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Cancer Health Feed

Vaginal Cancer - Causes And Symptoms Of It!

Dr. Bhavya Rathore 84% (10 ratings)
MBBS, Md - Obstetrics & Gynaecology, FMAS
Gynaecologist, Ghaziabad
Vaginal Cancer - Causes And Symptoms Of It!

Generally identified as a rare and uncommon phenomenon, vaginal cancer most often occurs in the cells present in the outer lining of the vagina, also called the birth canal. Although primary vaginal cancer is rare and unusual, there are various other types of vaginal cancer that originate elsewhere in the body, but have spread over to your vagina.

Depending upon the nature of origin, vaginal cancer can be divided into the following types:

  1. Vaginal adenocarcinoma, beginning in the glandular cells on the surface of your vagina
  2. Vaginal sarcoma, developing in the connective tissue cells and multiple cells lining the walls of your vagina
  3. Vaginal squamous cell carcinoma, originates in the squamous cells lining the surface of the bacteria
  4. Vaginal melanoma, developing in melanocytes, the pigment producing cells in your vagina

Symptoms: As vaginal cancer progresses from one stage to the next, you may experience any one of the following signs and symptoms:

  1. Diluted, watery vaginal discharge
  2. Painful urination
  3. Constipation
  4. Odd cases vaginal bleeding, for instance, after menopause or after intercourse
  5. Formation of lumps in your vagina
  6. Frequent and regular urination
  7. Pelvic pain

Causes: Normally, cancer develops when healthy cells undergo genetic mutations, subsequently leading to the uncontrollable growth of abnormal cells. Cancer cells are known to break off from pre-existing tumors and can easily spread everywhere, in what is referred to as metastasize.

Beyond the natural process of development, here are a few factors, which may further contribute to the growth of cancerous cells:

  1. Increasing age
  2. Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia
  3. Exposure  o miscarriage prevention drugs
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Piles (Hemorrhoids) - Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment!

Dr. Radhika A (Md) 85% (13 ratings)
MD - Acupuncture, Diploma In Accupuncture, Advanced Diploma In Accupuncture
Acupuncturist, Delhi
Piles (Hemorrhoids) - Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment!

What are Piles? 
Piles, originally known as hemorrhoids, are a medical condition characterized by the swelling of veins in the lower rectum and the anus.  The veins are twisted and swollen, restricting the conventional blood flow in the anus and rectum. Even though it is very difficult to actually ascertain the cause of piles, the occurrence of this condition can be due to multiple reasons.

The most common causes of piles range from straining the veins at the time of being pregnant to additional pressure being applied to the veins during a bowel movement.   This condition can occur internally or on the surface of the skin, depending on the cause and effect of the reason behind the occurrence of this condition. 

Piles is a very common condition and are said to affect 3 out of 4 adults multiple times during their life.  Symptoms of the disease are often spotted amongst patients before they even reach the age of 50.  The symptoms of piles may be minimal or very evident, depending on the severity of the situation.  In a basic situation, a patient usually feels a little discomfort. While in a more serious situation such as thrombosed hemorrhoid, there may be the formation of blood clots which can cause excruciating pain. There are various treatments for this disease. Piles is not a very dangerous medical condition can usually be treated by making changes in the lifestyle or by easy home remedies which cause relief to the patient.

What are  The Types of Piles?
The piles disease can be divided into 4 different classifications based on the location, symptoms, and side- effects caused by their occurrence.

Internal hemorrhoids
External hemorrhoids
Thrombosed External Haemorrhoids
Prolapsed Haemorrhoids

1) Internal hemorrhoids-
This condition is the least restrictive type of piles. The symptoms of this piles condition arise inside the rectum and are found on the border that divides the upper part of the anal canal from the lower of the rectum. Internal piles don’t cause too much discomfort to the patient as they are enclosed in an external lining called mucosa, which protects it from causing pain to the patient. This is because the mucosa is insensitive to temperature, touch, stretching or pain.

On the basis of the level of the protrusion, internal hemorrhoids or internal piles can be classified in 4 levels-

Grade I: It is possible to bleed during this stage as the hemorrhoids are noticeable but they don't poke into the anal canal.
Grade II: At this piles stage, the hemorrhoids protrude momentarily outside the anal canal during a bowel movement, but shift back inside after the movement.
Grade III: In this piles stage, any pressure or exertion causes the hemorrhoids to protrude outside the anal canal. Fingers need to be used to push the hemorrhoids back in the anal canal.
Grade IV: Hemorrhoids have fallen out of the anal canal remain outside the rectum in this stage. They cannot be pushed back in and thus are quite uncomfortable.

2) External hemorrhoids-
This type of hemorrhoids is also known as a perianal hematoma. The side effects of this piles condition are usually bluish in color and feel painful and lumpy and are noticeable under the skin around the outer part of the anus. This type of hemorrhoids is similar in nature to the above described prolapsed internal hemorrhoids. External hemorrhoids may lead to additional skin tags on the verge of the anus, which may feel very uncomfortable to the patient. This happens due to the fact that these hemorrhoids are covered by normal skin which causes discomfort.

