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Cancer Pain Management Health Feed

Gastrointestinal Cancer - How To Detect It?

MBBS, MS (General Surgery), Fellowship in Surgical Gastroenterology
General Surgeon, Cuttack
Gastrointestinal Cancer - How To Detect It?

Gastrointestinal cancer is the most common form of cancer. It is a term used for a group of cancers that affect the digestive system. This includes cancers of the esophagus, gallbladder, liver, pancreas, stomach, small intestine, bowel, and anus. The symptoms relate to the organ affected and can include obstruction, abnormal bleeding, or other associated problems.

Signs and symptoms of gastrointestinal cancer: Typically, there are no early signs or symptoms of gastrointestinal cancer. Unfortunately, this means that people often don’t know anything is wrong until cancer has reached an advanced stage. Some of the most common symptoms of advanced gastrointestinal cancer are nausea and vomiting, frequent heartburn, loss of appetite, constant bloating, bloody stools, excessive fatigue, and stomach pain which may be worse after meals.

Causes of gastrointestinal cancer: Scientists don’t know exactly what makes the cancer cells grow in the gastrointestinal tract. But they know a few things that can raise your risk for the disease. One of them is infection with common bacteria. Other things that seem to play a role in raising the risk include smoking, being overweight or obese, a diet high in smoked, pickled, or salty foods, stomach surgery for an ulcer, virus infection, certain genes, working in coal, metal, timber, or rubber industries.

Diagnosis of gastrointestinal cancer: Since people with gastrointestinal cancer rarely show symptoms in the early stages, the disease is often not diagnosed until it has advanced. To make a diagnosis, a physical exam is conducted by the healthcare provider to check for any abnormalities. More diagnostic tests are done if the healthcare provider believes that a person is showing signs of gastrointestinal cancer. These tests may include an endoscopy, a biopsy or imaging tests such as CT scans and X-rays.

Treating gastrointestinal cancer: Many treatments can fight gastrointestinal cancer. Traditionally, it is treated with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, or immunotherapy such as vaccines and medications. Treatment depends on several factors, including the severity of cancer and the individual’s overall health and preferences. Apart from treating cancer cells, the goal of treatment is to prevent the cells from spreading. Gastrointestinal cancer, when left untreated, may spread to the lungs, lymph nodes, bones, and liver.

Prevention of gastrointestinal cancer: Experts do not know exactly what causes gastrointestinal cancer, and there are no vaccines against it. Therefore, there is no way to prevent it. But one can take steps to reduce the risk of gastrointestinal cancer by making small changes to their everyday life. For instance, regular exercise is associated with a reduced risk of cancer. On the other hand, smoking not only increases the risk of gastrointestinal cancer but many other types of cancers. Reducing the amount of salty and smoked foods and including more fruits and vegetables in the everyday diet are small steps that one can take as preventive actions. In some cases, doctors may even prescribe medications that can help lower the risk of cancer. This is usually done for people who have other diseases that may contribute to cancer.

1364 people found this helpful

Pain Management During Cancer - Learn More!

Dr.Sourav Kumar Mishra 92% (57ratings)
DM - Oncology, MD - Internal Medicine
Oncologist, Bhubaneswar
Pain Management During Cancer - Learn More!

With every passing day, there are new advancements in the field of medicine, and cancer care is no exception either. A condition that still frightens the mass has come a long way in terms of cure and management. Cancer is life threatening but when diagnosed in the early stages, can be cured with proper medical intervention.

Many cancer patients experience pain which is caused as a result of the disease or as the result of the treatments for cancer. When the cancer spreads or the malignant tumor increases in size, it puts pressure on the surrounding (bones, tissues, etc.) which intrigues the pain. The cancer treatments like chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery may also cause pain in the patients.

Here is an account on managing pain during cancer:

Treatment for Cancer Pain

Cancer pain can be dull, sharp, or achy. It can be constant or intermittent and can be mild, severe, or moderate. There are several over-the-counter or prescription medicines available in the market which can reduce the pain caused by the growing tissues or the treatments/therapies. A few such pain relievers include aspirin, acetaminophen, and ibuprofen.

