of Edema
Other Treatment of Edema
What is Edema
Symptoms of Edema
Causes of Edema
Risk factors of Edema
Complications of Edema
Lab Investigations and Diagnosis of Edema
Precautions & Prevention of Edema
Treatment of Edema

Homeopathic Treatment of Edema

Homeopathic Treatment of Edema reduces swelling especially in legs and ankle. It is also helpful when puffy swelling develops below the eyes or in the extremities. Homeopathy improves the root cause of swelling thus prevents it developing further. Some of the homeopathic remedies for treatment of edema are:

Apis mellifica
Calcarea carbonica
Graphites
Ledum palustre
Kali carbonicum
Pulsatilla

 

Acupuncture and Acupressure Treatment of Edema

Acupuncture improves energy flow, removes blocks and relieves edema. It cures underlying blockage of energy channels to stop edema from occurring.

Psychotherapy and Hypnotherapy Treatment of Edema

Psychotherapy and hypnotherapy can help in stress relief. They can help in better coping and early relief.

Conventional / Allopathic Treatment of Edema

Allopathic Treatment of Edema involves the use of drugs that help your body expel excess fluid in the form of urine. One of the most common diuretics is furosemide (Lasix).

Dietary & Herbal Treatment of Edema

Reduce your sodium intake
Eat foods high in vitamin B such as dark leafy greens, oatmeal, lima beans, and asparagus.
What is Edema

Edema is swelling caused by excess fluid trapped in your body’s tissues. It usually occurs in the feet, ankles and legs, but it can involve your entire body.

Symptoms of Edema

Swelling of the tissue directly under your skin
Stretched skin
Skin that retains a dimple after being pressed for several seconds
Increased abdominal size

 

Causes of Edema

Sitting or staying in one position for too long
Eating too much salty food
Kidney disease
Liver disease
Premenstrual signs and symptoms
Weak or damaged leg veins
Pregnancy
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Estrogens
Congestive heart failure
Cirrhosis

 

Risk factors of Edema

Taking certain medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, estrogens, calcium channel blockers and diabetes medications

Complications of Edema

Difficulty in walking
Decreased blood circulation
Decreased elasticity of arteries, veins, joints and muscles
Painful swelling
Stiffness
Stretched skin,
infection in the swollen area
Scarring between layers of tissue
Increased risk of skin ulcers 
Diagnosis of Edema

Diagnosis of Edema involves the following tests:

Physical exam and medical history
X-rays and ultrasound exams
Blood tests or urine analysis
Precautions & Prevention of Edema

Treatment Of Cerebral Ischaemia And Cerebral Congestion With Homeopathy

Dr. Monty Talwar 89% (531 ratings)
CME Course In Diabetes For Family Physicians, Certificate In Child Health, BHMS
Homeopath, Gurgaon
Treatment Of Cerebral Ischaemia And Cerebral Congestion With Homeopathy

Cerebral ischaemia or brain ischemia is a medical condition that restricts the flow of blood to the brain, resulting in an unmet metabolic demand. This leads to limited oxygen supply in the brain, which could result in the death of brain tissues, cerebral infarction or an ischemic stroke. Thus, a cardiorespiratory arrest, a stroke, and irreversible brain damage are few possible consequences of cerebral ischaemia.

People with compressed blood vessels, low blood pressure, congenital heart defects or sickle cell anaemia have a high risk of developing cerebral ischaemia since compressed blood vessels or very low pressure can lead to restricted blood flow. Also, sickle-shaped cells have a greater tendency to clot, causing obstructed blood flow.

Patients with cerebral ischaemia experience a host of symptoms, such as weakness in the body, problems with coordination and movement, vision and speech impairment and unconsciousness.

Cerebral congestion, on the other hand, refers to the excessive quantity of blood in the brain vessels, causing pressure on the cerebral substance. Cerebral congestion is of two types. It is termed as active when there is too much arterial blood flow and passive when there is undue quantity of venous blood in the veins of the brain. Both conditions cause symptoms, such as a severe headache, insomnia, irritability and unconsciousness. The patient gets little sleep and is disturbed often followed by dreams. When awake, the patient’s mental activity in the brain is very high.

Homeopathy is now a well-established school of medicine backed with years of research and practice. Gone are the days when homeopathy was considered no more than an extension of herbal home remedies.

Homeopathic laboratories around the world produce a large number of medicines covering almost all ailments. The benefits of homeopathic treatment are now well established due to its holistic approach and minimal side effects. Homeopathy is undoubtedly a ray of hope for patients with cerebral ischaemia and cerebral congestion, as it delivers a comprehensive treatment plan designed to target the signs and symptoms of the disease and address its non-occurrence.

