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Cancer Tips

Psychological Impacts Of Prostate Cancer!

Dr. Rajeev Sarpal 86% (68 ratings)
DNB - Urology/Genito - Urinary Surgery
Urologist, Dehradun
Psychological Impacts Of Prostate Cancer!

Prostate cancer is a very painful disease to go through. However, what some people do not realize is that prostate cancer is equally disturbing from a psychological view point, both for the patient and the family. Here are some psychological impacts of prostate cancer:

1. Shock, fear or anger
These are immediate reactions and you could feel any or all of these feelings when the disease is first reported to you. These feelings may continue for some time but if the patient is unable to come out of the state of the anger for a long time, then he may need psychological help.

2. Denial
Sometimes you may feel well and deny the fact that you have prostate cancer or not realize you really do. Accept it. This is the first step to curing it.

3. Frustration and disappointment
Try to avoid these types of feelings and if you do, then go to a shrink as well, as these are signs of depression.

4. Stress
This is also a natural feeling and will haunt you till this disease is gone. However, there are many ways to help reduce it.

5. Worrying
This is usually related to the side-effects in the early stages of prostate cancer. Trust your doctor. Finding a support group or talking to people in similar conditions may help.

6. Mood swings
This is one of the side effects of the hormone therapy used to treat prostate cancer. It may cause you to get angry and anxious and then tearful and depressed.

7. Anxiety
Some men are overly worried about their prostate-specific antigen or PSA test results. The anxiety may continue even after the PSA test is over.

8. Sense of loss
Hormone therapy causes many physical changes in your body, including weight gain, changes in your sex life as well as reduced physical strength. Few things will be the same after prostate cancer in all honesty. Talking to the people around you can help more than you know.

While prostate cancer can cause all sorts of negative emotions, it is crucial that you use your family to stay strong and do not slip into depression. There are also a few patients who accept this diagnosis well, if properly counselled. In the majority of cases, prostate cancer grows slowly. In those cases, new drugs are available which help the patient lead a near normal life.

1 person found this helpful

Skin Cancer - What Puts You At Risk?

MD - Dermatology , Venereology & Leprosy
Dermatologist, Jaipur
Skin Cancer - What Puts You At Risk?

Skin cancer is a condition with abnormal and cancerous skin growths. This often develops due to the over exposure of skin to the rays of the sun. The three main types of skin cancer include basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma. Skin cancer affects those areas of skin which remains sun-exposed including ears, neck, chest, scalp, lips, face, hands, arm and legs. It can also develop on those areas of skin that are not exposed to sunlight like beneath toenails or fingernails, on palms and on genital area.

Risk factors associated with skin cancer

Here are some of the factors which increase your risks of getting skin cancer:

1. Fair complexion: Low levels of the pigment melanin in skin causes fair complexion. Fair- skinned individuals who have a history of hazel or blue eyes, repeated sunburns and people who have red or blond hair are highly susceptible to developing this form of cancer. Less pigment in skin makes an individual more vulnerable to skin damage from harmful UV radiation.

2. Excessive sun exposure: Exposure to the sun may lead to the development of skin cancer, if you don't protect your skin by sunscreen and clothing. Tanning beds and lamps may also increase the risk of developing this type of skin cancer.

3. High-altitude places: The exposure to sunlight is more intense in areas of high altitude and near the equator. Living at higher elevation also makes you more vulnerable to radiation because the sunlight is strongest there.

4. Moles: People with abnormal moles are at a higher risk of developing skin cancer. These moles are irregular in shape and are larger than normal moles.

5. Precancerous skin lesions: Your risk of developing skin cancer increases if you have skin lesion. These are scaly and rough patches that range from brown to dark pink in color. The most commonly affected areas are head, hands and face of fair-skinned people.

6. Weak immune system: Weak immune system caused by HIV or AIDS and immunosuppressant drugs that you take after an organ transplant may increase your risk of developing skin cancer.

13 people found this helpful

Colorectal Cancer - Understanding The Early Symptoms Of It!

DNB - Surgical Oncology
Oncologist, Delhi
Colorectal Cancer - Understanding The Early Symptoms Of It!

The lower part of the digestive system is known as the large intestine (colon), and colon cancer is the name given to the type of cancer that affects it. The rectalcancer is the cancer that affects the last few inches of the colon. Collectively they are known as colorectal cancers. In most of the cases, small, noncancerous (benign) clumps of cells called adenomatous polyps are formed in the intestine. They are not harmful on their own, but over a period, they enlarge to become colon cancers. Let us have a look at the early symptoms.