Treatment According to Severity

For pain which is mild or moderate, you can opt for Non-opioids which are anti-inflammatory medicines and can be bought without the prescription from the drug counters. If you are having moderate to severe symptoms of pain, then you may be prescribed opioids like hydromorphone, hydrocodone, fentanyl, etc.

For burning and tingling sensation, antidepressants like imipramine or the trazodone, etc., can provide relief. You must not confuse antidepressant with medicines for depression; these are for pain management as well. You can also opt for the antiepileptics drugs which can reduce the burning or tingling sensation of cancer and have it doesn’t refer that you get seizures. If there is swelling, then steroids are the option for you to control the swelling and the pain caused from it.

Ways to Take Medicines for Cancer Pain

Most of the medications that your doctor would prescribe you have to be taken orally if not directed otherwise. The medications are usually in the pills form. If the patient, for any reason, is not able to take the drugs orally, then he/she may have to take them as rectal suppositories and even transdermal patches.

It can also be injected into your body through an intravenous opening in which the needle with the medicine is inserted directly into the veins. There is also a subcutaneous process where the medicine is injected with a small needle just under the first layer of your skin.

Studies report that often cancer pain is under-treated. A common reason is the reluctance of the patients to speak about the pain. Other reasons for not opting for pain medications are the fear of addiction and side-effects.

Cancer pain management is indeed an important part of the cancer treatment, and the goal is to manage the pain at a bearable level. And, the best part is that the goal is often achieved.
 

3432 people found this helpful

Pain Management During Cancer - An Inherent Part Of The Treatment!

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MS - General Surgery
Oncologist, Agra
Pain Management During Cancer - An Inherent Part Of The Treatment!

With every passing day, there are new advancements in the field of medicine, and cancer care is no exception either. A condition that still frightens the mass has come a long way in terms of cure and management. Cancer is life threatening but when diagnosed in the early stages, can be cured with proper medical intervention.

Many cancer patients experience pain which is caused as a result of the disease or as the result of the treatments for cancer. When the cancer spreads or the malignant tumor increases in size, it puts pressure on the surrounding (bones, tissues, etc.) which intrigues the pain. The cancer treatments like chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery may also cause pain in the patients.

Here is an account on managing pain during cancer:

Treatment for Cancer Pain:

Cancer pain can be dull, sharp, or achy. It can be constant or intermittent and can be mild, severe, or moderate. There are several over-the-counter or prescription medicines available in the market which can reduce the pain caused by the growing tissues or the treatments/therapies. A few such pain relievers include aspirin, acetaminophen, and ibuprofen.

Treatment According to Severity:

For pain which is mild or moderate, you can opt for Non-opioids which are anti-inflammatory medicines and can be bought without the prescription from the drug counters. If you are having moderate to severe symptoms of pain, then you may be prescribed opioids like hydromorphone, hydrocodone, fentanyl, etc.

For burning and tingling sensation, antidepressants like imipramine or the trazodone, etc., can provide relief. You must not confuse antidepressant with medicines for depression; these are for pain management as well. You can also opt for the antiepileptics drugs which can reduce the burning or tingling sensation of cancer and have it doesn’t refer that you get seizures. If there is swelling, then steroids are the option for you to control the swelling and the pain caused from it.

Ways to Take Medicines for Cancer Pain:

Most of the medications that your doctor would prescribe you have to be taken orally if not directed otherwise. The medications are usually in the pills form. If the patient, for any reason, is not able to take the drugs orally, then he/she may have to take them as rectal suppositories and even transdermal patches.

It can also be injected into your body through an intravenous opening in which the needle with the medicine is inserted directly into the veins. There is also a subcutaneous process where the medicine is injected with a small needle just under the first layer of your skin.

Studies report that often cancer pain is under-treated. A common reason is the reluctance of the patients to speak about the pain. Other reasons for not opting for pain medications are the fear of addiction and side-effects.

Cancer pain management is indeed an important part of the cancer treatment, and the goal is to manage the pain at a bearable level. And, the best part is that the goal is often achieved.
 

1956 people found this helpful

Homeopathic Treatments For Cancer!

Dr.Swarup Kumar Ghosh 88% (87ratings)
MF Homeo (London), DHMS (Diploma in Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery), Biochemistry M.D.( PG) (Kol), CMS Ed, Affilied by UGC & MCI.
Homeopath, Kolkata
Homeopathic Treatments For Cancer!

