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Brain Tips

Brain Damage - Causes & Symptoms Of It!

Dr. Vineet Varghese 86% (50 ratings)
MBBS, DNB - General Surgery, DNB- Neurosurgery
Neurosurgeon, Delhi
Brain Damage - Causes & Symptoms Of It!

Regardless of whether the cause is a tumor, trauma, stroke or any other illness, any injury which inflicts damage on your brain cells is considered to be a brain damage. 

There are two types of brain damage, both of which interfere with the standard functioning of the brain. 
They are:

  1. Acquired brain injury (ABI): Either resulting from a tumor or a neurological illness, for instance a stroke, this type of brain injury originates from the cellular level and is commonly linked with brain pressure.
  2. Traumatic brain injury (TBI): It results from any damage imparted to the skull usually from an external and physical force like a blow to the head or a head accident, which in turn damages the brain.

How severe the brain damage is depends largely on the type of brain injury. Mild brain injuries are temporary, causing headaches, memory lapses, nausea and confusion. On the other hand, severe brain injuries cause cognitive, physical and behavioral impairments which are often life-changing and permanent.

Causes:
Acquired brain injuries may be caused by:

  1. Poisoning
  2. Being exposed to toxic substances
  3. Choking, strangulation or drowning
  4. Heart attacks
  5. Infections
  6. Stroke
  7. Tumors
  8. Neurological illnesses
  9. Aneurysms
  10. Illegal drug abuse

Traumatic brain injuries are usually caused by:

  1. Car accidents
  2. Sports injuries
  3. Physical violence
  4. Head blows
  5. Falls and other mishaps

Symptoms:
Whether acquired or traumatic, symptoms of brain damage can be classified under four major groups:

1.  Cognitive symptoms generally include

  • Having a hard time processing information or expressing thoughts
  • Difficulty in understanding others or abstract concepts
  • Indecisiveness
  • Memory loss
  • Short attention spans

2.  Physical symptoms generally include

3.  Perceptual symptoms generally include

  • Spatial disorientation
  • Smell and taste disorders
  • Heightened pain sensitivity
  • Changes in hearing, seeing, or touch sensations
  • Unable to perceive time
  • Balance problems

4.  Emotional or behavioral symptoms generally include

  • Decreased stress tolerance
  • Heightened or flattened reactions or emotions
  • Aggressiveness
  • Sluggishness
  • Impatience and irritability
  • Self-denial
1414 people found this helpful

All You Need To Know About Epilepsy

Dr. Rakesh Kumar 87% (27 ratings)
DM - Neurology, MD - Medicine, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Neurologist, Ghaziabad
All You Need To Know About Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a neurological disease which is characterised by recurring epileptic seizures. These seizures can be brief or can persist for prolonged periods. Vigorous episodes which last long can result in physical injuries such as broken bones. 

Causes of Epilepsy

The cause of this condition isn’t very evident; however, most medical practitioners attribute epileptic seizures to brain injury, tumours, infections in the brain or birth defects. Some doctors believe that epilepsy is caused due to genetic mutations and is an outcome of abnormal activity of cells in the brain. Other causes for this condition can be alcohol or narcotics withdrawal and electrolyte problems.

Symptoms

  1. Repeated seizures
  2. Impaired memory
  3. Bouts of fainting
  4. Short spans of blackout
  5. Sudden bouts of blinking and chewing
  6. Panic
  7. Inappropriate repetitive movements

Types of Seizures

A seizure, also known as fit, is usually a brief episode characterised by uncontrollable jerking movement and loss of awareness due to abnormal neuronal activity in your brain. A collective occurrence of these seizures causes epilepsy.

There are three types of seizures an epileptic person usually encounters:

  1. Idiopathic: This kind of seizure has no apparent cause
  2. Cryptogenic: The doctors believe that there is a cause for the seizure but cannot detect it
  3. Symptomatic: These seizures occur due to a reason.