The occurrence of these skin tags is caused by the clot of blood formed due to stretching of the overlying skin.

3) Thrombosed External Haemorrhoids-
Thrombosed external hemorrhoids occur due to the formation of a clot in various small veins which causes pain and discomfort to the patient. This type of hemorrhoids is characterized by the presence of a painful and hard lump in the anus. The main cause of this type of piles is the excessive stretching of the skin which covers hemorrhoid. This causes the splitting of the vein, making it inflamed and cutting off the blood supply in it.

4) Prolapsed Haemorrhoids-
This is a type of hemorrhoids which have fallen out of the anal canal. The most common symptoms of prolapsed hemorrhoids are bleeding in the stool, toilet or on the toilet paper.   Most patients of this condition experience a feeling of not being able to completely pass stools. Prolapsed hemorrhoids can be quite painful because of the presence of nerves in them which can easily sense pain. Pain can arise in prolapsed hemorrhoids because of the pain-sensing nerves within them. Other possible causes of pain are -

  • Swelling with hemorrhoid or abnormal accumulation of fluid in the hemorrhoid
  • Blood clot formation or thrombosis
  • Obstructed supply of blood in the hemorrhoid
  • Overstretching of hemorrhoid caused by external pressure

What are the symptoms of piles?
The warning signs and common symptoms of hemorrhoids are listed below:

  • Irritation or itching near the anal region
  • Pain and bleeding during bowel movements
  • Swelling in the anal region
  • Lump near the anus which is painful and uncomfortable
  • Painless bleeding

The various types of hemorrhoids or piles have specific symptoms depending on the location of their occurrence:

Internal hemorrhoids or Internal  piles
These hemorrhoids usually do not carry any specific symptoms which can be noticed by the patient. Excess straining of this type of hemorrhoids can lead to damage on the surface or minor bleeding. In case internal hemorrhoid passes through the anal canal, it becomes a prolapsed hemorrhoid which may be painful.

External hemorrhoids or External Piles
In case of application of pressure or external strain, these hemorrhoids can bleed or cause itching and discomfort.

Thrombosed hemorrhoids or Thrombosed Piles
This type of hemorrhoids is characterized by the formation of a blood clot in the anal region. This blood clot causes swelling, severe pain, inflammation or a hard lump near the anus.

 How are piles diagnosed?
Since there are multiple types of piles or hemorrhoids, they are all diagnosed differently.

Internal hemorrhoids can be diagnosed in the following ways-

  • Digital rectal exam- This exam is done by the method of inserting a gloved and lubricated finger in the patient’s anus in order to identify any abnormalities. In case of any additional growth or abnormal diagnosis, the additional examination is prescribed.
  • Sigmoidoscopy- This physical exam is done by inserting a really tiny fiber-optic camera in the rectum.  This allows the physician to check the surface for hemorrhoids.
  • Proctoscopy- The physician inserts a hollow tube with a light at the end of the rectum in order to clearly review the anal canal and a large part of the large intestine.
  • Anoscopy- This procedure entails the insertion of an anoscope in the anus in order to examine the anal region for hemorrhoids. An anoscope is generally made of stainless steel or plastic.
  • Colonoscopy- This is a procedure in which a colonoscope is inserted in the anus and slowly moved around the colon area. This apparatus has a light source and camera attached to it which enables the physician to check for hemorrhoids.

This procedure may be additionally prescribed if the physician suspects any of the following situations in people who might have-
Any other disease related to digestive system

Signs and symptoms of colorectal cancer-
Are over the age of 50, and have never undergone a rectal examination
External hemorrhoids or external piles can be identified by a physician by simply undertaking a physical exam and visual notice.

What are Causes of Piles?
Veins have a tendency to swell up or bulge on the application of increased pressure. 

The various causes for swelling up of the veins, causing hemorrhoids or piles are-

  • The excessive strain caused by pressure applied during a bowel movement
  • Sitting on the toilet bowl for too long
  • Constipation, Diarrhea or some other digestive system related problem
  • Pregnancy
  • Anal intercourse
  • Low- Fiber Diet
  • Obesity
  • People over the age of 50 are more susceptible to hemorrhoids becomes over time, the veins in the anus and rectum that support their functioning tend to get overstretched or weak.  

Prevention from Piles/Hemorrhoid:
The most appropriate way to avoid getting hemorrhoids is to ensure that the stool to be passed by the anus is soft so that it passes easily.

Other than this, to prevent and reduce the occurrence of the symptoms of piles or hemorrhoids, the following steps can be followed.