Homeopathic approach for the treatment of cancer-

Homoeopathy is among the commonly used alternative approaches in cancer. It is being widely used as palliative and curative in patients suffering from cancer. Though studies on the use of homoeopathy in cancer after surgery, radio therapy and chemotherapy have been reported, clinical trials on effects of homoeopathy in cancer are rare. Some studies on the effect of dosage of homoeopathic medicines and their mechanism of action in cancer have also been published. A few case reports published here and there also find a mention in different databases. This review aims to describe literature available on the approach of homoeopathy in cancer by searching various databases like Elsevier, google scholar, pub med, Scopus, springer and Wiley online library, electronically. It was found that beneficial effect of homoeopathic medicines are reported on some cancer cell lines via apoptosis and immune modulation. Homoeopathic treatment given as add-on also improves the quality of life, survival time and presenting complaints. However, more evidence needs to be generated to demonstrate anti tumor or antimetastatic potential in controlled clinical trials.

Introduction-

Homeopathy is among the most famous alternative system of medicine. In Europe, homeopathy is used in cancer care extensively from 6% in cancer diagnosis and almost 24% in breast cancer females. Homeopathy is most commonly used complementary and alternative medicine (cam) in pediatric oncology in Germany and patient satisfaction with homeopathic treatment is very high. An overview of systematic reviews of cam for cancer pain concluded that homeopathy might have a reduction in adult cancer pain. Homeopathy is a complete system of medicine which is established in practice and theory.

The basis of homeopathy is that:

  • Similia similibus curentur (like cure like)
  • Holistic treatment
  • Serially diluted medicines prepared by succussion and dilution
  • More a substance is diluted, more potent it becomes.

According to the 2003 report of the world health organization, cancer is the 2nd largest cause of death in developed countries.
Conventional medicines are usually used to treat cancer. Side effects of non-surgical orthodox treatments limit their use despite they can treat and prevent cancer. In such cases, cancer patients turn towards alternative therapies including homoeopathy. In the UK, almost 30% patients in homoeopathic hospitals were referred directly by oncologists. However, a research program should need to setup for finding the efficacy of homoeopathic medicine against cancer. Some homeopathic medicines have been proven clinically and experimentally; however, there is a wide range of medicine on which data has not found. Ernst and later Frenkel and unlu described some data of homeopathy for cancer but not covered the whole topic. The present narrative review of homeopathic approach in cancer care was carried out to find researches reported in this field. The review comprises literature pertaining to the approach of homeopathy in cancer using worldwide accepted scientific databases through electronic search (Elsevier, google scholar, PubMed, Scopus, Springer, and Wiley online library).