The medications deal with mild to severe symptoms, including inflammation of the brain, headache, vomiting, insomnia problem, stroke/convulsions and seizures. The stramonium drug, for example, deals with seizures. Belladonna is an effective remedy for sharp shooting headaches, a common symptom of cerebral congestion. Ferrum is believed to be a valuable remedy for brain ischaemia. Few drugs deal with the symptoms of both ischaemia and congestion—nux is a suitable drug for the treatment of ischaemia as well as for passive cerebral congestion. Similarly, phosphorus can be used to treat brain ischaemia and congestion. Zincum metallicum is a highly recommended drug for chronic cases of ischaemia.

The treatment is comprehensive and long term and shows substantive results. Regular follow-ups and consultation with a homeopath specialist is the key to an effective treatment.

4985 people found this helpful

Treatment of Cerebral Ischaemia and Cerebral Congestion With Homeopathy

Dr. R.K. Joshi 88% (240 ratings)
BHMS
Homeopath, Gurgaon
Treatment of Cerebral Ischaemia and Cerebral Congestion With Homeopathy

Cerebral ischaemia or brain ischemia is a medical condition that restricts the flow of blood to the brain, resulting in an unmet metabolic demand. This leads to limited oxygen supply in the brain, which could result in death of brain tissues, cerebral infarction or an ischemic stroke. Thus, a cardiorespiratory arrest, a stroke, and irreversible brain damage are few possible consequences of cerebral ischaemia.

People with compressed blood vessels, low blood pressure, congenital heart defects or sickle cell anaemia have a high risk of developing cerebral ischaemia, since compressed blood vessels or very low pressure can lead to restricted blood flow. Also, sickle-shaped cells have a greater tendency to clot, causing obstructed blood flow.

Patients with cerebral ischaemia experience a host of symptoms, such as weakness in the body, problems in coordination and movement, vision and speech impairment and unconsciousness.

Cerebral congestion, on the other hand, refers to excessive quantity of blood in the brain vessels, causing pressure on the cerebral substance. Cerebral congestion is of two types. It is termed as active when there is too much arterial blood flow and passive when there is undue quantity of venous blood in the veins of the brain. Both conditions cause symptoms, such as severe headache, insomnia, irritability and unconsciousness. The patient gets little sleep and is disturbed, often followed by dreams. When awake, the patient’s mental activity in the brain is very high.

Homeopathy is now a well-established school of medicine backed with years of research and practice. Gone are the days when homeopathy was considered no more than an extension of herbal home remedies. Homeopathic laboratories around the world produce large number of medicines covering almost all ailments. The benefits of homeopathic treatment are now well established due to its holistic approach and minimal side effects. Homeopathy is undoubtedly a ray of hope for patients with cerebral ischaemia and cerebral congestion, as it delivers a comprehensive treatment plan designed to target the signs and symptoms of the disease and address its non-occurrence.

The medications deal with mild to severe symptoms, including inflammation of the brain, headache, vomiting, insomnia, stroke/convulsions and seizures. The stramonium drug, for example, deals with seizures. Belladonna is an effective remedy for sharp shooting headaches, a common symptom of cerebral congestion. Ferrum is believed to be a valuable remedy for brain ischaemia. Few drugs deal with the symptoms of both ischaemia and congestion—nux is a suitable drug for the treatment of ischaemia as well as for passive cerebral congestion. Similarly, phosphorus can be used to treat brain ischaemia and congestion. Zincum metallicum is a highly recommended drug for chronic cases of ischaemia.

The treatment is comprehensive and long term and shows substantive results. Regular follow-ups and consultation with a homeopath specialist is the key to an effective treatment.

4599 people found this helpful

Cerebral Ischaemia And Cerebral Congestion - Homoeopathic Treatment For It!

Dr. Alok Kumar 89% (760 ratings)
BHMS, VLIR Belgium, Canadian Academy Of Homeopathy
Homeopath, Navi Mumbai
Cerebral Ischaemia And Cerebral Congestion - Homoeopathic Treatment For It!

Cerebral ischaemia or brain ischemia is a medical condition that restricts the flow of blood to the brain, resulting in an unmet metabolic demand. This leads to limited oxygen supply in the brain, which could result in death of brain tissues, cerebral infarction or an ischemic stroke. Thus, a cardiorespiratory arrest, a stroke, and irreversible brain damage are few possible consequences of cerebral ischaemia.

People with compressed blood vessels, low blood pressure, congenital heart defects or sickle cell anaemia have a high risk of developing cerebral ischaemia, since compressed blood vessels or very low pressure can lead to restricted blood flow. Also, sickle-shaped cells have a greater tendency to clot, causing obstructed blood flow.

