Cancer today is not as rare as it once was. Today, cancer affects the young and old alike. One of the reasons for this is the pollution in particular air and water pollution that we are exposed to on daily basis.
The air we breathe in today is a mixture of smoke, particulate matter and noxious gases that causes great harm to our bodies. Amongst these, particulate matter that is smaller than 2.5 millionths of a metre is the worst.
These particle matters are emitted into the air from car exhausts, industrial exhausts, coal fires, wood stoves etc. While the body’s natural defences help keep larger particle matter out of the system by sneezing or coughing it out, smaller particle matter enters the body easily. These then get trapped in the lungs and enter the bloodstream. Particle matter has in particular been linked to increasing number of lung cancer cases. Apart from lung cancer, coal tar particle matter has been linked to bladder cancer, soot to oesophageal cancer and benzene and other pesticides to leukaemia.
Radon is another source of air pollution that is emitted from the ground. In some cases, radon can also be emitted through the water. As this gas decays, it releases tiny particles that when inhaled bombard the lung cells with radiation that can cause radiation. Smoking can worsen this effect and increase a person’s risk of suffering from lung cancer. Both first-hand and second-hand smoking have also been linked to breast cancer. Apart from trying to reduce emissions to lower air pollution, it is also important to clean filets of air conditions, etc. regularly to lower indoor air pollution. Preventing the smoking of tobacco in public spaces can also help improve air quality.
All pollutants emitted by us eventually find their way into the water we drink. Even if you are not drinking contaminated water, merely, showering or swimming in contaminated water can make your body more vulnerable to the carcinogens in it. Common water pollutants include arsenic, hazardous waste, animal waste, radon, chemicals and asbestos. Drinking water with concentrated amounts of arsenic has been linked to cancer of the lungs, liver, kidney and bladder while the chlorine used to treat drinking water increases the risk of bladder and rectal cancer.
To reduce the risks of cancer caused by polluted water, it is essential to reduce disinfectant by products by keeping water treatment facilities updated and promote green chemistry and alternative assessments to reduce pollution as a whole.
The bladder is a hollow storage organ that collects urine from the kidneys and stores it until it can be passed out of the body through the urethra during the process of micturition or urination. It has a thin inner lining of cells called urothelial cells and a thick muscular wall, which exerts pressure to push the urine out of the body.
Causes of Bladder Tumors
In most cases, the bladder tumour develops on the inner layer due to a combination of some of the following factors.
1. Hereditary: A strong family history of cancer predisposes a person to cancer.
2. Gender: Men are 3 times more prone for bladder cancer than women.
3. Ethnicity: White people are more prone for bladder cancer black people.
4. Smoking: Smokers develop bladder cancer 2-6 times more frequently than non-smokers. Cigarettes contain toxic, carcinogenic substances which reach the kidney and are stored in the bladder, leading to their damage.
5. Occupational hazards: Some workplaces have a higher likelihood of causing bladder cancers, especially dye and rubber industries. The effects can be damaging, and the person may develop cancers years after the exposure has happened.
6. Recurrent bladder infections: In some people, this can also lead to bladder cancer in the long run.
Types of Bladder Tumor
Depending on the extent of the cancerous spread, it can be of two types:
1. Non-muscle-invasive bladder tumours: The tumor spread is limited to the inner part of the bladder (urothelial cells)
2. Muscle-invasive bladder tumour: The tumour has spread to the thick muscular outer layer. This is more advanced and prognosis is poor compared to the noninvasive type.
The most common and diagnostic symptom of bladder cancer is the presence of blood in the urine, known as hematuria. This will be intermittent and happens whenever the tumour bleeding happens. Other symptoms include pain in the lower abdomen and frequent urination.
From the most noninvasive to the most invasive diagnostic test, these include:
1. Urine microscopy to detect cancer cells in the urine
2. Cystoscopy A tube inserted into the urethra to look into the inner wall of the bladder is highly diagnostic
3. Ultrasound, CT Scan, and biopsy can also be further used to identify severity of the tumour.
Once the tumour is diagnosed, treatment would depend on the severity of the tumour. For both invasive and noninvasive tumours, definitive therapy is surgery, known as transurethral resection of the bladder tumour (TURBT). The cancerous bladder tissue is removed through a cystoscope as done for diagnosis. The bladder is then flushed with chemotherapy agent to kill any residual cancer cells in the bladder. This is then followed by BCG vaccine, which is again done 1 to 4 weeks for several months to avoid recurrence. In some cases, radiotherapy may also be included.
Homoeopathic remedies for Breast lump.
