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Overview

Cancer - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

What is Cancer?

We often ignore certain symptoms which our body presents from time to time. Sometimes these disappear on their own, while at others, they may indicate something more serious -- the nesting of cancer cells in our body. Here are a few cancer symptoms which you cannot afford to ignore:
    Unexpected weight loss
  • Bloating
  • Skin Lumps
  • Unusual Bleeding
  • Skin changes like scaling, pigmentation
  • Discomfort during swallowing food
  • White spot on tongue
  • Persistent pain or ache in the body

Treatment :

Metastasis denotes distant spread of cancer from the primary organ. Treatment of any form of cancer is dependent on whether or not it has spread to distant organs. If the cancer spreads to other tissues and organs, it may decrease a patient's likelihood of survival. There are many effective treatments for metastatic cancer. These treatments fall into three main types:- Whole body treatment – this includes chemotherapy or anti-cancer medication that can reach all places of the body and radiation therapy.- Local treatment for secondary tumor alone – this includes localized surgery and removal of the tumor or localized radiation therapy on the secondary tumor alone. - Pain relief – this therapy is also called palliative therapy and is reserved for advanced cases of metastasis.

More about Cancer :

This disease harms the human body, when these altered cells mutates uncontrollably to form masses or lumps of tissues know as a tumor. Except for leukemia (blood cancer) where this fatal illness prohibits normal blood function by abnormal cell division in the blood stream. Cancerous tumors can grow and interfere with the nervous, circulatory and digestive systems in our body or can release hormones, which can alter the functioning of organs in the body.

However, cancerous tumors that demonstrate limited growth and stays in one spot, without multiplying further are generally considered as benign cancers. More dangerous or malignant tumors appear on the cancer patients when two things occur. Firstly, a cancerous cell manages to wade through the body using the lymphatic system or blood as a carrier agent, destroying all healthy cells in a process called ‘invasion’. And secondly, the cancerous cells manage to grow and divide, forming new blood vessels to feed itself in a process, which is known as ‘angiogenesis’. When cancerous tumors find success in spreading and growing in other parts of the body, destroying healthy cells by invading on the cells, this process is known as ‘metastasis’. Metastasis is a very serious condition for all cancer patients that is also very difficult to treat.

What Experts Say :

According to World Health Organization’s most recent data, there are 15 million new cases every year and 9.2 million cancer related deaths.According to oncology experts, they have also recently discovered an important clue as to why cancer cells spread. This has something to do with a process whereby the cancer cells use their adhesion (stickiness) properties. Scientists have found that certain molecular interaction between the cancer cells and the scaffolding extra cellular matrix that holds them in place, cause them to get unstuck from the original site, and getting dislodged, they travel to other places and then reattach themselves at the new site.

This is extremely important to know, since researchers say cancer mortality is mainly due to metastatic tumors, growths from the cells that have travelled far from their original site to another parts of the body. For it has been noted that only 10% of cancer patients die from their primary tumors.

Researchers are now trying to find a way to stop the cancer cells from sticking on to new sites so that they can interfere with the metastatic disease and can halt the growth of the secondary tumors from forming in the body. Cancer is the ultimate result of cells that uncontrollably grows and do not die. Normal cells in our body follow an orderly path, whereby they grow, divide and then die which in medical term is known as apoptosis. But unlike normal cells, cancerous cells do not obey this rule instead they continue to grow and divide, which eventually leads to a huge mass of abnormal cells that has grown out of control, which is the only known cause of this fatal disease.

Cancer is generally treated by long term medications, surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

Require medical diagnosis Lab test always required
Symptoms
A new spot on the skin, which changes its shape, size and color, can be assigned of skin cancer. If you have a nagging cough and you don’t smoke it can be a sign of lung cancer. Constant bloating in women along with pain in the pelvic region can suggest an ovarian cancer. If there is pain during micturition (peeing) in men, it can be a sign of prostate cancer. If there is swollen lymph nodes in your body that do go heal, it can be a sign of leukemia (blood cancer). Bloody stool which continues for a long period of time can predict colon cancer. Prolonged bad breath and canker sores in the mouth can be a sign of oral cancer.

Popular Health Tips

Liver Transplant Surgery - Situations Where Is It Required!

M. Ch., FEBS, MBBS, MS - General Surgery
Liver Transplant Surgeon, Delhi
Liver Transplant Surgery - Situations Where Is It Required!

A liver transplant surgery is a procedure by the virtue of which the doctors remove the liver in that cases where it becomes non-functional or does not function appropriately. In this process, the malfunctioning liver is substituted with the healthy liver obtained from a living donor.