  • Eating high fiber food- Consuming more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains increases the fiber content in the body. This fiber ensures that the stool is soft and is easy to pass through the anus. This helps in avoiding a situation of application of additional pressure during a bowel movement.
  • Drinking plenty of fluids- It is essential for everyone to consume at least 6- 8 glasses of water and juices in order to maintain the proper procedure of the body functions. This also ensures that the stool remains soft.
  • Taking fiber supplements- The average recommended intake of fiber for males is 38 grams and for females is 25 grams. Most population is unable to fulfill the daily requirement of recommended fiber intake. This substantially affects the functioning of the digestive system as well as the consistency of the stool passed by a person. In order to maintain the proper functioning of the digestive system and produce soft stools.
  • Not applying pressure- Most people have the tendency to hold their breath and apply strain while passing stool. This often causes a buildup of pressure in the veins of the lower rectum. Go as soon as you feel the urge. If you wait to pass a bowel movement and the urge goes away, your stool could become dry and be harder to pass.
  • Following the urge- It is very important to go to the washroom to pass the stool as soon as the urge arises. In case the urge goes away, the stool becomes harder to pass.
  • Exercising- Being active is a quintessential requirement for a healthy body. Being active and exercising helps in avoiding constipation and to reduce pressure on veins.
  • Avoiding sitting in one place for a long time- sitting in one place for a long times puts added pressure on the anus, thus contributing to the occurrence of piles or hemorrhoids.

What are Home Remedies for Piles?
The mild swelling, inflammation, and pain caused hemorrhoids can be relieved or reduced by use of simple home remedies and change in food habits. 

A few of these home remedies for piles or Haemorrhoids are mentioned below-

  • Eating a high fiber diet
  • Using tropical treatment
  • Soaking regularly in warm water
  • Keeping the anal area clean
  • Avoiding the using of dry toilet paper
  • Applying cold water
  • Taking oral pain relievers

The symptoms of hemorrhoids generally subside within a week of following the above- stated remedies.

How does Doctor would do treatment for Piles?
In case of minor discomfort and pain, a physician generally prescribes an over- the- counter cream, ointment, pad or suppository. Ingredients present in these medicines namely witch hazel, lidocaine and hydrocortisone help in relieving pain and discomfort. It is not advised to use this over-the-counter, steroid containing, cream for more than 7 days in case symptoms of piles or hemorrhoid do not subside.
External hemorrhoid thrombectomy is a procedure undertaken by a physician in order to treat a painful blood clot formed in external hemorrhoid. This is a very simple procedure and includes only making an incision in the clot and draining it to provide instant relief to the patient.
In case of constant bleeding and major discomfort caused due to hemorrhoids, a physician may suggest one of many minimally invasive procedures available for treatment.
Rubber band ligation
Injection (sclerotherapy)
Coagulation (infrared, laser or bipolar)
 

What are Surgical Procedures for Piles:
In case all other procedures are unable to treat the disease, the doctor may recommend a surgical treatment. A few of the most commonly performed surgical treatments are mentioned below-

  • Hemorrhoid removal
  • Hemorrhoidectomy
  • Hemorrhoid stapling
     

What are Risk Factors Related to Piles?
Although hemorrhoids can affect anyone, there are a few things that make a person more vulnerable to contract this disease. 

A few of these situations are-

  • Alcoholism
  • Severe heart disease or liver disease
  • Obesity
  • Chronic constipation or diarrhea
  • Lack of physical activity
  • Anal intercourse
  • Diet low in fiber (high fiber foods include whole grain foods, fresh fruits, and vegetables)
  • Diet high in fat
  • Jobs that require sitting or standing for long periods
  • Loss of tone of the pelvic floor muscle due to childbirth, age, pregnancy or surgery
     

What are the complications due to piles?
Complications relating to hemorrhoids are very rare but may arise. The less commonly occurring but probable complications for patients with hemorrhoids are-

1. Strangulated hemorrhoid- This situation causes extreme pain to the patient suffering from piles or hemorrhoids. This arises when the blood supply to the hemorrhoid is cut off.
2. Anemia- As it has been inferred that various types of hemorrhoids have a tendency to cause extensive blood loss, it may lead to anemia if left unattended. Anemia is a condition in which the production of healthy red blood cells is not adequate.
 

What are Common Myths Related To Piles?
Myth #1:
 Elderly people are the only ones who can get hemorrhoids.
Reality- Haemorrhoids can affect people of any age. Although it is a stated fact that people between the age group of 45 to 60 are more susceptible to this disease, it can affect a person of any age.  

Myth #2: Eating spicy foods can cause hemorrhoids.
Reality- Hemorrhoids is caused due to excessive pressure on the veins near the anus and rectum, causing them to swell and even bleed at few instances. Eating spicy food does not have anything to do with the occurrence of this disease.

Myth #3: The composition of the food being consumed does not affect hemorrhoids.
Reality- Constipation is one of the main causes behind developing hemorrhoids. It is quintessential to include fiber and water/ other fluids in the diet in order to have a soft bowel moment. This enables a person to avoid being susceptible to constipation and thus steer clear of being affected by hemorrhoids. 

Myth #4: Surgery is the most common treatment for piles or hemorrhoids.
Reality- Symptoms of this disease usually subside by making a few changes in the lifestyle as well as by using home remedies. Depending on the severity of the situation, a physician often prescribes a few an over-the-counter medicines and ointments to relieve pain and help the symptoms subside.  It should be noted that surgery is the least common treatment for hemorrhoids.

Myth #5: Haemorrhoids causes cancer.
Reality- There is no evidence to associate colon cancer with hemorrhoids. Even though they have similar symptoms such as rectal bleeding, they can easily be differentiated by a physician on examination.  