Most lumps are not cancer, A breast lump is a growth of tissue that develops within your breast. Different types of breast lumps can vary in the way they look and feel. You may perceive a lump as a mass, growth, swelling, thickness or fullness.
You might notice:
Sometimes, a breast lump is a sign of breast cancer. That's why you should seek prompt medical evaluation. Fortunately, however, most breast lumps result from
Noncancerous (benign) conditions.
Breast lumps can be caused by:
Well selected homoeopathic remedies are effective for breast lump and cure the condition without further complications
Bryonia alba 1m - Bryonia alba is indicated when breast lump with stitching pain is present. The breast is hard and painful. Pain in breast at menstrual period. The breast pain aggravates during movement.
Calcarea carb 30- An excellent remedy for breast lump. Breasts are hot and swollen. Chronic cystic mastitis. Blunt duct adenosis; best remedy for fibroadenoma. Lump in breast is hard, nodular and tender to touch in the beginning. Then the pains are reduced and the lump turns to be hard due to calcification. Calcarea acts best when the tumours are calcified. These breasts are swollen and tender before menses. Deficient lactation. The breasts are distended in lymphatic women. Patient complains of profuse sweating around the genitalia with dirty smell. Inflammatory condition of the breast. With breast condition patient has the mental symptoms due to sufferings. Patient is anxious, tired and weak, both mentally and physically.
Calcarea flour 30 - Calcareaflour. Is another top remedy for lump in breast. Lump in the breast which is hard, movable with clear margins which are sharp in nature, or their edges are sharply defined. Most commonly they are solitary, very rarely multiple. Occurs in young patients usually unmarried. Nodules are in upper right quadrants. The patient is sad and depressed due to financial condition. Confused due to melancholic condition of mind. Patient is chilly, and she is very sensitive to cold air, cold wind and cold atmosphere in general. Genitals are sore. Urine is copious and offensive. Pain at the tip of the urethra while urinating and after the act. Pain in back extending to sacrum.
Conium maculatum 30 - Conium maculatum is one of the top remedies for breast lump. Here the mammary glands are hard and sore. A typical carcinoma of the breast, that is, scirrhous adenocarcinoma, which begins in the ducts and ends in the parenchyma. As the stage advances the cooper's ligament shortens and thus it produces the notch. Sometimes the condition is associated with the inflammation of the breast tissue. The region is hard and nodular, tender to touch. Burning and stinging pains in the breast. The skin over the tumour is adherent. Occasionally there is discharge of pus from the nipple. The lesion is hard, almost cartilaginous. The edges are distinct, serrated and irregular; associated with productive fibrosis.
Baryta carb 30 - Baryta carb is very effective for breast lump. Inflammation, induration and enlargement are the fundamental pathogeneses of this drug. The mammary gland is enlarged and there is a lump, which is hard. There is very sensitive to touch. The glands which are enlarged are tender with infiltration. The women of late twenties are affected. These patients present with hard but not serrated mass with firm rubbery consistency. Their edges are sharply defined. Most commonly the tumours solitary. Or occasionally are multiple. They are differentiated from cancer by smooth rather than irregular lobulations. A bloody discharge from nipple is indication of this drug. All the glands of the body are very sensitive to cold and they are worse by taking cold. The skin over the gland becomes ulcerated. It is seen that this remedy works better in paget's disease of nipple which is supposed to be primary carcinoma of the mammary gland.
Bellis perennis 30 - Bellis perennis is prescribed when the lump is caused by a trauma that causes injury to deeper tissues of the breast. The main indication is sore, bruised feeling in breast. Breasts engorged.
Chimaphilia umbellata 30 - Chimaphilia is indicated for painful tumor of mammae in women of large breasts. There is sharp pain through breast.
Hydrastis canadensis 30 - Hydrastis is prescribed to those patients who have the tendency to indurated glands. Swelling of the mammary glands. Fat necrosis and glandular cell myoblastoma are common in this remedy. Fat necrosis tumour is probably post-traumatic. Patient complains of pain and tenderness. The lesion is fixed to the breast tissue, which sometimes causes dimpling of the overlying skin. Engorged nipples, cracks and discharges of watery fluid or there is serosanguinous discharge. The patient is weak and emaciated, fainting due to improper assimilation or defective assimilation. All-gone sensation or empty feeling in the stomach, not relieved by eating. Chronic catarrhal condition of the membrane of the stomach. Patient is thirstless. Obstinate constipation, colicky and crampy pain in the abdomen. Liver is enlarged and tender.