Patients with cerebral ischaemia experience a host of symptoms, such as weakness in the body, problems in coordination and movement, vision and speech impairment and unconsciousness.

Cerebral congestion, on the other hand, refers to excessive quantity of blood in the brain vessels, causing pressure on the cerebral substance. Cerebral congestion is of two types. It is termed as active when there is too much arterial blood flow and passive when there is undue quantity of venous blood in the veins of the brain. Both conditions cause symptoms, such as severe headache, insomnia, irritability and unconsciousness. The patient gets little sleep and is disturbed, often followed by dreams. When awake, the patient’s mental activity in the brain is very high.

Homeopathy is now a well-established school of medicine backed with years of research and practice. Gone are the days when homeopathy was considered no more than an extension of herbal home remedies. Homeopathic laboratories around the world produce large number of medicines covering almost all ailments. The benefits of homeopathic treatment are now well established due to its holistic approach and minimal side effects. Homeopathy is undoubtedly a ray of hope for patients with cerebral ischaemia and cerebral congestion, as it delivers a comprehensive treatment plan designed to target the signs and symptoms of the disease and address its non-occurrence.

The medications deal with mild to severe symptoms, including inflammation of the brain, headache, vomiting, insomnia, stroke/convulsions and seizures. The stramonium drug, for example, deals with seizures. Belladonna is an effective remedy for sharp shooting headaches, a common symptom of cerebral congestion. Ferrum is believed to be a valuable remedy for brain ischaemia. Few drugs deal with the symptoms of both ischaemia and congestion—nux is a suitable drug for the treatment of ischaemia as well as for passive cerebral congestion. Similarly, phosphorus can be used to treat brain ischaemia and congestion. Zincum metallicum is a highly recommended drug for chronic cases of ischaemia.

The treatment is comprehensive and long term and shows substantive results. 

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

8517 people found this helpful

Cerebral Palsy And Occupational Therapy

Dr. R K Lohiya 88% (10 ratings)
Bachelor of Occupational Therapy (BOT), Master of Occupational Therapy (MOT)
Occupational Therapist, Gurgaon
Cerebral Palsy And Occupational Therapy

Cerebral palsy and occupational therapy

In order to recover the skills that are required for leading an independent and a satisfying life after any injury or disease, an occupational therapist is required. The word occupation refers to the tasks which one has to perform everyday not to one’s profession. Muscle and joint coordination issues can be fixed with the help of occupational therapy in case if kids .These include the daily activities like eating, brushing using the toilet. With the help of OT your cognitive and social abilities and even your motor skills will improve at a very good rate.

How is this beneficial for children with cerebral palsy?

Occupational therapy will be helpful to the children who are specially suffering from cerebral palsy. These benefits includes:

- It will increase the chances of making your child more independent.
- It will boost their ability to play as well as to learn.
- The self esteem and the confidence of your child will readily increase.
- They’ll have a sense of accomplishment.
- Their quality of life will improve as well.
- This is also beneficial for the parents as well. It will reduce your stress and will provide you with a sense of security.

What to expect?

Occupational therapy is different for different children who have cerebral palsy. It depends on one’s physical, intellectual and social emotional abilities .The first session is basically done for evaluation where your child’s fine motor and will be observed how your child responds to touch or any kind of movement. The parents are also interviewed in order to find out about the strengths and the weaknesses of your child. For children with cerebral palsy, a revaluation should be done in every 7-8 months in order to see the progress and change the treatment plan accordingly as per the improvement .The operational therapist will use some specific techniques which will help your child to improve very quickly and reach their destination.

These techniques are :

Paediatric constraint induced Movement therapy: This therapy helps your child to move the weaker parts of the body by restraining the stronger counterpart. If you child has a difficulty in moving one of the arms then the stronger arm will be restrained and the weaker arm will be trained in order to gain the strength.

Sensory integration therapy: This type of therapy will help your child to improve the ability bro receive , interpret and act on the information and situations that comes in your child’s brain with the help of sensory receptors .

Occupational therapy has been a very important part in improving the physical and the mental discomfort faced by your child when he or she is suffering from cerebral palsy. The therapist may even provide your child with some gadgets in order to make his /her daily life easier and more independent. This helps your child to improve and gradually get better at it without any sort of negativity. While you’re looking for a OT make sure the person has enough experience and knowledge, just to ensure that your child gets the right treatment.

 

4247 people found this helpful

Role Of Physiotherapy In Cerebral Palsy!

Dr. Gaurav Mohan 91% (18 ratings)
MPTh/MPT, BPTh/BPT
Physiotherapist, Delhi
Role Of Physiotherapy In Cerebral Palsy!