Myth #6: Once a person gets hemorrhoids, it will be a recurring problem for them.  
Reality- People may develop hemorrhoids for a temporary duration due to a situation such as pregnancy, childbirth, constipation etc. Most available treatments of this condition are quite effective and are able to cure the problem fully. In case a person takes care of their diet and drinks a lot of fluid, they do not face this problem again.

Myth #7: Having hemorrhoids or piles is a reason for embarrassment.
Reality- By the time most people turn 50, they would have faced the problem of piles at least once. In both men and women, the occurrence is common irrespective of their age and it is nothing to be embarrassed about. 

Myth #8: Eating a lot of fiber eliminates the occurrence of piles completely.
Reality- Although inculcating fibrous food in the diet may help in preventing the development of hemorrhoids; it is not the only contributing factor to its occurrence. Long sitting, especially on the toilet, is also an influential factor in the occurrence of this condition. It is also advised to have at least eight glasses of water to ensure an easy bowel movement.

Myth #9: Haemorrhoids are difficult to treat.
Reality- There are multiple remedies available to treat both internal as well as external hemorrhoids or external piles.  

All modes of treatment ranging from surgery to lifestyle change are effective and painless. Hemorrhoids that cause mild swelling, inflammation, and pain can easily be relieved or reduced by use of simple home remedies such as eating a high fiber diet, drinking plenty of water, taking over the counter ointments and oral medication etc.

Myth #10: Haemorrhoids or piles can be caused by sitting on too hot or too cold surfaces.
Reality- The temperature of the surface you sit on does not affect cause piles. A habit of sitting in one place, especially on the toilet, makes a person more susceptible to having piles.

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Want to know the best radiation technology available in India. Whether TrueBeam radiation machine is good for oral cancer treatment?

Dr. Ameya Bihani 89% (52 ratings)
FHNS, MS ENT
Oncologist, Indore
Imrt and igrt are available at multiple centers. But its the site of disease according to which we can decide type of modality of radiation is best.
1 person found this helpful
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Check Your Environment To Avoid The Risk of Cancer

Dr. Monish De 87% (68 ratings)
MBBS, Post Graduate Diploma In Medicine, Fellowship In Medical Oncology
Oncologist, Kolkata
Check Your Environment To Avoid The Risk of Cancer

Cancer today is not as rare as it once was. Today, cancer affects the young and old alike. One of the reasons for this is the pollution in particular air and water pollution that we are exposed to on daily basis.
The air we breathe in today is a mixture of smoke, particulate matter and noxious gases that causes great harm to our bodies. Amongst these, particulate matter that is smaller than 2.5 millionths of a metre is the worst.

These particle matters are emitted into the air from car exhausts, industrial exhausts, coal fires, wood stoves etc. While the body’s natural defences help keep larger particle matter out of the system by sneezing or coughing it out, smaller particle matter enters the body easily. These then get trapped in the lungs and enter the bloodstream. Particle matter has in particular been linked to increasing number of lung cancer cases. Apart from lung cancer, coal tar particle matter has been linked to bladder cancer, soot to oesophageal cancer and benzene and other pesticides to leukaemia.

Radon is another source of air pollution that is emitted from the ground. In some cases, radon can also be emitted through the water. As this gas decays, it releases tiny particles that when inhaled bombard the lung cells with radiation that can cause radiation. Smoking can worsen this effect and increase a person’s risk of suffering from lung cancer. Both first-hand and second-hand smoking have also been linked to breast cancer. Apart from trying to reduce emissions to lower air pollution, it is also important to clean filets of air conditions, etc. regularly to lower indoor air pollution. Preventing the smoking of tobacco in public spaces can also help improve air quality.

All pollutants emitted by us eventually find their way into the water we drink. Even if you are not drinking contaminated water, merely, showering or swimming in contaminated water can make your body more vulnerable to the carcinogens in it. Common water pollutants include arsenic, hazardous waste, animal waste, radon, chemicals and asbestos. Drinking water with concentrated amounts of arsenic has been linked to cancer of the lungs, liver, kidney and bladder while the chlorine used to treat drinking water increases the risk of bladder and rectal cancer.

To reduce the risks of cancer caused by polluted water, it is essential to reduce disinfectant by products by keeping water treatment facilities updated and promote green chemistry and alternative assessments to reduce pollution as a whole.

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Bladder Tumor - Types And Treatment

Dr. Irfan Shaikh 81% (10 ratings)
MCh Urology & Transplant Surgeon, MS - General Surgery, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine & Bachelor of Surgery
Urologist, Pune
Bladder Tumor - Types And Treatment

The bladder is a hollow storage organ that collects urine from the kidneys and stores it until it can be passed out of the body through the urethra during the process of micturition or urination. It has a thin inner lining of cells called urothelial cells and a thick muscular wall, which exerts pressure to push the urine out of the body.

Causes of Bladder Tumors

In most cases, the bladder tumour develops on the inner layer due to a combination of some of the following factors.