Iodum 30 - This remedy predominantly acts on the enlargement of the mammary glands which may be either neo-plastic or malignant. The mucous membranes of the glands and the breast tissue are inflamed. The breast tissues are hypertrophied, enlarged, hard and nodular. Emaciation of the patient due to malabsorption. The tumours are well differentiated. They have a discrete capsule. Small lesions present leaf-like intracanalicular protrusions and large lesions have cystic space. Inflammation of the lesions, ulceration occasionally, excoriating and acrid discharge from the nipple or from the lesion. Oedematous swelling of the affected breast.
Lapis albus 30 - The main action of this remedy is on the glands of mammary region. These glands have the tendency to turn malignant. Remarkable results are observed in scrofulous condition of the glands. Fibroid tumours, intense burning pains in the parts. The tumours have pliability and a kind of softness rather than hardness. The margins are clear. The glands are elasticity, exactly the reverse of calc. Fluorica.
Phytolacca dec. 30 - Phytolacca is another remedy effective for lump in breast. Mammae hard an very sensitive. Tumors of the breast with enlargement of axillary glands. When child nurses pain goes from the nipple all over the body. Irritable breast before and during menses.
Plumbum iodide 30 - Plumbum iodide is another effective remedy for breast lump. There are indurations of breast, especially when a tendency to become inflamed, appears sore and painful. Indurations of great hardness and associated with a very dry skin.
Scrophularia nodosa q - Scrophularia has specific affinity for the breast. It is very useful in the dissipation of breast tumours.
Thyroidinum 1m - An intercurrent remedy
Breast cancer is cancer that forms in the cells of the breasts.
After skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women in the united states. Breast cancer can occur in both men and women, but it's far more common in women.
Substantial support for breast cancer awareness and research funding has helped create advances in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Breast cancer survival rates have increased, and the number of deaths associated with this disease is steadily declining, largely due to factors such as earlier detection, a new personalized approach to treatment and a better understanding of the disease.
Signs and symptoms of breast cancer may include:
Inherited breast cancer
A breast cancer risk factor is anything that makes it more likely you'll get breast cancer. But having one or even several breast cancer risk factors doesn't necessarily mean you'll develop breast cancer. Many women who develop breast cancer have no known risk factors other than simply being women.
Factors that are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer include:
Inherited genes that increase cancer risk. Certain gene mutations that increase the risk of breast cancer can be passed from parents to children. The most well-known gene mutations are referred to as brca1 and brca2. These genes can greatly increase your risk of breast cancer and other cancers, but they don't make cancer inevitable.
Radiation exposure. If you received radiation treatments to your chest as a child or young adult, your risk of breast cancer is increased.
Having never been pregnant
Prostate Cancer is a form of cancer that affects men. The prostate is basically a small gland that sits in the male pelvic cavity and is responsible for producing seminal fluid or semen, from its position under the bladder, surrounding the urethra. The testosterone hormone controls this gland. Prostate cancer refers to the growth of a malignant mass of cells which can also be called a tumour.
More about this cancer:
Risk Factors: The various risk factors involved in this kind of cancer are many. Advanced age, a family history of the same disease, obesity as well as genetic changes can lead to the development of this kind of tumour.
Types: There are basically two types of prostate cancer, including fast growing or aggressive, and slow growing or non-aggressive. Yet, it is also important to remember that not every abnormal growth in this gland can be termed as a tumour, or is a sign of prostate cancer. A malignant growth signifies prostate cancer. This tumour can grow at a fast pace for aggressive prostate cancer, while it can grow and spread slowly for the non-aggressive type.
Symptoms: It is possible to not have any kind of obvious symptoms when suffering from this kind of cancer. The symptoms usually begin to show up when the cancer has reached a more advanced stage. These include urinary problems, most significantly. The patient may go through pain and difficulty when it comes to urinating. This pain may also occur during ejaculation. The patient may also find blood discharge in the semen upon ejaculation and suffer from sexual dysfunction as well. Pain in the chest, pelvic area and back are also common symptoms of prostate cancer, which may gradually turn into numbness in the said areas as well.
Diagnosis: The diagnosis of the issue will be done by a specialist from the urology department. After a physical examination where a diagnosis of the symptoms and other check-ups will happen, the doctor may conduct lab tests to check the blood, urine and other samples. Further, imaging tests like MRI and CT scans will also be conducted. A digital rectal exam and prostate biopsy will also help in effective diagnosis.
Treatment: The treatment of this kind of cancer usually depends on the severity of the symptoms and the spread of the tumour. Besides active observation, the doctor may also recommend radiation, chemotherapy and surgery based on the age and health condition of the patient. If you happen to find even subtle symptoms which could point towards this disease, do not hesitate to get in touch with the doctor.