Approach of homeopathy in different types of carcinomas

In an animal model study, the inhibitory effects of potentised preparations of hydrastis, lycopodium, ruta and thuja against sarcomas that were induced by 3-methylcholanthrene in mice as well as hepatocellular carcinoma induced by n'-nitrosodiethylamine in rats was studied. Biochemical, morphological and histopathological evaluation revealed that the reduction of elevated marker enzymes and tumour size. Among the four used medicines, ruta 200c was most effective in reducing tumour size and incidence of sarcomas. A homoeopathic medicine, chelidonium in ultra-low doses showed anti-tumour and anti-genotoxic potential against hepatocarcinoma that was induced by azo-dye mice. Condurango ethanolic extract and tincture showed antiproliferative action in lung cancer through apoptosis. In another animal study. Anti tumor and anti metastatic effects of various homeopathic medicines were studied in mice against transplanted tumors. Hydrastis and ruta significantly increased the lifetime of dalton's lymphoma ascites and ehrlich ascites carcinoma induced tumour -bearing mice. Moreover, these medicines showed marked reduction of solid tumour volume on the 31st day after tumour inoculation. Most of the hydrastis 1m-treated animals were completely tumour free. Hydrastis 1m, lycopodium 1m and thuja 1m exhibited antimetastatic effect in b16f-10 melanoma-bearing animals. These medicines showed inhibition of lung tumour nodule formation and decreased levels of γ-gt in serum. Undifferentiated lung cancer, a woman with leiomyosarcoma and a child with an astrocytoma, were treated with a new homoeopathic approach of carcinogen-induced apoptosis. A homoeopathic medicine, sulphur, showed anti-apoptotic effect in non-small cell lung carcinoma cells. Sabal serrulata mother tincture showed the reduction of prostate tumour xenograft size significantly in anin vivo trial. Moreover, sabal serrulata decreased pc-3 cell proliferation and du-145 cell proliferation. Permixon, a lipidosterolic extract of sabal serrulata, is being used to treat symptoms of benign prostate hyperplasia (bph). It treats bph by activating the permeability of transition pore of mitochondria, nf-kb apoptotic pathway and inhibition of 5-α reductase inflammatory-related gene. Insufficient research hinders to prove that sabal serrulata is the right medicine for prostate cancer. Thuja along with conium and sabal serrulata in combination can assure more effective treatment against bph. In another research study, 220 patients of metastatic pancreatic cancer were administered by viscum album sub-cutaneous 3 times weekly. Those who took this therapy needed no more anti-cancerous therapy. In those patients, brain metastasis was not observed. The patient receiving viscum album as anticancerous remedy showed increase in the survival rate by 4.8 month and patients who took no treatment the survival rate was 2.7 month. P-dimethylaminoazobenzene-induced hepatocarcinogenesis mice model which induce cytological changes such as chromosomal aberration mitotic activity and also chemical changes and reduced aspartate transaminase, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione carcinogenic changes was used to determine the anticarcinogenicity of natrum sulph. These changes were reduced by natrum sulphuricum. Natrum sulph 200 showed effective potential to reduce cancer as compared to natrum sulph 30. Lycopodium clavatum 5c and 15c administration have any anticancer effects on human cervical cancer cell line hela cells by causing cell death through apoptosis in cancer cells. It induced dna fragmentation, the increases in the expressions of protein, mrna of caspase 3 and bax and the decreases in the expressions of bcl2 and apaf and in the release of cytochrome-c.

Anecdotal evidence showed the effectiveness of following medicines in different types of carcinomas.

  • Calcarea flour for breast cancer with hard and stony lumps
  • Lapis Albus for scirrhus and uterus malignancies with burning where oozing of fluid is black and putrid
  • Silicea can be used as adjuvant to reduce cancer pain and also sarcoma with yellow and offensive discharge
  • Hecla lava is a bone cancerous remedy
  • Bryta carb for scattered lipomas
  • Bryta iodium can cure ovarian cancer and mammae cancer with tuberculosis tinge
  • Plumbum iodium in mastitis and induration of breast
  • Bromine is a remedy for mammae cancer
  • Phosphorus is used for cancer with bleeding tendency
  • Iodium can be used for uterus cancers
  • Cicuta virosa for epithelial cancer
  • Kali sulph for facial epithelial cancer
  • Cedron can be used to reduce the lancinating pains of cancer.
  • Carcinogen-induced apoptosis, a new homeopathic approach in cancer


A male with undifferentiated lung cancer, a woman with leiomyosarcoma and a child with an astrocytoma were treated with a new homeopathic approach of carcinogen-induced apoptosis. Ultra-low doses of carcinogens were administered for 2–3 months and showed complete remission of cancer and increased life extension.