Liver transplant surgery has been performed in the medicine for more than 30 years and it has been observed that this surgery is successful and the patients who undergo liver transplant are able to live healthy lives.
Liver transplant is usually performed in the cases where the liver failure could not be treated by other alternative medical treatments available and cancerous conditions. There can be either acute liver failure or chronic liver failure. The Liver transplantation is more often performed in order to treat the chronic ailments.

In Adults

  1. In the cases of adults, one of the major causes of getting liver transplantation done is liver cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is a medical condition where there is a gradual deterioration of liver and severe chronic illness may lead to malfunctioning of the liver.
  2. The blood flow across the liver can be blocked due to the dominance of the scar tissue over healthy tissue.
  3. There can also be other reasons for cirrhosis which include the attack of viruses like hepatitis B and C, the alcoholic liver disease due to excess intake of alcohol, increase in the fat proportion in the liver, Autoimmune disorders of liver or you can say, hereditary diseases such as hemochromatosis and Wilson’s disease.
  4. When the alcohol intake increases rapidly, then the patients do need a liver transplant but if the person controls the intake of alcohol, then improvements can be observed significantly and the patients may even survive for a long time even without getting the transplant done. But in certain cases, even after abstaining from alcohol, the damage is untreatable and healthy liver tissue cannot be restored, in such cases, liver transplant becomes a compulsion.

In children

  1. In the case of children, biliary atresia is the most prominent reason for the liver transplant surgery. It is a very rare condition wherein the bile duct that connect the liver and the small intestine is either blocked or absent in newborn babies. Hence, the function of bile ducts, i.e. removal of bile juice from the liver gets hampered and obstructed bile leads to cirrhosis. The digestion of the food could not be carried out properly.
  2. There can be several other reasons for liver transplantation such as the cancer in the liver or benign tumors that can be present in the liver. When a patient suffers from liver cirrhosis, the chances of acquiring the primary cancer increase by multiple times. The likelihood increases furthermore in those patients who have liver disorders along with hepatitis B. Mostly, after liver transplant surgery, patients are able to live their life normally, but if the cancer starts spreading to other body parts from the liver, then liver transplantation is not the solution.
1874 people found this helpful

3 Surefire Ways To Prevent Ovarian Cancer!

MBBS, DNB (Surgical Oncology), MS - General Surgery
Oncologist, Delhi
3 Surefire Ways To Prevent Ovarian Cancer!

If it runs in your family, you are at risk to get it too. Yes, we are talking about cancer and the debilitating effect that cancer has, on not only the victim but also his/her immediate relatives. However, the idea that this malady is passed on to progeny unquestioningly and runs from generation to generation like a curse is but a myth.

Ovarian Cancer is one of the cancers that affect a woman’s ovaries whereby abnormal cell growth takes place in one of these places: on the tissue within the ovary, on the surface of the ovary, in egg-forming germ cells within the ovary. Studies show that 85% of the patients who had developed Ovarian Cancer had no family record of the disease. Thus it can be attested that one is not compelled to follow the footsteps of the forefathers. Bifurcation is possible and prevention can be accomplished if these guidelines can be followed.

  1. Exercise well and eat better: This is a fool-proof tip that works behind the cure of almost all severe ailments, whether it is about prevention or post-treatment care. In this case, exercise and healthy eating habits reduce the risk of developing Ovarian Cancer. Fatty fish, orange juice, milk, nuts, beans, eggs, fortified cereals, carrots, sweet potato, broccoli, leafy vegetables, flax, whole grains are some of the food products that prevent cancer. For better results, you can seek advice from a physician. Intake of food rich in Vitamin D is another measure. Regular exercise and maintaining a sound BMI are keys to staying healthy and cancer-free.
  2. Birth Control Pills: According to research conducted by the American Cancer Research Institute women who have consumed birth control pills are less likely to develop ovarian cancer so much so that the risk reduces by 30% to 50%. However, one who wishes to opt for this as a preventive measure must consult a physician beforehand.
  3. Surgery: Post-menopausal women can undergo surgeries that remove ovaries & tubes alongwith uterus. These surgeries reduce the risk of ovarian cancer by 90% in post-menstruating women and by 60% in pre-menstruating women. However, a person opting for such surgeries as preventive measures of ovarian cancer owing to a genetic disorder must consult a specialist before undergoing surgery.

These methods are not fool-proof and do not warrant the elimination of one’s possibility of developing cancer. But like they say it’s better to be safe than sorry. Therefore, maintain a healthy lifestyle and who knows, maybe you will succeed in becoming one of those who eliminate that possibility!

2940 people found this helpful

Small Intestinal Cancer - Possible Risk Factors You Should Know!

MBBS, MD - General Medicine, DM - Gastroenterology
Gastroenterologist, Delhi
Small Intestinal Cancer - Possible Risk Factors You Should Know!