One of the things that Shannen Doherty and Rita Wilson, the wife of Tom Hanks, have in common, apart from their fame is that both were affected by breast cancer. No matter how normal a person may seem, breast cancer can strike anyone. In fact, it usually strikes one in eight women. So, it makes good sense to know what it can appear as!
Breast cancer makes up a rather big amount of the general cancer cases as 15% of the cancer cases which are reported on a yearly basis are usually breast cancer cases. That being said, there are quite a few things which can be done in order to reduce a person’s risk to breast cancer.
Get Fit: The first thing which should be done is that a reasonable level of fitness should be maintained. Many studies have found that if a person is significantly heavier than her recommended weight, she is at a far great risk to develop all sorts of cancer and breast cancer, in particular, than a person who is able to keep her weight in check. The difference in cancer risk rates is about 40%. This is because a greater amount of fat leads to more estrogen being produced, which increases the risk of breast cancer.
Quit Smoking: While most people associate smoking as something which increases the risk of cancer to the lungs and are not aware that it increases the risk of breast cancer, too. So, the best solution is to kick the habit!
Get Off the Pill: Once a woman crosses past her mid-thirties, she should try to avoid relying on birth control pills to reduce the risk of pregnancy. This is because these pills have an effect which increases the risk of breast cancer, which heightens as a woman gets older. As long as the woman cuts out the use of the pill, the risk quickly gets cut, as well.
Get Regular Check Ups: While screening for breast cancer by making use of mammograms does not cut the risk of it, the screening helps detect breast cancer early if it does exist. As a result, a woman has a much better chance of fighting breast cancer. So, a woman who is past the age of forty should try to have a mammogram on an annual basis with the frequency of the same increasing as she gets older. However, it is to be kept in mind that going for a mammogram too often is also not a good idea as the tests themselves pose risks of DNA changes.
Women all around the world are susceptible to breast cancer. While there isn’t a 100% chance of avoiding it, taking care of yourself and leading a fit and active lifestyle can significantly cut down your risk of contracting this condition. Remember, your health is in your hands, so the earlier you start, the better!
Cervical cancer refers to the type of cancer that spreads through abnormal cells, which may be found in the lining of the cervix. This affects the lower part or the womb of the body. This may also be medically known as the uterine cervix. This kind of cancer is considered one of the most preventable ones. There are various kinds of screening tests that can help in early detection so that the symptoms become clear and the problem can be treated before the cancer spreads or malignancy sets in.
Read on to know more about the various screening measures that can help in treating and preventing the same.
When should you get a screening test done?
Once you are above 21 years of age or have had a baby, it is imperative to get a screening test done at least annually. It is also important to get this done once a year if you are going through menopause. The doctors may ask you not to go through a test, if your previous three tests have been clear.
Colorectal surgery is the broad term for surgical procedures performed on the colon, the rectum and the anus. There are various different surgical procedures which fall under colorectal surgery and these are used to treat a vast array of disorders, such as:
Prostate cancer is a cancerous tumor in a man’s prostate gland, a small gland that is responsible for producing the seminal fluid which transports and nourishes the sperm. It is a very common type of cancer among men. A few cases of prostate cancer tend to develop slowly while others may progress very fast.
In the initial stages, prostate cancer may not show any symptom. However, in the latter stages, there may be symptoms such as:
Pain in the bones.
Urination can get troublesome.
Presence of blood in the semen.
Pain and discomfort in the pelvic region.
The exact causes of prostate cancer are not known. It starts to develop when certain cells in the prostate gland start to mutate. These mutations cause these cells to multiply at a very fast rate and thus, soon form tumors. Although the causes are not known, certain factors tend to aggravate this condition; them being:
Color: According to certain medical reports, a darker skin may mean increased chances of suffering from prostate cancer.
Age: The risk of developing prostate cancer tends to increase with age.
Genetics and Family History: Faulty genes could be another cause of this condition. Also, having some member in the family who is diagnosed with this type of cancer only increases the risks of you suffering from them.
Obesity: If you are obese, then you are more likely to develop prostate cancer.
The treatments for prostate cancer include:
Radiation Therapy: In this procedure, high energy rays are used to target and destroy cancer cells. Usually X-rays or protons are used to treat the cancer cells.
Surgery: If the other treatment methods do not produce desired results, then a surgery is carried out for the removal of the prostate gland. In addition to the prostate gland, some adjoining lymph nodes and tissues are also removed.