Palliative approach of homeopathy in cancer-

Homoeopathy can be used as a supportive or palliative treatment. As a palliative and supportive approach, homeopathy is used to develop general health and to relieve the pain and suffering resulting from other orthodox treatment. A case of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the rectum, terminal squamous cell carcinoma of the cheek and carcinoma of the larynx received received homeopathic medicines prescribed on constitutional grounds relieved the patient symptoms markedly. A male patient aged 64 years complains about bloody stool aggravated at night after eating and drinking. Distended abdomen with flatulence aggravated after eating and drinking and ameliorated after passing stool. Oedema of lower extremities since 2 years aggravated by sitting and standing. He has also history of inguinal hernia. Physical generals of patient were sweets desire, spicy food aversion and hurriedness. X-ray image showed 10cm neoplasm at anal margin. Moderate differentiated adenocarcinoma with metastasis to liver and lymph nodes was diagnosed. Lycopodium 30c three times daily was prescribed for 4 days, Ruta-mt 5 drops for rectal bleeding. Rectal bleeding was better by flatulence, oedema and tenderness of iliac fossa. Stoppage of stool from 4 to 6 days was seen during follow-up. Lycopodium 30c was continued with un-medicated lactose three times a days about 1 month later, the patient come with these symptoms recurrent rectal bleeding, oedema and flatulence. Lycopodium 30c 2 times a day for 2 weeks was prescribed. The patient states remain stable for about 1½ month. Lycopodium was continued after every 3rd day. About 7 months later came with complaints of loose stool pain in the abdomen, left inguinal fossa with tenderness. Lycopodium in lm was prescribed. The case was followed up with thuja and lycopodium in 1 m potency. The patient came 5 months later with these symptoms rectal bleeding, no appetite, oedema and thirst for warm water. Arsenic 30c was prescribed. Various research studies have been conducted to find the efficacy of homoeopathic medicines as a palliative therapy or to overcome adverse effects produced by other conventional treatments of cancer.

Homeopathic approach after radiotherapy-

A randomised controlled trial was conducted by Kulkarni to find the efficacy of homoeopathy in decreasing the severity of radiotherapy-related adverse effects. Patients were grouped randomly divided into three groups. One group was given causticum 30, a second group was given cobaltum 30 and the third group received placebo. These medicines were selected on the basis of their use in decreasing symptoms of radiation reaction. Tumour reduction was insignificantly decreased in medicine groups. In another study, effectiveness of homoeopathic medicines was investigated for radiotherapy-induced skin reactions in breast cancer patients. Patients were randomly divided in to two different groups. One group received homoeopathic treatment that consisted of x-ray 15 ch and belladonna 7ch while the other group received placebo. A topical medication containing fluocortolone was also administered to both groups. Cutaneous and subcutaneous oedema, erythema, hyperpigmentation and skin heat were primary outcome measures. Homoeopathic treatment showed a transient benefit regarding decreasing hyperpigmentation and skin heat, however, results became insignificant at the end of follow-up. A study with 254 participants proved topical calendula as powerful prophylactic as compared to trolamine in radiotherapy-induced dermatitis.

Homeopathic approach after chemotherapy-

A preliminary, non-randomised controlled clinical trial tested the efficacy of traumeel s on stomatitis occurred due to chemotherapy. Traumeel s is a homeopathic combination prepared by combining calendula 2x, millefolium 3x, Belladonna 2x, Arnica 2x, hepar sulfuris 6 × 0.1, symphytum 6x, mercurius 6 × 0.05 g, echiria purpura 2 × 0.025 ml, aconitum 2 × 0.06, chamomilla 3x, bellis perennis 2 × 0.05 ml and echinacea angustifolia 2x. A total of 20 patients including children and teenagers received traumeel s and were compared with seven controls (received no treatment for stomatitis) having similar stages of cancer and same age groups. The efficacy was determined by the pain level that was measured according to the requirement of opiates. Requirement of opiates and symptoms duration was significantly different in the intervention and control group favouring the treatment group.
Later, a larger randomized controlled trial (RCT) was carried out by same author to estimate the efficacy of traumeel s in cancer patients for stomatitis occurred due to chemotherapy after autologous or allogeneic stem-cell transplantation. During the first 7 days of trial, subjective symptom scores of patients were recorded. Intervention group showed significant reduction of duration and/or severity of stomatitis compared to control group.