Treatments

  1. Medication: Medication is the most common treatment in case of epilepsy. Drugs taken on a regular basis can stop the seizure partially. But in very severe cases, they seem to have no effect at all.
  2. Surgery: For symptomatic seizures which are caused due to abnormal brain function, surgery can be a way to get rid of seizures. In some minor cases, nerve stimulation in the brain and special diets can be prescribed to control the epileptic seizures.

Five facts about epilepsy you need to know:

  1. Epilepsy is not psychosis or madness and can be treated easily 
  2. Popular celebraties with epilepsy include Aristotle, Alfred Nobel, Alexander the great, Sir Isaacs Newton, Martin Luther and Julius Caesar etc. 
  3. Women with epilepsy can have a normal pregnancy 
  4. Newer medicines for epilepsy are effective and very safe 
  5. Surgery can cure epilepsy in some patients.
2859 people found this helpful

World Stroke Day!

Dr. Vasudev Sharan Parashar 87% (12 ratings)
DM Neurology
Neurologist, Jaipur

I want to infom the society that 29th october is celebrated as a World Stroke day worldwide.World stroke organisation have decided to celebrate this occassion with  the theme of "SUPPORT" to make society more responsible towards the care of stroke survivors.As human is a social creature so its difficult for a sick person who has disabilities to live a healthy life without the support of family and care givers.I would like to advise you that don't leave any stroke survivor alone and tell him that you are there to support them so that he can recover quickly.

Brain Tumor - 10 Possible Warning Signs Your Body Is Giving You!

Dr. Arun Sharma 92% (35 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery, MCh - Neuro Surgery
Neurosurgeon, Delhi
Brain Tumor -  10 Possible Warning Signs Your Body Is Giving You!

A Brain Tumour can be defined as an abnormal growth of the tissues in the brain, which can disrupt the proper brain functions. Generally, the cells in the human body die and are replaced by new cells, while in the case of a tumour, the old cells do not die and form an accumulation and continues to grow to form a mass as more and more cells are added to it.

Symptoms of Brain Tumour:

  1. Headache: Having headache on regular basis, without any history of having such frequent headaches in past, which becomes worse because of other pressure related activities, such as sneezing, coughing, exercising might be a possible symptom of brain tumour and issues related to such sudden and frequent headaches should be taken up with the doctor without any further delay.
  2. Seizures: Seizures (fits) are amongst the most common symptoms of brain tumour, which might be limited to a particular body part or the whole body. Seizures might even continue after the treatment of brain tumour because of the left scar tissues in the brain.
  3. Numbness in arms/legs: Numbness in any body part, especially arms and legs should also be get evaluated timely, so that, if the possible reason behind them is a brain tumour, then the same could be treated well on time.
  4. Balancing problems: Poor coordination and balancing problems also arise as the most prominent symptom for the brain tumour and hence such small changes must be evaluated and the person suffering should be taken to a doctor immediately to get treated without any delay.
  5. Memory problems: Lack of concentration, poor memory and short term memory loss are few of the possible symptoms that indicate the presence of tumour.
  6. Nausea or vomiting: Nausea or vomiting might be the symptoms of many other possible health issues, but a headache supported by nausea and/or vomiting is one of the many symptoms of a brain tumour and hence should not be ignored.
  7. Facial paralysis: The inability to keep the facial activities under control also indicates the presence of a possible brain tumour and the same should also be diagnosed as soon as one experiences it.
  8. Change in vision: A person suffering from brain tumour might also experience changes in the vision, dizziness, blurry vision, among other sight related issues.
  9. Change in speech: The inability to speak properly and changes in the speech of a person may also indicate a possible presence of a tumour.
  10. Hearing problems: Sudden occurrence of hearing problems and other hearing related disorders might have the brain tumour as a possible reason.

Diagnosing a brain tumour may include one or more of many tests, including CT scan, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Angiogram and biopsy. One should never ignore the symptoms of the brain tumour and should get himself/herself checked since the brain tumours might result into permanent damages to the brain; hence such issues should never be ignored.

Brain Stroke - Things You Must Know!

Dr. Rakesh Kumar 87% (27 ratings)
DM - Neurology, MD - Medicine, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Neurologist, Bangalore
Brain Stroke - Things You Must Know!