Homeopathic approach for the treatment of cancer-
Homoeopathy is among the commonly used alternative approaches in cancer. It is being widely used as palliative and curative in patients suffering from cancer. Though studies on the use of homoeopathy in cancer after surgery, radio therapy and chemotherapy have been reported, clinical trials on effects of homoeopathy in cancer are rare. Some studies on the effect of dosage of homoeopathic medicines and their mechanism of action in cancer have also been published. A few case reports published here and there also find a mention in different databases. This review aims to describe literature available on the approach of homoeopathy in cancer by searching various databases like Elsevier, google scholar, pub med, Scopus, springer and Wiley online library, electronically. It was found that beneficial effect of homoeopathic medicines are reported on some cancer cell lines via apoptosis and immune modulation. Homoeopathic treatment given as add-on also improves the quality of life, survival time and presenting complaints. However, more evidence needs to be generated to demonstrate anti tumor or antimetastatic potential in controlled clinical trials.
Homeopathy is among the most famous alternative system of medicine. In Europe, homeopathy is used in cancer care extensively from 6% in cancer diagnosis and almost 24% in breast cancer females. Homeopathy is most commonly used complementary and alternative medicine (cam) in pediatric oncology in Germany and patient satisfaction with homeopathic treatment is very high. An overview of systematic reviews of cam for cancer pain concluded that homeopathy might have a reduction in adult cancer pain. Homeopathy is a complete system of medicine which is established in practice and theory.
The basis of homeopathy is that:
According to the 2003 report of the world health organization, cancer is the 2nd largest cause of death in developed countries.
Conventional medicines are usually used to treat cancer. Side effects of non-surgical orthodox treatments limit their use despite they can treat and prevent cancer. In such cases, cancer patients turn towards alternative therapies including homoeopathy. In the UK, almost 30% patients in homoeopathic hospitals were referred directly by oncologists. However, a research program should need to setup for finding the efficacy of homoeopathic medicine against cancer. Some homeopathic medicines have been proven clinically and experimentally; however, there is a wide range of medicine on which data has not found. Ernst and later Frenkel and unlu described some data of homeopathy for cancer but not covered the whole topic. The present narrative review of homeopathic approach in cancer care was carried out to find researches reported in this field. The review comprises literature pertaining to the approach of homeopathy in cancer using worldwide accepted scientific databases through electronic search (Elsevier, google scholar, PubMed, Scopus, Springer, and Wiley online library).
Approach of homeopathy in different types of carcinomas
In an animal model study, the inhibitory effects of potentised preparations of hydrastis, lycopodium, ruta and thuja against sarcomas that were induced by 3-methylcholanthrene in mice as well as hepatocellular carcinoma induced by n'-nitrosodiethylamine in rats was studied. Biochemical, morphological and histopathological evaluation revealed that the reduction of elevated marker enzymes and tumour size. Among the four used medicines, ruta 200c was most effective in reducing tumour size and incidence of sarcomas. A homoeopathic medicine, chelidonium in ultra-low doses showed anti-tumour and anti-genotoxic potential against hepatocarcinoma that was induced by azo-dye mice. Condurango ethanolic extract and tincture showed antiproliferative action in lung cancer through apoptosis. In another animal study. Anti tumor and anti metastatic effects of various homeopathic medicines were studied in mice against transplanted tumors. Hydrastis and ruta significantly increased the lifetime of dalton's lymphoma ascites and ehrlich ascites carcinoma induced tumour -bearing mice. Moreover, these medicines showed marked reduction of solid tumour volume on the 31st day after tumour inoculation. Most of the hydrastis 1m-treated animals were completely tumour free. Hydrastis 1m, lycopodium 1m and thuja 1m exhibited antimetastatic effect in b16f-10 melanoma-bearing animals. These medicines showed inhibition of lung tumour nodule formation and decreased levels of γ-gt in serum. Undifferentiated lung cancer, a woman with leiomyosarcoma and a child with an astrocytoma, were treated with a new homoeopathic approach of carcinogen-induced apoptosis. A homoeopathic medicine, sulphur, showed anti-apoptotic effect in non-small cell lung carcinoma cells. Sabal serrulata mother tincture showed the reduction of prostate tumour xenograft size significantly in anin vivo trial. Moreover, sabal serrulata decreased pc-3 cell proliferation and du-145 cell proliferation. Permixon, a lipidosterolic extract of sabal serrulata, is being used to treat symptoms of benign prostate hyperplasia (bph). It treats bph by activating the permeability of transition pore of mitochondria, nf-kb apoptotic pathway and inhibition of 5-α reductase inflammatory-related gene. Insufficient research hinders to prove that sabal serrulata is the right medicine for prostate cancer. Thuja along with conium and sabal serrulata in combination can assure more effective treatment against bph. In another research study, 220 patients of metastatic pancreatic cancer were administered by viscum album sub-cutaneous 3 times weekly. Those who took this therapy needed no more anti-cancerous therapy. In those patients, brain metastasis was not observed. The patient receiving viscum album as anticancerous remedy showed increase in the survival rate by 4.8 month and patients who took no treatment the survival rate was 2.7 month. P-dimethylaminoazobenzene-induced hepatocarcinogenesis mice model which induce cytological changes such as chromosomal aberration mitotic activity and also chemical changes and reduced aspartate transaminase, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione carcinogenic changes was used to determine the anticarcinogenicity of natrum sulph. These changes were reduced by natrum sulphuricum. Natrum sulph 200 showed effective potential to reduce cancer as compared to natrum sulph 30. Lycopodium clavatum 5c and 15c administration have any anticancer effects on human cervical cancer cell line hela cells by causing cell death through apoptosis in cancer cells. It induced dna fragmentation, the increases in the expressions of protein, mrna of caspase 3 and bax and the decreases in the expressions of bcl2 and apaf and in the release of cytochrome-c.