Homeopathic approach for menopausal symptoms after breast cancer-

A study was conducted to find the effectiveness of homoeopathic medicines on menopausal symptoms (mainly hot flushes) in breast cancer survivors. The patients included in the trial had a history of breast cancer in situ, stage i–iii, had completed breast cancer treatment either surgical, radiation or chemotherapy and had a history of at least 3 hot flushes/day for a month before study. All the patients were randomised in to three different groups: a verum single remedy and a verum combination medicine, a verum single remedy and a placebo combination and two placebo combinations. All patients were received individualised single homoeopathic medicines that can be one of these: calcarea carbonica, kali carbonicum, lachesis, sepia or sulphur. The combination medicine was'hylands menopause, consisted of: lachesis, sanguinaria canadensis and amyl nitrate. The efficacy was assessed regarding decreasing number and severity of hot flushes. Both homoeopathy groups showed significant improvement in quality of life score compared to placebo. A subgroup of patients also received tamoxifen. There was significant increase in hot flushes in subgroup that had not received tamoxifen but received combination homoeopathic medicine compared to single remedy and placebo.
A pilot study was carried out to find the effectiveness of homeopathy in breast cancer survivors having estrogen withdrawal clinical features. In this double-blind RCT, patients having more than three hot flushes per day, no coexisting treatment for hot flushes, not having metastatic disease, no severe contemporary disease; and not experiencing chemotherapy. All the patients were divided randomly into two groups to receive either homeopathic medicines or placebo. Individualized homeopathic medicines were prescribed to homeopathic treatment group and the medicines mostly include were arnica, belladonna, carcinocin, natrum muriaticum, sepia, and sulphur. The efficacy was assessed by activity score (primary outcome measures) and hot flushes frequency and severity (secondary outcome measures). No significant difference was observed between intervention and placebo group regarding both primary and secondary outcome measures at follow-up.

Different studies reporting homeopathic approach in cancer-

In cross-sectional cohort study, two patient cohorts were compared; the characteristics of patients who were treated in a homoeopathic cancer care clinic and in a conventional oncology care clinic were compared. Their characteristics were different particularly the course of treatment after cancer diagnosis. Patients visiting homoeopathic cancer care clinic were mostly treated with either, chemotherapy, radiotherapy or the persons who refused to treat with conventional medicine. Moreover, mostly patients are young and employed so they have to earn their income during their cancer treatment. Hence, it is not justifiable to relate general plans when investigating conventional treatment with homoeopathy. Retrospective data regarding survival time of cancer patients who take homoeopathic treatment complementary to conventional anticancer treatment showed extended survival time. The patients who had serious prognosis of disease receiving at least three homoeopathic consultations along with conventional cancer treatment were included in study and data regarding survival time and demographic characteristics of patients were collected in the university of vienna.
However, a letter to editor said regarding the above study that the results biased and misleading because it is compulsory to apply a statistical model capable to handle the immortality time in control and active groups. Kaplan–meier plots from literature should be used to establish control data.
Homeopathic patient data were reanalysed by authors and comparison was done with control patient data from the same place. A probable immortal time bias has also been analysed in this re-analysis. Results of re-analysis showed statistically significant advantage of using homeopathy compared to control regarding survival time.
A prospective observational study showed better life quality and decrease of fatigue in cancer patients who were treated with homeopathic treatment compared to conventionally treated cancer patients. For comparison, both differently treated cohorts had comparable prognosis and same tumor entity. Adjunct classical homeopathic treatment improved subjective well-being and the global health status of cancer patients significantly in a pragmatic randomized controlled trial.

A 5-year-old boy, suffering from bilateral strabismus, was computed tomography-scanned, which diagnosed a brain stem tumor. He was treated with combined conventional chemotherapy temozolamide, arsenic album 6x, nitrated guanidine. Size of tumor was reduced from 6 cm × 4 cm to 2 cm × 2 cm.

Effects of dosage of homoeopathic medicines on cancer-

In anin vitro study, effects of homoeopathic medicines in low doses and high potencies in normal and cancerous human lymphocytes were studied. The methodology of study involved pretreatment of cells with either high potencies (pool 15–20c) or low concentrations (nm–μm) of cadmium. After 120 h of medication, cells were exposed to cadmium (8–80 μm).

Mts/pes assay was used to assess cell viability. For lower potencies, nacl 0.9% and for high potencies water 15–20c was used as control. Both lower and higher potencies of cadmium pretreatment significantly increased cell viability in primary lymphocytes after toxic doses of cadmium compared to cells that have pretreatment of control. Low doses pretreatment effect was also significant in cancerous lymphocytes; however, high potencies showed no effect in cancerous lymphocytes.