A brain stroke can affect anyone at any point of time when the supply of blood to the brain is interrupted. It can threaten major physical functions and can prove to be fatally dangerous at times. The brain stem which is placed right above the spinal cord controls the breathing, heartbeat and levels of blood pressure. It is also in charge of controlling some elementary functions such as swallowing, hearing, speech and eye movements.

What are the different types of strokes?

There are three main kinds of stroke: ischemic strokes, hemorrhagic strokes and transient ischemic attacks. The most common type of brain stroke is the ischemic stroke is caused by narrowing or blocking of arteries to the brain, which prevents the proper supply of blood to the brain. Sometimes it so happens that the blood clot that has formed elsewhere in the body have travelled via the blood vessels and has been trapped in the blood vessel which provides blood to the brain. When the supply of blood to a part of the brain is hindered, the tissue in that area dies off owing to lack of oxygen. The other variant of brain stroke is termed as hemorrhagic stroke is caused when the blood vessels in and around the brain burst or leak. Strokes need to be diagnosed and treated as quickly as possible in order to minimize brain damage.  Remembering the F.A.S.T. acronym can help with recognizing the onset of stroke (Face, Arms, Speed, Time - explained below). 

What are the common symptoms of a brain stroke?

The symptoms of the brain stroke are largely dependent on the area of the brain that has been affected. It can interfere with normal functioning, such as breathing and talking and other functions which human beings can perform without thinking such as eye movements or swallowing. Since all the signals from the brain as well as other parts of the body traverse through the brain stem, the interruption of blood flow often leads to numbness or paralysis in different parts of the body.

Who is likely to have a stroke?

Anyone is at a risk of developing brain stroke although ageing is directly proportional to the risk of having a stroke. Not only that an individual with a family history of brain stroke or transient ischemic attack is at a higher risk of developing stroke. People who have aged over 65 accounts for about 33 percent of all brain strokes. It is important to point here that individuals with high blood pressure, high blood sugar, cholesterol, cancer, autoimmune diseases and some blood disorders are at a higher risk of developing brain stroke.

There are a few factors which can increase the risk of developing stroke beyond any control. But there are certain lifestyle choices as well which aids in controlling the chances of being affected by stroke. It is crucial to refrain from long-term hormone replacement therapies as well as birth control pills, smoking, lack of physical activity, excessive use of alcohol and drug addiction. A brain stroke is a life-threatening medical condition, and when an individual has symptoms that resemble that of stroke, it is crucial to seek immediate medical help.

Treatment for stroke

  1. Treatment depends on the type of stroke.
  2. Ischemic strokes can be treated with 'clot-busting' drugs.
  3. Hemorrhagic strokes can be treated with surgery to repair or block blood vessel weaknesses.
  4. The most effective way to prevent strokes is through maintaining a healthy lifestyle.

What is TPA?

TPA is a thrombolytic or a “Clot Buster” drug. This clot buster is used to break-up the clot that is causing a blockage or disruption in the flow of blood to the brain and helps restore the blood flow to the area of the brain. It is given by intravenous (IV). This can be given only within 4.5 hrs of the onset of symptoms

Time is brain

  1. Remember Every second Loss means brain cells die.
  2. Rush to the nearest Stroke Centre whenever you experience such symptoms.
  3. U can save the brain cells dying if you reach within 4.5 hrs by the CLOT BUSTER. 

Endovascular procedures 

Another treatment option is an endovascular procedure* called mechanical thrombectomy, strongly recommended, in which  trained doctors try  removing a large blood clot by  sending a wired-caged device called a stent retriever, to the site of the blocked blood vessel in the brain

Stroke prevention

The good news is that 80 percent of all strokes are preventable. It starts with managing key risk factors, including 

  1. High blood pressure,
  2. Cigarette smoking,
  3. Diabetes
  4. Atrial fibrillation and
  5. Physical inactivity.
  6. More than half of all strokes are caused by uncontrolled hypertension or high blood pressure, making it the most important risk factor to control. 