Anecdotal evidence showed the effectiveness of following medicines in different types of carcinomas.
A male with undifferentiated lung cancer, a woman with leiomyosarcoma and a child with an astrocytoma were treated with a new homeopathic approach of carcinogen-induced apoptosis. Ultra-low doses of carcinogens were administered for 2–3 months and showed complete remission of cancer and increased life extension.
Palliative approach of homeopathy in cancer-
Homoeopathy can be used as a supportive or palliative treatment. As a palliative and supportive approach, homeopathy is used to develop general health and to relieve the pain and suffering resulting from other orthodox treatment. A case of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the rectum, terminal squamous cell carcinoma of the cheek and carcinoma of the larynx received received homeopathic medicines prescribed on constitutional grounds relieved the patient symptoms markedly. A male patient aged 64 years complains about bloody stool aggravated at night after eating and drinking. Distended abdomen with flatulence aggravated after eating and drinking and ameliorated after passing stool. Oedema of lower extremities since 2 years aggravated by sitting and standing. He has also history of inguinal hernia. Physical generals of patient were sweets desire, spicy food aversion and hurriedness. X-ray image showed 10cm neoplasm at anal margin. Moderate differentiated adenocarcinoma with metastasis to liver and lymph nodes was diagnosed. Lycopodium 30c three times daily was prescribed for 4 days, Ruta-mt 5 drops for rectal bleeding. Rectal bleeding was better by flatulence, oedema and tenderness of iliac fossa. Stoppage of stool from 4 to 6 days was seen during follow-up. Lycopodium 30c was continued with un-medicated lactose three times a days about 1 month later, the patient come with these symptoms recurrent rectal bleeding, oedema and flatulence. Lycopodium 30c 2 times a day for 2 weeks was prescribed. The patient states remain stable for about 1½ month. Lycopodium was continued after every 3rd day. About 7 months later came with complaints of loose stool pain in the abdomen, left inguinal fossa with tenderness. Lycopodium in lm was prescribed. The case was followed up with thuja and lycopodium in 1 m potency. The patient came 5 months later with these symptoms rectal bleeding, no appetite, oedema and thirst for warm water. Arsenic 30c was prescribed. Various research studies have been conducted to find the efficacy of homoeopathic medicines as a palliative therapy or to overcome adverse effects produced by other conventional treatments of cancer.
Homeopathic approach after radiotherapy-
A randomised controlled trial was conducted by Kulkarni to find the efficacy of homoeopathy in decreasing the severity of radiotherapy-related adverse effects. Patients were grouped randomly divided into three groups. One group was given causticum 30, a second group was given cobaltum 30 and the third group received placebo. These medicines were selected on the basis of their use in decreasing symptoms of radiation reaction. Tumour reduction was insignificantly decreased in medicine groups. In another study, effectiveness of homoeopathic medicines was investigated for radiotherapy-induced skin reactions in breast cancer patients. Patients were randomly divided in to two different groups. One group received homoeopathic treatment that consisted of x-ray 15 ch and belladonna 7ch while the other group received placebo. A topical medication containing fluocortolone was also administered to both groups. Cutaneous and subcutaneous oedema, erythema, hyperpigmentation and skin heat were primary outcome measures. Homoeopathic treatment showed a transient benefit regarding decreasing hyperpigmentation and skin heat, however, results became insignificant at the end of follow-up. A study with 254 participants proved topical calendula as powerful prophylactic as compared to trolamine in radiotherapy-induced dermatitis.