Mechanism of homeopathic medicines in cancer-

An animal model study (mice) showed immunomodulatory effects of homeopathic medicines in high dilutions having antineoplastic effects thus proposing their mechanism of action through immune modulation. Sabal serrulata, conium maculatum and thuja occidentalis showed no direct cellular anticancer effects in an experimental animal study but slow the progression of cancer and decrease cancer occurrence and mortality significantly in induced prostate cancer in rats. A study showed lack of immunomodulatory and apoptotic effects of conium maculatum, sabal serrulata, thuja occidentalis in prostate cancer tissues of rats. An in vitro study was conducted to find the effect of homeopathic medicines on gene expression that controls apoptosis on breast and prostate cancer cells. Asterias, conium maculatum, carcinosin, sabal serrulata, thuja occidentalis and phytolacca were tested; however, no medicine showed significant inhibitory or growth-promoting activity against breast or prostate cancer cells. Another study also showed no significant change by the use of homeopathic medicines in mRNA levels of the apoptotic genes, cytokines interleukin (il)–1α, il-1 β, caspase-1, 2 and 3, tumor necrosis factor and interferon-γ in lung metastasis and prostate tumor. A nosode carcinocin and a homeopathic treatment regimen comprising sabal serrulata, conium maculatum and thuja occidentalis were administered to observe effects on apoptotic genes. However, in anin vitro model, hydrastis canadensis 30c and condurango 30c showing gene modulating effects compared to placebo (succussed alcohol 30c). A recognized epigenetic model was treated with above-mentioned homeopathic potencies. Results of the study indicated that these homeopathic dilutions acted through modulation of gene expression. Chelidonium in ultra-low doses showed anti-genotoxic potential against hepatocarcinoma that was induced by azo-dye in mice. Anin vitro study showed apoptogenic effect of homeopathic remedy, sulphur, in non-small cell lung carcinoma cells. Psorinum 6x was administered to various cell lines in vitro. It triggered apoptosis by inhibiting cell proliferation in a549 (human lung cancer cell line). Psorinum causes apoptosis through mitochondria-mediated caspase-3-dependent pathway. Calf thymus-dna was the target of psorinum 6x as revealed on cd spectroscopy. Rutin and quercetin are clastogenic and genotoxic. Ruta 6x with calcium phosphate induces signals of apoptosis in transplanted dla cell and might be useful in glial cell lymphoma or intracranial cancer. In homeopathy, conium maculatum is being used traditionally for the treatment of cervix carcinoma and breast cancer. Its anticancer effect was studiedin vitro in hela cell. Conium caused accumulation of mucous membrane potential and reactive oxygen species and reduced colony formation and cell proliferation inhibiting sub-stage g of cell cycle. Phosphatidylserine cytochrome c and caspase 3 activation and inhibition of akt and nfkb lead toward apoptosis and cell proliferation.

Conclusion-

Homeopathy can be a useful approach to cancer. Various studies reported the effects of homeopathic medicines in the management of cancer pain and other symptoms related to cancer. A few studies also tried to elaborate the mechanism of homeopathic medicines in cancer using cellular and animal models. Some studies reported that apoptotic effects and modulation of gene expression of homeopathic medicines in cancer while other studies negate this mechanism. In clinical arena, research studies of homeopathy in cancer are lacking and only described extended survival time in cancer patient or as an adjuvant with conventional treatment or removed side effects of conventional treatment. More evidence needs to be generated to demonstrate antitumor or antimetastatic potential in controlled clinical trial.

2 people found this helpful

How Can You Manage Pain During Cancer?

Dr.Ketan Dang 92% (115ratings)
DNB - Medical Oncology, MD - Medicine, MBBS
Oncologist, Mohali
How Can You Manage Pain During Cancer?

With every passing day, there are new advancements in the field of medicine, and cancer care is no exception either. A condition that still frightens the mass has come a long way in terms of cure and management. Cancer is life threatening but when diagnosed in the early stages, can be cured with proper medical intervention.

Many cancer patients experience pain which is caused as a result of the disease or as the result of the treatments for cancer. When the cancer spreads or the malignant tumor increases in size, it puts pressure on the surrounding (bones, tissues, etc.) which intrigues the pain. The cancer treatments like chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery may also cause pain in the patients.

Here is an account on managing pain during cancer.

Treatment for Cancer Pain
Cancer pain can be dull, sharp, or achy. It can be constant or intermittent and can be mild, severe, or moderate. There are several over-the-counter or prescription medicines available in the market which can reduce the pain caused by the growing tissues or the treatments/therapies. A few such pain relievers include aspirin, acetaminophen, and ibuprofen.