1. Hereditary: A strong family history of cancer predisposes a person to cancer.
2. Gender: Men are 3 times more prone for bladder cancer than women.
3. Ethnicity: White people are more prone for bladder cancer black people.
4. Smoking: Smokers develop bladder cancer 2-6 times more frequently than non-smokers. Cigarettes contain toxic, carcinogenic substances which reach the kidney and are stored in the bladder, leading to their damage.
5. Occupational hazards: Some workplaces have a higher likelihood of causing bladder cancers, especially dye and rubber industries. The effects can be damaging, and the person may develop cancers years after the exposure has happened.
6. Recurrent bladder infections: In some people, this can also lead to bladder cancer in the long run.

Types of Bladder Tumor

Depending on the extent of the cancerous spread, it can be of two types:

1. Non-muscle-invasive bladder tumours: The tumor spread is limited to the inner part of the bladder (urothelial cells)

2. Muscle-invasive bladder tumour: The tumour has spread to the thick muscular outer layer. This is more advanced and prognosis is poor compared to the noninvasive type.

 

The most common and diagnostic symptom of bladder cancer is the presence of blood in the urine, known as hematuria. This will be intermittent and happens whenever the tumour bleeding happens. Other symptoms include pain in the lower abdomen and frequent urination.

Diagnosis

From the most noninvasive to the most invasive diagnostic test, these include:

1. Urine microscopy to detect cancer cells in the urine
2. Cystoscopy A tube inserted into the urethra to look into the inner wall of the bladder is highly diagnostic
3. Ultrasound, CT Scan, and biopsy can also be further used to identify severity of the tumour.

Treatment

Once the tumour is diagnosed, treatment would depend on the severity of the tumour. For both invasive and noninvasive tumours, definitive therapy is surgery, known as transurethral resection of the bladder tumour (TURBT). The cancerous bladder tissue is removed through a cystoscope as done for diagnosis. The bladder is then flushed with chemotherapy agent to kill any residual cancer cells in the bladder. This is then followed by BCG vaccine, which is again done 1 to 4 weeks for several months to avoid recurrence. In some cases, radiotherapy may also be included.

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Is Breast Lump Signal To Breast Cancer?

Dr. Swarup Kumar Ghosh 90% (82 ratings)
MD - Bio-Chemistry, MF Homeo (London), DHMS (Diploma in Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery), BHMS
Homeopath, Kolkata
Is Breast Lump Signal To Breast Cancer?

Homoeopathic remedies for  Breast lump. 

Most lumps are not cancer,  A breast lump is a growth of tissue that develops within your breast. Different types of breast lumps can vary in the way they look and feel. You may perceive a lump as a mass, growth, swelling, thickness or fullness.

You might notice:

  • a distinct lump with definite borders
  • a firm, hard area within your breast
  • a thickened, slightly more prominent area in your breast that's different from surrounding breast tissue
  • other breast changes, such as redness, dimpling or pitting of the skin
  •  one breast that's noticeably larger than the other
  •  nipple changes, such as a nipple that's pulled inward or spontaneous fluid discharge from your nipple
  •  persistent breast pain or tenderness, which might increase during your menstrual period

Sometimes, a breast lump is a sign of breast cancer. That's why you should seek prompt medical evaluation. Fortunately, however, most breast lumps result from
Noncancerous (benign) conditions.

Causes-

Breast lumps can be caused by:

  • · breast cancer.
  • · breast cysts — fluid-filled sacs in your breast that are usually benign
  • · fibroadenoma— a solid, benign mass most common in young women
  • · fibrocystic breast.
  • · injury or trauma to the breast
  • · intraductal papilloma — a benign, wartlike growth in a milk duct
  • · lipoma— a slow-growing, doughy mass that's usually harmless
  • · mastitis-— an infection in breast tissue that most commonly affects women who are breast-feeding
  • · milk cyst (galactocele) — a milk-filled cyst that's usually harmless

Homoeopathic remedies

Well selected homoeopathic remedies are effective for breast lump and cure the condition without further complications

Bryonia alba 1m - Bryonia alba is indicated when breast lump with stitching pain is present. The breast is hard and painful. Pain in breast at menstrual period. The breast pain aggravates during movement.

Calcarea carb 30- An excellent remedy for breast lump. Breasts are hot and swollen. Chronic cystic mastitis. Blunt duct adenosis; best remedy for fibroadenoma. Lump in breast is hard, nodular and tender to touch in the beginning. Then the pains are reduced and the lump turns to be hard due to calcification. Calcarea acts best when the tumours are calcified. These breasts are swollen and tender before menses. Deficient lactation. The breasts are distended in lymphatic women. Patient complains of profuse sweating around the genitalia with dirty smell. Inflammatory condition of the breast. With breast condition patient has the mental symptoms due to sufferings. Patient is anxious, tired and weak, both mentally and physically.

Calcarea flour 30 - Calcareaflour. Is another top remedy for lump in breast. Lump in the breast which is hard, movable with clear margins which are sharp in nature, or their edges are sharply defined. Most commonly they are solitary, very rarely multiple. Occurs in young patients usually unmarried. Nodules are in upper right quadrants. The patient is sad and depressed due to financial condition. Confused due to melancholic condition of mind. Patient is chilly, and she is very sensitive to cold air, cold wind and cold atmosphere in general. Genitals are sore. Urine is copious and offensive. Pain at the tip of the urethra while urinating and after the act. Pain in back extending to sacrum.