Homeopathic approach after chemotherapy-
A preliminary, non-randomised controlled clinical trial tested the efficacy of traumeel s on stomatitis occurred due to chemotherapy. Traumeel s is a homeopathic combination prepared by combining calendula 2x, millefolium 3x, Belladonna 2x, Arnica 2x, hepar sulfuris 6 × 0.1, symphytum 6x, mercurius 6 × 0.05 g, echiria purpura 2 × 0.025 ml, aconitum 2 × 0.06, chamomilla 3x, bellis perennis 2 × 0.05 ml and echinacea angustifolia 2x. A total of 20 patients including children and teenagers received traumeel s and were compared with seven controls (received no treatment for stomatitis) having similar stages of cancer and same age groups. The efficacy was determined by the pain level that was measured according to the requirement of opiates. Requirement of opiates and symptoms duration was significantly different in the intervention and control group favouring the treatment group.
Later, a larger randomized controlled trial (RCT) was carried out by same author to estimate the efficacy of traumeel s in cancer patients for stomatitis occurred due to chemotherapy after autologous or allogeneic stem-cell transplantation. During the first 7 days of trial, subjective symptom scores of patients were recorded. Intervention group showed significant reduction of duration and/or severity of stomatitis compared to control group.
Homeopathic approach for menopausal symptoms after breast cancer-
A study was conducted to find the effectiveness of homoeopathic medicines on menopausal symptoms (mainly hot flushes) in breast cancer survivors. The patients included in the trial had a history of breast cancer in situ, stage i–iii, had completed breast cancer treatment either surgical, radiation or chemotherapy and had a history of at least 3 hot flushes/day for a month before study. All the patients were randomised in to three different groups: a verum single remedy and a verum combination medicine, a verum single remedy and a placebo combination and two placebo combinations. All patients were received individualised single homoeopathic medicines that can be one of these: calcarea carbonica, kali carbonicum, lachesis, sepia or sulphur. The combination medicine was'hylands menopause, consisted of: lachesis, sanguinaria canadensis and amyl nitrate. The efficacy was assessed regarding decreasing number and severity of hot flushes. Both homoeopathy groups showed significant improvement in quality of life score compared to placebo. A subgroup of patients also received tamoxifen. There was significant increase in hot flushes in subgroup that had not received tamoxifen but received combination homoeopathic medicine compared to single remedy and placebo.
A pilot study was carried out to find the effectiveness of homeopathy in breast cancer survivors having estrogen withdrawal clinical features. In this double-blind RCT, patients having more than three hot flushes per day, no coexisting treatment for hot flushes, not having metastatic disease, no severe contemporary disease; and not experiencing chemotherapy. All the patients were divided randomly into two groups to receive either homeopathic medicines or placebo. Individualized homeopathic medicines were prescribed to homeopathic treatment group and the medicines mostly include were arnica, belladonna, carcinocin, natrum muriaticum, sepia, and sulphur. The efficacy was assessed by activity score (primary outcome measures) and hot flushes frequency and severity (secondary outcome measures). No significant difference was observed between intervention and placebo group regarding both primary and secondary outcome measures at follow-up.
Different studies reporting homeopathic approach in cancer-
In cross-sectional cohort study, two patient cohorts were compared; the characteristics of patients who were treated in a homoeopathic cancer care clinic and in a conventional oncology care clinic were compared. Their characteristics were different particularly the course of treatment after cancer diagnosis. Patients visiting homoeopathic cancer care clinic were mostly treated with either, chemotherapy, radiotherapy or the persons who refused to treat with conventional medicine. Moreover, mostly patients are young and employed so they have to earn their income during their cancer treatment. Hence, it is not justifiable to relate general plans when investigating conventional treatment with homoeopathy. Retrospective data regarding survival time of cancer patients who take homoeopathic treatment complementary to conventional anticancer treatment showed extended survival time. The patients who had serious prognosis of disease receiving at least three homoeopathic consultations along with conventional cancer treatment were included in study and data regarding survival time and demographic characteristics of patients were collected in the university of vienna.
However, a letter to editor said regarding the above study that the results biased and misleading because it is compulsory to apply a statistical model capable to handle the immortality time in control and active groups. Kaplan–meier plots from literature should be used to establish control data.
Homeopathic patient data were reanalysed by authors and comparison was done with control patient data from the same place. A probable immortal time bias has also been analysed in this re-analysis. Results of re-analysis showed statistically significant advantage of using homeopathy compared to control regarding survival time.
A prospective observational study showed better life quality and decrease of fatigue in cancer patients who were treated with homeopathic treatment compared to conventionally treated cancer patients. For comparison, both differently treated cohorts had comparable prognosis and same tumor entity. Adjunct classical homeopathic treatment improved subjective well-being and the global health status of cancer patients significantly in a pragmatic randomized controlled trial.