Polyps and the symptoms
Polyps are very small and do not display symptoms on their own. Doctors advise regular screening test to find polyps and destroy them before they can aggravate to colon cancer. In most of the cases, the symptoms start to appear only in the advanced levels. These include:

  1. Changes in the bowel movement: There can be severe diarrhea or constipation. There can also be changes in the consistency of the stool.
  2. Blood clots in the stool: There can be a persistent bleeding when passing out the stools. In some cases, there can be a general discomfort and pain while passing the stool.
  3. Severe abdominal discomforts: Abdominal cramps and gas can be a regular occurrence. They would not respond to any digestive medications.
  4. Weakness or fatigueThe body tends to get weak and fatigued easily. Even performing essential activities can be a daunting task.
  5. Unexplained weight lossEven after a proper diet, the body tends to lose weight. Weight loss can be categorized as one of the advanced stages of the disease.

The symptoms vary drastically depending on the size of cancer and the location in the large intestine. It is advisable to consult an oncologist if the symptoms mentioned above persist and it is also mandatory to have regularized screening after the age of 50.

Risk Factors
There are also certain important factors that have to be looked that may increase the risk of colon cancer. These include:

  1. Old age: It usually affects people more than the age of 50. Chances of it occurring in young people are very minimal.
  2. Inflammation of the intestine: Chronic inflammatory diseases of the intestine such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease can increase the risk of colon cancer.
  3. Genetics: Chances are that the genes could be passed on through the generation and family; thereby enhancing the likelihood of colorectal cancer.
  4. Diet: Fatty foods and foods that are low in fiber content can be one of the causes of colon cancer. People who are overweight and obese also increase their risk drastically.
  5. Smoking and alcohol: Smoking and drinking in excess levels increase the chances of getting colon cancer.
8 people found this helpful

Causes Of Cervical Cancer And Its Treatment!

DNB - Obstetrics & Gynecology, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, Diploma In Gynaecology & Obstetrics
Gynaecologist, Kolkata
Causes Of Cervical Cancer And Its Treatment!

Cervical cancer is a form of cancer which occurs in the cervix or the lower part of the uterus in women, which opens up into the vagina. Its different from the other cancers that occur in other parts of the uterus and has a high rate of being cured if detected early.

Causes of Cervical Cancer: Cervical cancer is usually caused when abnormal cells present in the cervix, get out of control. Usually, major cases of cervical cancer are caused by a virus known as the human papillomavirus or HPV. This virus gets transmitted from one person to another by sexual means or sexual contact. Abnormal changes in the cervix cells lead to cervical cancer. Usually, cell changes occur in the transformation zone in the cervix as the cells tend to change constantly, thereby leading to cancer.

Symptoms:

  1. Abnormal vaginal bleeding between menstrual phases, after menopause or after having sex.
  2. Pain is experienced during sex.
  3. Abnormal vaginal discharge is produced.
  4. Abnormal changes in the menstrual cycle.
  5. Anemia due to abnormal bleeding from the vagina.
  6. Recurring pain in the pelvis, back or leg.
  7. Several urinary problems due to the blockage of the uterus.
  8. Urine or stool leakage into the vagina.
  9. Loss of weight.

How it can be diagnosed?
A routine screening test should be undertaken to observe any abnormal cell changes in the cervix and also for the screening for cervical cancer. Taking regular Pap smear test is recommended to detect abnormal cell changes so that cervical cancer can be prevented before hand. Other diagnostic tests include, Colposcopy and cervical biopsy to determine the presence of abnormal cells in the cervix, Endocervical biopsy and Cone biopsy.

Treatment options available: 
Cervical cancer can be treated when detected at an early stage. The type of treatment depends on the stage and type of cervical cancer. The most common treatment methods are as follows:

  1. Surgery can be undertaken for removal of the cancer. Several types of surgeries exist and the ideal one depends on the location and severity of the cervical cancer.
  2. Radiation therapy involves the use of high dosage X-rays and implants within the vaginal cavity. This kills the cancer cells and is used in some specific stages of cervical cancer. This therapy is often used alongside surgery.
  3. Chemo-radiation is a combination of radiation therapy and chemotherapy. This procedure can be used at various stages of cervical cancer.
  4. Chemotherapy involves using medicines for killing cancer cells. It is used in advanced stages of cervical cancer.

Bladder Tumour - What Can Cause It?

MBBS, MS - General Surgery, DNB - Urology/Genito - Urinary Surgery
Urologist, Patna
Bladder Tumour - What Can Cause It?