Conium maculatum 30 -  Conium maculatum is one of the top remedies for breast lump. Here the mammary glands are hard and sore. A typical carcinoma of the breast, that is, scirrhous adenocarcinoma, which begins in the ducts and ends in the parenchyma. As the stage advances the cooper's ligament shortens and thus it produces the notch. Sometimes the condition is associated with the inflammation of the breast tissue. The region is hard and nodular, tender to touch. Burning and stinging pains in the breast. The skin over the tumour is adherent. Occasionally there is discharge of pus from the nipple. The lesion is hard, almost cartilaginous. The edges are distinct, serrated and irregular; associated with productive fibrosis.

Baryta carb 30 - Baryta carb is very effective for breast lump. Inflammation, induration and enlargement are the fundamental pathogeneses of this drug. The mammary gland is enlarged and there is a lump, which is hard. There is very sensitive to touch. The glands which are enlarged are tender with infiltration. The women of late twenties are affected. These patients present with hard but not serrated mass with firm rubbery consistency. Their edges are sharply defined. Most commonly the tumours solitary. Or occasionally are multiple. They are differentiated from cancer by smooth rather than irregular lobulations. A bloody discharge from nipple is indication of this drug. All the glands of the body are very sensitive to cold and they are worse by taking cold. The skin over the gland becomes ulcerated. It is seen that this remedy works better in paget's disease of nipple which is supposed to be primary carcinoma of the mammary gland.

Bellis perennis 30 - Bellis perennis is prescribed when the lump is caused by a trauma that causes injury to deeper tissues of the breast. The main indication is sore, bruised feeling in breast. Breasts engorged. 

Chimaphilia umbellata 30 - Chimaphilia is indicated for painful tumor of mammae in women of large breasts. There is sharp pain through breast.

Hydrastis canadensis 30 - Hydrastis is prescribed to those patients who have the tendency to indurated glands. Swelling of the mammary glands. Fat necrosis and glandular cell myoblastoma are common in this remedy. Fat necrosis tumour is probably post-traumatic. Patient complains of pain and tenderness. The lesion is fixed to the breast tissue, which sometimes causes dimpling of the overlying skin. Engorged nipples, cracks and discharges of watery fluid or there is serosanguinous discharge. The patient is weak and emaciated, fainting due to improper assimilation or defective assimilation. All-gone sensation or empty feeling in the stomach, not relieved by eating. Chronic catarrhal condition of the membrane of the stomach. Patient is thirstless. Obstinate constipation, colicky and crampy pain in the abdomen. Liver is enlarged and tender.

Iodum 30 - This remedy predominantly acts on the enlargement of the mammary glands which may be either neo-plastic or malignant. The mucous membranes of the glands and the breast tissue are inflamed. The breast tissues are hypertrophied, enlarged, hard and nodular. Emaciation of the patient due to malabsorption. The tumours are well differentiated. They have a discrete capsule. Small lesions present leaf-like intracanalicular protrusions and large lesions have cystic space. Inflammation of the lesions, ulceration occasionally, excoriating and acrid discharge from the nipple or from the lesion. Oedematous swelling of the affected breast.

Lapis albus 30 - The main action of this remedy is on the glands of mammary region. These glands have the tendency to turn malignant. Remarkable results are observed in scrofulous condition of the glands. Fibroid tumours, intense burning pains in the parts. The tumours have pliability and a kind of softness rather than hardness. The margins are clear. The glands are elasticity, exactly the reverse of calc. Fluorica.

Phytolacca dec. 30 - Phytolacca is another remedy effective for lump in breast. Mammae hard an very sensitive. Tumors of the breast with enlargement of axillary glands. When child nurses pain goes from the nipple all over the body. Irritable breast before and during menses.

Plumbum iodide 30 - Plumbum iodide is another effective remedy for breast lump. There are indurations of breast, especially when a tendency to become inflamed, appears sore and painful. Indurations of great hardness and associated with a very dry skin.

Scrophularia nodosa q - Scrophularia has specific affinity for the breast. It is very useful in the dissipation of breast tumours.

Thyroidinum 1m - An intercurrent remedy


Breast cancer is cancer that forms in the cells of the breasts.

After skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women in the united states. Breast cancer can occur in both men and women, but it's far more common in women.

Substantial support for breast cancer awareness and research funding has helped create advances in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Breast cancer survival rates have increased, and the number of deaths associated with this disease is steadily declining, largely due to factors such as earlier detection, a new personalized approach to treatment and a better understanding of the disease.