A 5-year-old boy, suffering from bilateral strabismus, was computed tomography-scanned, which diagnosed a brain stem tumor. He was treated with combined conventional chemotherapy temozolamide, arsenic album 6x, nitrated guanidine. Size of tumor was reduced from 6 cm × 4 cm to 2 cm × 2 cm.
Effects of dosage of homoeopathic medicines on cancer-
In anin vitro study, effects of homoeopathic medicines in low doses and high potencies in normal and cancerous human lymphocytes were studied. The methodology of study involved pretreatment of cells with either high potencies (pool 15–20c) or low concentrations (nm–μm) of cadmium. After 120 h of medication, cells were exposed to cadmium (8–80 μm).
Mts/pes assay was used to assess cell viability. For lower potencies, nacl 0.9% and for high potencies water 15–20c was used as control. Both lower and higher potencies of cadmium pretreatment significantly increased cell viability in primary lymphocytes after toxic doses of cadmium compared to cells that have pretreatment of control. Low doses pretreatment effect was also significant in cancerous lymphocytes; however, high potencies showed no effect in cancerous lymphocytes.
Mechanism of homeopathic medicines in cancer-
An animal model study (mice) showed immunomodulatory effects of homeopathic medicines in high dilutions having antineoplastic effects thus proposing their mechanism of action through immune modulation. Sabal serrulata, conium maculatum and thuja occidentalis showed no direct cellular anticancer effects in an experimental animal study but slow the progression of cancer and decrease cancer occurrence and mortality significantly in induced prostate cancer in rats. A study showed lack of immunomodulatory and apoptotic effects of conium maculatum, sabal serrulata, thuja occidentalis in prostate cancer tissues of rats. An in vitro study was conducted to find the effect of homeopathic medicines on gene expression that controls apoptosis on breast and prostate cancer cells. Asterias, conium maculatum, carcinosin, sabal serrulata, thuja occidentalis and phytolacca were tested; however, no medicine showed significant inhibitory or growth-promoting activity against breast or prostate cancer cells. Another study also showed no significant change by the use of homeopathic medicines in mRNA levels of the apoptotic genes, cytokines interleukin (il)–1α, il-1 β, caspase-1, 2 and 3, tumor necrosis factor and interferon-γ in lung metastasis and prostate tumor. A nosode carcinocin and a homeopathic treatment regimen comprising sabal serrulata, conium maculatum and thuja occidentalis were administered to observe effects on apoptotic genes. However, in anin vitro model, hydrastis canadensis 30c and condurango 30c showing gene modulating effects compared to placebo (succussed alcohol 30c). A recognized epigenetic model was treated with above-mentioned homeopathic potencies. Results of the study indicated that these homeopathic dilutions acted through modulation of gene expression. Chelidonium in ultra-low doses showed anti-genotoxic potential against hepatocarcinoma that was induced by azo-dye in mice. Anin vitro study showed apoptogenic effect of homeopathic remedy, sulphur, in non-small cell lung carcinoma cells. Psorinum 6x was administered to various cell lines in vitro. It triggered apoptosis by inhibiting cell proliferation in a549 (human lung cancer cell line). Psorinum causes apoptosis through mitochondria-mediated caspase-3-dependent pathway. Calf thymus-dna was the target of psorinum 6x as revealed on cd spectroscopy. Rutin and quercetin are clastogenic and genotoxic. Ruta 6x with calcium phosphate induces signals of apoptosis in transplanted dla cell and might be useful in glial cell lymphoma or intracranial cancer. In homeopathy, conium maculatum is being used traditionally for the treatment of cervix carcinoma and breast cancer. Its anticancer effect was studiedin vitro in hela cell. Conium caused accumulation of mucous membrane potential and reactive oxygen species and reduced colony formation and cell proliferation inhibiting sub-stage g of cell cycle. Phosphatidylserine cytochrome c and caspase 3 activation and inhibition of akt and nfkb lead toward apoptosis and cell proliferation.
Homeopathy can be a useful approach to cancer. Various studies reported the effects of homeopathic medicines in the management of cancer pain and other symptoms related to cancer. A few studies also tried to elaborate the mechanism of homeopathic medicines in cancer using cellular and animal models. Some studies reported that apoptotic effects and modulation of gene expression of homeopathic medicines in cancer while other studies negate this mechanism. In clinical arena, research studies of homeopathy in cancer are lacking and only described extended survival time in cancer patient or as an adjuvant with conventional treatment or removed side effects of conventional treatment. More evidence needs to be generated to demonstrate antitumor or antimetastatic potential in controlled clinical trial.