What do we mean by the term cerebral palsy?
A cerebral palsy is a group of permanent movement disorders which occur in early childhood. It is a neurological disorder which can occur due to many causes, such as hypoxia, injury, infection, hypoglycemia, or any other cause.

What are the symptoms of cerebral palsy?
Stiffness; tightness in the muscles of the extremities either upper or lower extremity; exaggerated movements; limited movements; abnormal gait; crossed knees; and abnormal reflexes are the common presentations of this disease.

How does physiotherapy help in cerebral palsy?
Physiotherapy is one of the best methods to assist patients with cerebral palsy. It helps in following ways:

  1. By reducing the exaggerated tone of the muscle
  2. By enhancing the development of milestones
  3. By maintaining the muscle length
  4. By correcting the posture
  5. By improving activities of daily living

What are the goals of the physiotherapy in patients with cerebral palsy?
The main goals of the physiotherapy are as follows:

  1. To make the patient independent by improving functional mobility
  2. To strengthen and stimulate the growth of muscles
  3. To improve the ability to move parts of the body
  4. To prevent the joint stiffness and muscle atrophy (wasting of the muscles) of the limbs
  5. To improve the balance and joint stability

What methods are used in physiotherapy for the patients with cerebral palsy?
It includes following methods:

  1. Stretching exercises to improve the mobility of joints and soft tissues
  2. Use of toys and games to make the therapy enjoyable for the child
  3. Use of special positions, exercises, and cushions to maintain the natural position
  4. Use of braces, casts, and splints to straighten the joint, support the joint, and to manage uncontrolled limb movements
  5. Use of a special plastic jacket to prevent exaggerated curvature of joints
  6. Use of equipment for constraint-induced movement therapy, to improve movements through presenting interesting activities, and giving praise and rewards when a child makes attempts to use the less-functioning muscles
  7. Use of tilt-tables and standing frames
  8. Serial casting to increase the range of joint motion and repeated applications of casts, typically every one to two weeks to restore it
  9. Passive stretching or prolonged manual stretching by using the effect of body weight and gravity or mechanically with a machine or splints
  10. Use of exercise balls, resistance bands, free weights, swimming pools, and hot and cold packs
  11. Electric stimulation to improve gait and upper limb function
  12. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy to improve the oxygen supply to the surrounding neurons
  13. Use of an ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) in foot drop to prevent tripping over the toes 
  14. Use of walkers also may be prescribed to enhance mobility
2 people found this helpful

Ways Pulmonary Edema Can be Treated!

Dr. Kamal Gera 86% (24 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Pulmonary Medicine
Pulmonologist, Faridabad
Ways Pulmonary Edema Can be Treated!

Pulmonary edema is a disorder wherein fluid accumulates in the lungs leading to lack of oxygen in the body. The usual cause of pulmonary edema is congestive heart failure (the muscles of the heart are unable to pump blood). In this disorder, the heart has to work extra hard to pump blood, so this adds extra pressure on the blood vessels that are present in the lungs. In a bid to relieve this added pressure, fluid is released into the lungs by the blood vessels.

The function of your lungs is to take in oxygen from the air and circulate it in the bloodstream. However, fluid accumulation in the lungs impairs the ability to supply oxygen in the blood. As the oxygen does not reach the blood, the body gets deprived of oxygen.

Causes
The most frequent cause of pulmonary edema is congestive heart failure. Some other causes of pulmonary edema are pneumonia, failure of the kidney, damage to the lungs, high blood pressure and sepsis of the blood (infection). Apart from these internal medical causes, certain external factors such as exposure to high altitudes, drug overdose and inhalation of toxic substances can also cause pulmonary edema.

Symptoms
The symptoms of pulmonary edema are coughing, swelling of the legs, breathlessness and wheezing. In case of severe pulmonary edema, symptoms such as respiratory failure, shock and organ damage due to lack of oxygen may occur.

Treatment
The initial step to treat pulmonary edema is to administer oxygen. Oxygen is given through a nasal cannula; it is a flexible tube made of plastic with two openings that allow oxygen to be delivered to the nostrils. The oxygen levels in your body are closely monitored by the doctor.

Based on the cause of pulmonary edema, the following treatments are administered:

  1. MorphineMorphine is administered to reduce breathing difficulties and anxiety.
  2. Preload reducers: These medications help relieve the pressure in the lungs and the heart. Diuretics are a type of preload reducers; it is also known to cause excessive urination.
  3. Afterload reducers: Afterload reducers are medications that relieve pressure from the left ventricle by dilating the blood vessels.
  4. Use of blood pressure medication: Pulmonary edema caused by blood pressure changes i.e. if the disorder is caused by changes in your blood pressure, then blood pressure medications are administered to get your pressure back to normal levels.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2522 people found this helpful
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