Symptoms

  • Nipple changes 
  • Nipple changes

Signs and symptoms of breast cancer may include:

  • A breast lump or thickening that feels different from the surrounding tissue
  • Change in the size, shape or appearance of a breast
  • Changes to the skin over the breast, such as dimpling
  • A newly inverted nipple
  • Peeling, scaling, crusting or flaking of the pigmented area of skin surrounding the nipple (areola) or breast skin
  • Redness or pitting of the skin over your breast, like the skin of an orange

Causes

  • Doctors know that breast cancer occurs when some breast cells begin to grow abnormally. These cells divide more rapidly than healthy cells do and continue to accumulate, forming a lump or mass. Cells may spread (metastasize) through your breast to your lymph nodes or to other parts of your body.
  • Breast cancer most often begins with cells in the milk-producing ducts (invasive ductal carcinoma). Breast cancer may also begin in the glandular tissue called lobules (invasive lobular carcinoma) or in other cells or tissue within the breast.
  • Researchers have identified hormonal, lifestyle and environmental factors that may increase your risk of breast cancer. But it's not clear why some people who have no risk factors develop cancer, yet other people with risk factors never do. It's likely that breast cancer is caused by a complex interaction of your genetic makeup and your environment.

Inherited breast cancer

  • Doctors estimate that about 5 to 10 percent of breast cancers are linked to gene mutations passed through generations of a family.
  • A number of inherited mutated genes that can increase the likelihood of breast cancer have been identified. The most well-known are breast cancer gene 1 (brca1) and breast cancer gene 2 (brca2), both of which significantly increase the risk of both breast and ovarian cancer.
  • If you have a strong family history of breast cancer or other cancers, your doctor may recommend a blood test to help identify specific mutations in brca or other genes that are being passed through your family.
  • Consider asking your doctor for a referral to a genetic counselor, who can review your family health history. A genetic counselor can also discuss the benefits, risks and limitations of genetic testing to assist you with shared decision-making.

Risk factors
A breast cancer risk factor is anything that makes it more likely you'll get breast cancer. But having one or even several breast cancer risk factors doesn't necessarily mean you'll develop breast cancer. Many women who develop breast cancer have no known risk factors other than simply being women.

Factors that are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer include:

  • Being female. Women are much more likely than men are to develop breast cancer.
  • Increasing age. Your risk of breast cancer increases as you age.
  • A personal history of breast conditions. If you've had a breast biopsy that found lobular carcinoma in situ (lcis) or atypical hyperplasia of the breast, you have an increased risk of breast cancer.
  • A personal history of breast cancer. If you've had breast cancer in one breast, you have an increased risk of developing cancer in the other breast.
  • A family history of breast cancer. If your mother, sister or daughter was diagnosed with breast cancer, particularly at a young age, your risk of breast cancer is increased. Still, the majority of people diagnosed with breast cancer have no family history of the disease.

Inherited genes that increase cancer risk. Certain gene mutations that increase the risk of breast cancer can be passed from parents to children. The most well-known gene mutations are referred to as brca1 and brca2. These genes can greatly increase your risk of breast cancer and other cancers, but they don't make cancer inevitable.
Radiation exposure. If you received radiation treatments to your chest as a child or young adult, your risk of breast cancer is increased.

Obesity.

  • Being obese increases your risk of breast cancer.
  • Beginning your period at a younger age. Beginning your period before age 12 increases your risk of breast cancer.
  • Beginning menopause at an older age. If you began menopause at an older age, you're more likely to develop breast cancer.
  • Having your first child at an older age. Women who give birth to their first child after age 30 may have an increased risk of breast cancer.

Having never been pregnant

  • . Women who have never been pregnant have a greater risk of breast cancer than do women who have had one or more pregnancies.
  • Postmenopausal hormone therapy. Women who take hormone therapy breast lump. 

 

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Breast Cancer - Tips To Prevent It!

Dr. Seema Saxena 86% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MS - Obs & Gynae (Gold Medalist)
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Breast Cancer - Tips To Prevent It!

One of the things that Shannen Doherty and Rita Wilson, the wife of Tom Hanks, have in common, apart from their fame is that both were affected by breast cancer. No matter how normal a person may seem, breast cancer can strike anyone. In fact, it usually strikes one in eight women. So, it makes good sense to know what it can appear as!

Breast cancer makes up a rather big amount of the general cancer cases as 15% of the cancer cases which are reported on a yearly basis are usually breast cancer cases. That being said, there are quite a few things which can be done in order to reduce a person’s risk to breast cancer.

Prevention is Prudent-

  1. Get Fit: The first thing which should be done is that a reasonable level of fitness should be maintained. Many studies have found that if a person is significantly heavier than her recommended weight, she is at a far great risk to develop all sorts of cancer and breast cancer, in particular, than a person who is able to keep her weight in check. The difference in cancer risk rates is about 40%. This is because a greater amount of fat leads to more estrogen being produced, which increases the risk of breast cancer.

  2. Quit Smoking: While most people associate smoking as something which increases the risk of cancer to the lungs and are not aware that it increases the risk of breast cancer, too. So, the best solution is to kick the habit!

  3. Get Off the Pill: Once a woman crosses past her mid-thirties, she should try to avoid relying on birth control pills to reduce the risk of pregnancy. This is because these pills have an effect which increases the risk of breast cancer, which heightens as a woman gets older. As long as the woman cuts out the use of the pill, the risk quickly gets cut, as well.