The small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract. It is also called a small bowel. It is about 6 m (20 feet) long. Its upper end is connected to the stomach and lower end is connected to the large intestine. The main function of the small intestine involves the breakdown of the food particles and absorption of nutrients, fats, vitamins, and other substances from it. It is divided into three parts such as duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.

Small intestinal cancer is a very rare disease where the cells in the tissue of the small intestine rapidly grow out of control and form a tumor, and these tumor cells may obstruct the small intestine. It can occur from any part of the small intestine. Males are more likely to develop the disease than females. It is common in the people who are above 60 years of age.

Etiology

Possible risk factors for small intestinal cancer include following conditions:

  1. Excessive smoking or drinking alcohol
  2. Crohn's disease - It is a condition in which the immune system attacks own GI tract. This disease mostly affects the lower part of the small intestine.
  3. Celiac disease - Celiac disease causes gluten (a protein that is found in wheat and other types of grain) intolerance because of which the body makes antibodies which can attack the lining of the intestines. These people have an increased risk of a particular kind of lymphoma of the intestine. They may also have an increased risk of small intestine adenocarcinoma.
  4. Radiation exposure
  5. Hereditary gastrointestinal cancer syndromes: It involves cancer syndromes, such as familial adenomatous polyposis, hereditary nonpolyposis, colorectal cancer, and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.

The most common cancerous (malignant) tumors of the small bowel are as follows:

  1. Adenocarcinoma – It is related to the glandular (secretory) cells.
  2. Lymphoma – It is related to the lymphatic glands.
  3. Sarcoma – It is related to the connective tissues, such as muscle, blood vessels, etc.
  4. Carcinoid tumor

All these tumors can invade the bowel wall, spread into adjoining lymph nodes, and even move to distant organs (metastasize).

Signs and symptoms of small intestinal cancer include:

Following tests are conducted for the diagnosis of intestinal cancer:

Small intestinal cancer can be treated in following ways:

  1. Surgery is the main treatment for cancer of the small bowel.
  2. Radiotherapy or chemotherapy may be used after surgery or used in combination.
2627 people found this helpful

Bladder Cancer - Risk Factors Associated With it!

Urologist
Urologist, Gurgaon
Bladder Cancer - Risk Factors Associated With it!

There are many types of cancer that may affect the human body. Bladder cancer is one such cancer that is caused when there is an abnormal growth and accumulation of the cells in the bladder. This kind of growth may cause mutations which can then manifest into tumours that may or may not be malignant.

Let us find out more about the causes and risk factors of bladder cancer.

  1. Transitional cell carcinoma: In this kind of bladder cancer, the transitional cells that line the inner region of the uterus and urethra will expand when the bladder is full. Further, these cells will end up contracting when the bladder is empty. This will lead to numerous complications which can cause the formation of tumours as an end result.
  2. Squamous cell carcinoma: The squamous cells are those that are usually found in the bladder as a response to any kind of infection or even irritation in the area. These cells become cancerous over a certain period of time. This is also one of the most common types of bladder cancer in the US, as per various medical reports.
  3. Adenocarcinoma: This kind of cancer usually starts in the cells that make mucus and form glands for the production of the same, in the bladder. This is a rather rare form of bladder cancer.
  4. Risk factors: There are a number of risk factors that may affect the manifestation of the abnormal cell growth which can lead to any one of the above types of bladder cancer. Let us learn more about these risk factors.
  5. Smoking: Smoking does not merely cause lung cancer, but it is also capable of causing chemicals from tobacco to accumulate in your urine and lead to several complications, including the increase of abnormal cell growth in the bladder. These chemicals may also cause widespread damage to the lining of your bladder.
  6. Diabetes medication: One of the side effects of taking certain types of diabetes medication may be seen in the bladder and its cells. Pioglitazone is one such medicine which can cause these kinds of complications.
  7. Chronic bladder inflammation: Repeated bladder infections may cause an unhealthy amount of persistent inflammation, which can lead to the growth of cells in an abnormal manner. This can lead to damage of the bladder’s inner lining. In such a case, bladder cancer becomes a risk for the patient.
  8. Family history: A family history of the condition also leaves the person susceptible to this disease. Colorectal cancer instances or Lynch syndrome cases in the family can increase the risk of contracting bladder cancer. This is due to the fact that the faulty gene can affect the various organs of the urinary area.
2 people found this helpful

Breast Cancer Survivor Stories - Get Inspired!

MBBS, MD-Radio Therapy
Oncologist, Ghaziabad
Breast Cancer Survivor Stories - Get Inspired!

Though breast cancer has become very common, the good news is that more women than ever are living a healthy life to tell their survival stories. They have not just survived, but are thriving. Let us take you through a couple of survivor stories which not just gives strength and hope, but also the immense courage to stand up and fight it. The names are, however, changed to prevent identity.