The bladder is a hollow storage organ that collects urine from the kidneys and stores it until it can be passed out of the body through the urethra during the process of micturition or urination. It has a thin inner lining of cells called urothelial cells and a thick muscular wall, which exerts pressure to push the urine out of the body.

Causes of Bladder Tumors

In most cases, the bladder tumour develops on the inner layer due to a combination of some of the following factors.

1. Hereditary: A strong family history of cancer predisposes a person to cancer.
2. Gender: Men are 3 times more prone for bladder cancer than women.
3. Ethnicity: White people are more prone for bladder cancer black people.
4. Smoking: Smokers develop bladder cancer 2-6 times more frequently than non-smokers. Cigarettes contain toxic, carcinogenic substances which reach the kidney and are stored in the bladder, leading to their damage.
5. Occupational hazards: Some workplaces have a higher likelihood of causing bladder cancers, especially dye and rubber industries. The effects can be damaging, and the person may develop cancers years after the exposure has happened.
6. Recurrent bladder infections: In some people, this can also lead to bladder cancer in the long run.

Types of Bladder Tumor

Depending on the extent of the cancerous spread, it can be of two types:

1. Non-muscle-invasive bladder tumours: The tumor spread is limited to the inner part of the bladder (urothelial cells)
2. Muscle-invasive bladder tumour: The tumour has spread to the thick muscular outer layer. This is more advanced and prognosis is poor compared to the noninvasive type.

The most common and diagnostic symptom of bladder cancer is the presence of blood in the urine, known as hematuria. This will be intermittent and happens whenever the tumour bleeding happens. Other symptoms include pain in the lower abdomen and frequent urination.

Diagnosis

From the most noninvasive to the most invasive diagnostic test, these include:

1. Urine microscopy to detect cancer cells in the urine
2. Cystoscopy A tube inserted into the urethra to look into the inner wall of the bladder is highly diagnostic
3. Ultrasound, CT Scan, and biopsy can also be further used to identify severity of the tumour.

Treatment

Once the tumour is diagnosed, treatment would depend on the severity of the tumour. For both invasive and noninvasive tumours, definitive therapy is surgery, known as transurethral resection of the bladder tumour (TURBT). The cancerous bladder tissue is removed through a cystoscope as done for diagnosis. The bladder is then flushed with chemotherapy agent to kill any residual cancer cells in the bladder. This is then followed by BCG vaccine, which is again done 1 to 4 weeks for several months to avoid recurrence. In some cases, radiotherapy may also be included.

Cancer Causing Foods You Must Avoid!

MD - Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
General Physician, Ranchi
Cancer Causing Foods You Must Avoid!

The food you eat is critical for your overall well-being as cancers that often affect the human body are of gastrointestinal origin. Stick to organic and chemical free foods to live a healthier life, since they reduce the risk of cancer substantially. Regular consumption of the food items mentioned below increase your risk of developing cancer, as well as many other conditions and should be avoided at all costs.

  1. Microwave Popcorn: Most microwave popcorn bags are lined with c8, also known as Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA), which increases the risk of certain cancers such as kidney, testicular, bladder, pancreas and liver cancer notably. Microwave popcorn also contains an artificial or synthetic butter flavoring called diacetyl, which is extremely toxic and obstructs breathing.
  2. Canned Tomatoes: While tomatoes are considered to be cancer fighting foods, their canned counterparts are extremely unhealthy and may cause cancer. This is mainly due to the lining of the cans they are put in, which contains a chemical known as Bisphenol A or BPA that has been proven to elevate the risk of infertility as well as prostate and breast cancer. Due to the high acidic level. BPA leaks from the lining of the cans and penetrates into the fruit. Tomatoes should be cooked fresh or stored in glass jars.
  3. Processed/Grilled Red Meat: Processed meats such as sausages, prosciutto, bacon, pimento loaf, bologna, hot dog, etc., contain various chemicals and preservatives such as sodium nitrate. This is added to make the meat look fresh and appealing, but are, in fact, carcinogenic in nature. Moreover, you should also avoid grilling meat, since it releases a carcinogen known as heterocyclic aromatic amines, which is another dangerous food item that smoked meat contains as it picks up tar from the smoking process. 
  4. Farmed Salmon: It is imperative to avoid farmed salmon because they are fed unnatural diets that are contaminated with carcinogens, antibiotics, chemicals, pesticides and so on. They also harbor sea lice, 30 times greater in amount than wild salmon. High levels of PCBs, cancer causing dioxins, and mercury have been found in them. It is advisable to opt for wild sockeye salmon instead of farmed salmon.