Treatment According to Severity
For pain which is mild or moderate, you can opt for Non-opioids which are anti-inflammatory medicines and can be bought without the prescription from the drug counters. If you are having moderate to severe symptoms of pain, then you may be prescribed opioids like hydromorphone, hydrocodone, fentanyl, etc.

For burning and tingling sensation, antidepressants like imipramine or the trazodone, etc., can provide relief. You must not confuse antidepressant with medicines for depression; these are for pain management as well. You can also opt for the antiepileptics drugs which can reduce the burning or tingling sensation of cancer and have it doesn’t refer that you get seizures. If there is swelling, then steroids are the option for you to control the swelling and the pain caused from it.

Ways to Take Medicines for Cancer Pain
Most of the medications that your doctor would prescribe you have to be taken orally if not directed otherwise. The medications are usually in the pills form. If the patient, for any reason, is not able to take the drugs orally, then he/she may have to take them as rectal suppositories and even transdermal patches.

It can also be injected into your body through an intravenous opening in which the needle with the medicine is inserted directly into the veins. There is also a subcutaneous process where the medicine is injected with a small needle just under the first layer of your skin.

Studies report that often cancer pain is under-treated. A common reason is the reluctance of the patients to speak about the pain. Other reasons for not opting for pain medications are the fear of addiction and side-effects.

Cancer pain management is indeed an important part of the cancer treatment, and the goal is to manage the pain at a bearable level. And, the best part is that the goal is often achieved.
 

3341 people found this helpful

Pain Management During Cancer: How To Deal With It?

Dr.Premitha R 89% (64ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, Diploma In Medical Radio Therapy, DNB
Oncologist, Bangalore
Pain Management During Cancer: How To Deal With It?

With every passing day, there are new advancements in the field of medicine, and cancer care is no exception either. A condition that still frightens the mass has come a long way in terms of cure and management. Cancer is life threatening but when diagnosed in the early stages, can be cured with proper medical intervention.

Many cancer patients experience pain which is caused as a result of the disease or as the result of the treatments for cancer. When the cancer spreads or the malignant tumor increases in size, it puts pressure on the surrounding (bones, tissues, etc.) which intrigues the pain. The cancer treatments like chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery may also cause pain in the patients.

Here is an account on managing pain during cancer.

Treatment for Cancer Pain
Cancer pain can be dull, sharp, or achy. It can be constant or intermittent and can be mild, severe, or moderate. There are several over-the-counter or prescription medicines available in the market which can reduce the pain caused by the growing tissues or the treatments/therapies. A few such pain relievers include aspirin, acetaminophen, and ibuprofen.

Treatment According to Severity
For pain which is mild or moderate, you can opt for Non-opioids which are anti-inflammatory medicines and can be bought without the prescription from the drug counters. If you are having moderate to severe symptoms of pain, then you may be prescribed opioids like hydromorphone, hydrocodone, fentanyl, etc.

For burning and tingling sensation, antidepressants like imipramine or the trazodone, etc., can provide relief. You must not confuse antidepressant with medicines for depression; these are for pain management as well. You can also opt for the antiepileptics drugs which can reduce the burning or tingling sensation of cancer and have it doesn’t refer that you get seizures. If there is swelling, then steroids are the option for you to control the swelling and the pain caused from it.

Ways to Take Medicines for Cancer Pain
Most of the medications that your doctor would prescribe you have to be taken orally if not directed otherwise. The medications are usually in the pills form. If the patient, for any reason, is not able to take the drugs orally, then he/she may have to take them as rectal suppositories and even transdermal patches.

It can also be injected into your body through an intravenous opening in which the needle with the medicine is inserted directly into the veins. There is also a subcutaneous process where the medicine is injected with a small needle just under the first layer of your skin.

Studies report that often cancer pain is under-treated. A common reason is the reluctance of the patients to speak about the pain. Other reasons for not opting for pain medications are the fear of addiction and side-effects.

Cancer pain management is indeed an important part of the cancer treatment, and the goal is to manage the pain at a bearable level. And, the best part is that the goal is often achieved.
 

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