Help yourself and others too: For most women, getting diagnosed with blood cancer can mean the end of life. While for the medical person, it is just another individual, for the individual, there is an entire world to think of, her world. What will happen to her family, her job, her life in total. Each person is different, and so the approach has to be different. It should not be a routine combo of surgery, chemo, and radiation. While some hospitals do it, giving a personalized touch helps. That is what happened Susan, who had a complete set of people including dietitian and psychiatrist to help her. The change that she saw with this approach led her to give a helping hand to others. She presently helps people fight and overcome breast cancer and has an extremely fulfilling life.

Shrink the tumor, not your life: For a person with two kids, Tina was aghast when she was diagnosed with breast cancer. She was just 31, and her second daughter was just turning 1, she was extremely distraught. But, her family stood with her through those testing times when she would not have time to run with her daughter or walk along with her mother. With immense support from her family, she is now free of cancer and is a Zumba instructor and now spends quality time with her daughter.

An experiment that worked: At 46 years of age, Maya was diagnosed with stage 3 breast cancer. She found a lump in her breast, which turned out to be breast cancer. The doctor said she would need it removed, and she also opted for surgery. What worked for her, though, is the fact that she was advised to try tamoxifen, which was not so strongly recommended during the initial times. She went ahead and tried, and even after 30 years down the line, is still free of cancer.

Two lives saved: At 23, Sonia was diagnosed not just with stage 4 breast cancer, but also with pregnancy. Re-testing yielded negative results. So she went ahead with chemo and radiation, but the abdominal fullness continued, and when tested again, the tests confirmed her pregnancy. She carried it through, and delivered 4 weeks prematurely but is very healthy and cancer-free now. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3802 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

Hello sir, My father have prostate cancer. He done his surgery April 2017 n his psa level is 1.145 n November 2017 he received radiation therapy. Sep 2018 his passion level is 3.5 n within 2 months his psa rises from 3.5 to 24. What is the reason? And is it possible too much variation in psa?

DNB (Surgical Oncology), MS - General Surgery, MBBS
Oncologist, Vadodara
No it's not possible for that much variation. It's definitely due to local/regional recurrence or due to distant metastasis. You should consult your Oncologist.

I have been smoking and drinking for last 35 years. Who are the doctors who can check me up? What are the tests for oral cancer and lung cancer? Where these test can be done? I need to find if there is any problem in initial stage only. Thank you.

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MS - ENT
ENT Specialist, Trivandrum
First all All those who smoke need not get cancer and all those who have cancer need not be a smoker. It's just the people who has oral or lung cancer are mostly smokers. Hence don't worry about it. If you have any problems like Persisting oral ulcer or oral bleed, Breathing difficulties, Any swellings etc then you should consult a ENT specialist. You can get a flexible naso laryngoscopy done for visualizing you airway. You can also get an MRI done for further evaluation. A Doctor can suggest you whether you need to do these test or not.
1 person found this helpful

Suffering from Prostate cancer ,grade 3, Gleason score 4+3=7, per neural invasion. Bone Scan done, report awaited. Preliminary finding positive Doctor advised orchiectomy. For hormone suppression Please confirm if this line of treatment is correct and suggest your views. Also for metastatic if chemotraphy or radio therapy is advisable Age of the patient is 77 years.

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MS - General Surgery, Genito Urinary Surgery
Urologist, Ludhiana
If Bohemia scan is positive get bilateral orchidectomy done. If bone scan is negative and disease is confined to prostate with psa less than 20 then get robotic radical prostatectomy.
2 people found this helpful

Table of Content

What is Cancer?

Treatment :

More about Cancer :

What Experts Say :

Play video
Colon Cancer
Colon cancer happens when tumorous growths develop in the large intestine. There are often no symptoms in the earliest stages, but symptoms may develop as the cancer advances. Treatment will depend on the type and stage of cancer, and the age, health status, and other characteristics of the patient.
Play video
Cervical Cancer
Cervical cancer usually develops over many years, often with no symptoms. This is very common amongst people who are sexually active. It can be prevented, however, through screening and early detection.
Play video
Gastrointestinal Cancer
Gastrointestinal cancer refers to malignant conditions of the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) and accessory organs of digestion, including the esophagus, stomach, biliary system, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus.The treatment depends on the location of the tumor, as well as the type of cancer cell and whether it has invaded other tissues or spread elsewhere.
Play video
Breast Cancer
Symptoms of breast cancer include a lump in the breast, bloody discharge from the nipple and changes in the shape or texture of the nipple or breast.
Play video
Breast Cancer
Breast cancer is a cancer that develops from breast tissue. The signs of the disease may include a lump in the breast, change in shape of the breast, fluid coming from the nipple, dimpling of the skin and a few more. In case you trace any of the symptoms in your body, you should immediately visit a doctor and start with the treatment.
Having issues? Consult a doctor for medical advice