Facial Scrubs - How To Know If It Is Done Excessively?

Evolve Esthetique Clinics 88% (30 ratings)
Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon, Lucknow
Facial Scrubs - How To Know If It Is Done Excessively?

The market is replete with various facial scrubs that are favoured by men and women of all ages. These are especially helpful if you are facing dust and pollution every day, or are exposed to the sun for prolonged hours. Using facial scrubs is a form of exfoliation that helps in rubbing the granules into the skin so as to remove dead cells and give the skin a more supple tone. Yet, too much use of facial scrubs can also lead to a variety of skin troubles. So, how can you tell if you are overdoing our facial scrubbing routine?

-  Redness and Peeling of the Skin: When you over exfoliate or use facial scrubs too often, you may find redness on your skin due to the constant abrasive action. Also, you may experience too much of skin peeling and flaking due to the same reason, instead of a mere clean up of the dead skin cells. In such cases, you will need to halt your process of constant buffing.

-  Products with Green Tea Extracts: Using tea tree oil or green extracts can help in better exfoliation with a gentle action on your skin. This can soothe the skin and even prevent skin cancer, as per a variety of scientific and medical studies. Licorice root extract as well as cucumber based scrubs can also help in making the skin softer. 

-  Inflammation: Inflammation is another sign that you may be overdoing your facial scrubbing routine. You can use a scrub with bisabobol which usually comes from Chamomile. This can help in reducing inflammation due to constant exfoliation and facial scrubbing. 

-  Scrubbing Gear: Using a washcloth to clear away those dead skin cells or a scrubber or brush can turn out to be too harsh for your soft facial skin to handle. You must restrict the use of these tools to about once a week so that your skin does not get too dehydrated or wear a scrubbed look which does not have a glow.

-  Testing a New Product: Test a new scrub over a small patch of your skin before using it to watch out for tell tale signs like rashes or other eruptions. Also, when you are using a seed or dry fruits based scrub, you must limit the use and not rub it around the delicate areas of the eyes and mouth so that the skin does not get rubbed too much, which can leave it loose.

Using facial scrubs should be limited and used only when you feel like there is too much build up of dirt and grime.
 

Ewing's Sarcoma - What Are The Signs Of It?

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MD - Oncology
Oncologist, Mumbai
Ewing's Sarcoma - What Are The Signs Of It?

Collectively grouped under the Ewing sarcoma family of tumors, Ewing's sarcoma is the second most common primary bone cancer occurring predominantly in children and in adolescents. Very rarely is it experienced in adults above the age of 30.

Typically forming in the bones of the chest, pelvis, head, back or trunk and in the long bones of the arms and legs, Ewing's sarcoma is believed to originate in certain kinds of primitive cells. When it begins to affect similar kind of cells found outside the bone, it is usually called an extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma.

Causes

1. Similar to all types of Ewing tumors, Ewing's sarcoma is generally caused by an alteration in a certain cell compelling a gene named EWS found on chromosome no. 22 to move over to a DNA section on any one of the surrounding chromosomes resulting in the activation of the EWS gene.

2. While it is not a hereditary condition, it usually occurs after childbirth, but no substantial evidence has been found as to why it happens so.

Symptoms

Symptoms of Ewing's sarcoma may include:

1. Swelling and pain especially in the arms, legs, back, chest or pelvis
2. Swelling accompanied by joint immobility
3. A bone breaks having no apparent cause
4. Swelling which may or may not be accompanied by a warm, tingling sensation
5. Fever resulting from unknown causes
6. Lumps or bumps which do not subside over time
7. Abnormal weight loss
8. High levels of fatigue
9. Tumors which have spread over to the lungs may cause shortness of breath
10.Tumors spread over to the spine may cause weakness or even paralysis.

Because the symptoms of Ewing's sarcoma can hardly be distinguished from symptoms caused by other infections or injuries, an early diagnosis is absolutely necessary for a successive treatment.

Ovarian Cancer - Knowing The Early Signs & Symptoms Of It!

MBBS, MS - Oncology, DNB ( General Surgery )
Oncologist, Bangalore
Ovarian Cancer - Knowing The Early Signs & Symptoms Of It!

Ovarian cancer tends to occur in the cells of an ovary. The ovaries are the two glands which are responsible for female reproduction. They produce ova or eggs and also create the female hormones oestrogen and progesterone. Ovarian cancer begins when abnormal cells in the ovary start to multiply rapidly and grow out of control to form a tumour.

Generally, it was believed that ovarian cancer does not deliver any specific side effects until the tumour has spread to a later stage and early indications of ovarian cancer were not recognizable.