  4. Get Regular Check Ups: While screening for breast cancer by making use of mammograms does not cut the risk of it, the screening helps detect breast cancer early if it does exist. As a result, a woman has a much better chance of fighting breast cancer. So, a woman who is past the age of forty should try to have a mammogram on an annual basis with the frequency of the same increasing as she gets older. However, it is to be kept in mind that going for a mammogram too often is also not a good idea as the tests themselves pose risks of DNA changes.

Women all around the world are susceptible to breast cancer. While there isn’t a 100% chance of avoiding it, taking care of yourself and leading a fit and active lifestyle can significantly cut down your risk of contracting this condition. Remember, your health is in your hands, so the earlier you start, the better!

Prostate Cancer - Symptoms, Diagnosis And Treatment!

Dr. Yogesh Kaje 84% (10 ratings)
MCh - Urology, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Urologist, Pune
Prostate Cancer - Symptoms, Diagnosis And Treatment!

Prostate Cancer is a form of cancer that affects men. The prostate is basically a small gland that sits in the male pelvic cavity and is responsible for producing seminal fluid or semen, from its position under the bladder, surrounding the urethra. The testosterone hormone controls this gland. Prostate cancer refers to the growth of a malignant mass of cells which can also be called a tumour. 

More about this cancer:

Risk Factors: The various risk factors involved in this kind of cancer are many. Advanced age, a family history of the same disease, obesity as well as genetic changes can lead to the development of this kind of tumour.

Types: There are basically two types of prostate cancer, including fast growing or aggressive, and slow growing or non-aggressive. Yet, it is also important to remember that not every abnormal growth in this gland can be termed as a tumour, or is a sign of prostate cancer. A malignant growth signifies prostate cancer. This tumour can grow at a fast pace for aggressive prostate cancer, while it can grow and spread slowly for the non-aggressive type.

Symptoms: It is possible to not have any kind of obvious symptoms when suffering from this kind of cancer. The symptoms usually begin to show up when the cancer has reached a more advanced stage. These include urinary problems, most significantly. The patient may go through pain and difficulty when it comes to urinating. This pain may also occur during ejaculation. The patient may also find blood discharge in the semen upon ejaculation and suffer from sexual dysfunction as well. Pain in the chest, pelvic area and back are also common symptoms of prostate cancer, which may gradually turn into numbness in the said areas as well.

Diagnosis: The diagnosis of the issue will be done by a specialist from the urology department. After a physical examination where a diagnosis of the symptoms and other check-ups will happen, the doctor may conduct lab tests to check the blood, urine and other samples. Further, imaging tests like MRI and CT scans will also be conducted. A digital rectal exam and prostate biopsy will also help in effective diagnosis.

Treatment: The treatment of this kind of cancer usually depends on the severity of the symptoms and the spread of the tumour. Besides active observation, the doctor may also recommend radiation, chemotherapy and surgery based on the age and health condition of the patient. If you happen to find even subtle symptoms which could point towards this disease, do not hesitate to get in touch with the doctor.

886 people found this helpful

Right Time To Go For Cervical Cancer Screening

Dr. Ruchi Malhotra 91% (482 ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, DNB - Obstetrics & Gynecology, DGO
IVF Specialist, Delhi
Right Time To Go For Cervical Cancer Screening

Cervical cancer refers to the type of cancer that spreads through abnormal cells, which may be found in the lining of the cervix. This affects the lower part or the womb of the body. This may also be medically known as the uterine cervix. This kind of cancer is considered one of the most preventable ones. There are various kinds of screening tests that can help in early detection so that the symptoms become clear and the problem can be treated before the cancer spreads or malignancy sets in.

Read on to know more about the various screening measures that can help in treating and preventing the same.

  1. Pap smear test: This is one of the most recommended and easiest tests conducted for cervical cancer screening. The pap smear test is recommended for all women who have been through child birth. In this form of screening, the doctor usually takes a sample from the cervix of the patient. This will be then be put through a lab test to find any kind of anomalies in the cells of the cervix. This test is also strongly recommended on an annual basis for women who are going through menopause, as this is the time when the cells undergo maximum changes.
  2. HPV test: The HPV test can be conducted along with the pap smear test so as to find out if the HIV virus is active as well.
  3. Pelvic exam: In order to conduct screening for cervical cancer, the doctor may also ask the patient for a pelvic exam. In this test, the doctor checks the various areas like the uterus, the cervix and ovaries so as to ensure that there are no anomalies and irregular changes in these areas or organs of the body. This exam can help the doctor in finding any changes that may point at the risk of developing cervical cancer.
  4. Reading the test results: The doctor will usually take a look at the test results before making a clear diagnosis and recommending a course of medication or other kinds of treatment so as to prevent the spread or onset of cancer. For cases where this type of cancer has already progressed to a great degree, the doctor will usually recommend chemotherapy as well as radiation and sometimes, even surgery.

When should you get a screening test done?

Once you are above 21 years of age or have had a baby, it is imperative to get a screening test done at least annually. It is also important to get this done once a year if you are going through menopause. The doctors may ask you not to go through a test, if your previous three tests have been clear.

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