Nonetheless, in some of the cases, ovarian cancer may bring about early indications. The most widely recognized symptoms of ovarian cancer are as follows:

  1. Constant bloating
  2. Ache in your gut or pelvis
  3. Inconvenience eating
  4. Feeling full instantly
  5. Urinary issues, for example, an urgent need to urinate or urinating more frequently than expected

In case that you have at least one of these side effects and it happens every day for more than two or three weeks, try to consult a doctor or a specialist.

These symptoms are basic for a few women. They may not imply that you have ovarian cancer. It is very important for women to understand that these symptoms do not necessarily imply that they have ovarian cancer. The same number of other common and harmless conditions can bring about the same indications. Additionally, different reasons for these symptoms are significantly more common than ovarian cancer. These may include irritable bowel syndromeand urinary tract infections (UTIs). In any case, the early indications of ovarian cancer tend to follow a pattern, which is as follows:

  1. They begin abruptly.

  2. They do not feel the same as your typical stomach-related or menstrual issues.

  3. They happen almost consistently and do not leave.

Different signs and symptoms that affect a few women with ovarian cancer include the following:

  1. Digestion problem

  2. Fatigue

  3. Back pain.

  4. Pain during intercourse

  5. Constipation

  6. Menstrual cycle changes

However, these side effects are also common in a few women who do not have ovarian cancer. Most of the ovarian cancer cases are diagnosed at a later stage after the tumours have spread. Fortunately, around 20% of women are diagnosed early, when the infection might be generally treatable. There is no complete screening test for early ovarian cancer. General pelvic examinations now and then, followed by ultrasound examinations or blood tests for cancer-related markers, have been routinely used for ovarian cancer screening. However, none of these tests are particularly effective when it comes to identifying ovarian cancer.

In case some of these symptoms start to manifest in your body, one should go for a general check-up. This is so because cancers are usually diagnosed at later stages where treatment is very difficult. Hence, the sooner one knows, the better it is.

How Can You Reduce the Risk of Cancer?

M.CH - Surgical Oncology, MBBS
Oncologist, Visakhapatnam
How Can You Reduce the Risk of Cancer?

We live in an age where every single individual, more or less, is exposed to the risk of cancer. It is probably an unfavorable lifestyle we lead that deprives us of good health. This might alarm many but considerable changes in lifestyle can help you realize cancer as a preventable disease. Cancer does not only make you undergo severe suffering but it also affects your friends and family. The pallor of misery spreads wider than you think.

  • Abstain from tobacco: Consuming raw tobacco or smoking tobacco can be equally detrimental to your health. Tobacco increases your chances of contracting the disease. As is known, passive smoking can also affect your health adversely. Tobacco can be the potential cause behind cancer of the mouth, throat, larynx, lungs, oral cavity and even the pancreas. It might harm your kidneys and cervix. It is upon you to quit tobacco at the earliest possible. One should also try and persuade friends and relatives to give up smoking.
  • Drink alcohol in moderation: Complete abstinence from alcohol might not be possible if you have already been ushered into your work- life. The society might require you to be an occasional drinker. It is important to drink in moderation. Crossing the limit can propel consequences as serious as cancer of the stomach, pancreas, liver and the heart.
  • A balanced and nutritious dietDeciding on a plant- based diet or a Mediterranean diet can aid your fight against the risk of cancer. A Mediterranean diet will involve green leafy vegetables, lots of fresh fruits, whole grains, mixed nuts, legumes and also the use of extra- virgin olive oil. Fish can be a safe bet but red meat should be avoided. One must also try to avoid processed meat as they tend to make you prone to the risk of cancer.
  • Immunization: Hepatitis B and HPV or Human papilloma virus vaccines are extremely necessary to protect you against the sexually transmitted types of cancer.
  • Sun protection: Caring for your skin doesn't arise from vanity. Skin cancer is one of the most prevalent kinds of cancer; the chances of this disease can be restricted by remaining in shade especially during midday, by wearing covered clothes and by using a good sunscreen lotion repeatedly while outside.
  • Exercise diligently: Did you think it was okay to have weaker muscles and bulging layers of fat? If yes, you probably have grown numb to the inadequacies you face in result. Unchecked fat can lead to obesity which further complicates health conditions. Metabolic activity differs from person to person. Regular exercising can help regulate metabolism according to the needs of your body. Physical exercise protects you against the risk of breast and colon cancer. Moderate or vigorous physical activity for 150 to 75 minutes a week respectively can reduce the risk of cancer.
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