Rehabilitation

The best way to get better after a stroke is to start stroke rehabilitation ("rehab"). In stroke rehab, a team of health professionals works with you to regain skills you lost as the result of a stroke.

2679 people found this helpful

Brain Stroke - 8 Top Things That Can Prevent It!

Dr. Arun Sharma 92% (35 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery, MCh - Neuro Surgery
Neurosurgeon, Delhi
Brain Stroke - 8 Top Things That Can Prevent It!

As the famous quote says, 'prevention is better than cure', let us take you through some preventive measures to keep you and your loved ones away from the dreadful brain stroke. Brain stroke occurs due to an interruption in the regular blood flow to the brain or bursting of a blood vessel or due to the bursting of blocked artery, which reduces the supply of oxygen and nutrients, leading the brain cells to die.

Top 8 things that will reduce the likelihood of having a brain stroke:

  1. Eat well: Having good eating habits are not just good for a healthy outlook of the body, but also benefits the body in many other ways. Eating a plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables, fibre rich diet, reducing salt and fat content can prevent stroke.
  2. Stay Active: Regular exercising not just makes you feel and look good, but also reduces the odds of developing a brain stroke. Exercising regularly or keeping the physical activities regularly will keep you away from suffering a stroke. Pick any physical activity, but do work out to stay away from the brain stroke.
  3. Say no to Smoking and drugs: Yes! The more you smoke, the more are the chances of you of suffering the deadly brain stroke.
  4. Control your blood pressure: The ideal blood pressure for a healthy person is 120/88 mm HG. Regular check-up of blood pressure is advisable to control the chances of suffering a stroke as high blood pressure can result into damage of arteries, which causes brain stroke.
  5. Drink in limits: Limit the amount of alcohol you consume, as alcohol increases the blood pressure, which is one of the main reasons behind the stroke. The high amount of alcohol can increase the blood pressure to a higher level very quickly. Consulting a doctor is the best option in case you are not able to control your alcohol intake.
  6. Cholesterol: People suffering from high cholesterol are at higher risk of strokes as the cholesterol can travel to the arteries in the body making the arteries narrow and the body more prone to suffer a stroke. Choosing healthy lifestyle helps in reducing the cholesterol level.
  7. Diabetes: High level of diabetes is one of the most prominent reasons behind stroke. One should get his diabetes level checked and keep it under control since the arteries might get blocked because of fatty deposits because of higher sugar levels.
  8. Depression/Stress: Any kind of depression or stress, generally leads to avoidance of all or some of the points discussed above and hence becomes a reason for an unhealthy body, which is more prone to strokes. Consultation with a doctor and/or psychiatrist is advisable in case a person if suffering from depression.

Improving your health and taking charge of your life should be the top most priority and should never be ignored.
 

1873 people found this helpful

ब्रेन कैंसर के लक्षण - Symptoms Of Brain Cancer!

Dr. Sanjeev Kumar Singh 87% (192 ratings)
Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Lakhimpur Kheri
ब्रेन कैंसर के लक्षण - Symptoms Of Brain Cancer!

शरीर के अलग-अलग अंगों में होने वाले कैंसर को उसके नाम से ही जानते हैं. इसलिए ब्रेन कैंसर का मतलब कैंसर के उस रूप से है जो मस्तिष्क (ब्रेन) से शुरू होता है. ब्रेन कैंसर मस्तिष्क की एक प्रकार की बीमारी है, जिसमें मस्तिष्क के ऊतकों में कैंसर कोशिकाएं पैदा होने लगती हैं. कैंसर की कोशिकाएं मस्तिष्क में ऊतकों के समूह या एक ट्यूमर के रूप में ऊभरती हैं, जो मस्तिष्क के कार्यों में बाधा उत्पन्न करती हैं. जैसे मांसपेशियों के नियंत्रण में परेशानी, सनसनी, यादाश्त और अन्य मस्तिष्क कार्यों को प्रभावित करना. कैंसर जो मस्तिष्क में शुरू होता है उसको प्राइमरी ब्रेन ट्यूमर कहा जाता है. यह ट्यूमर मस्तिष्क की संरचना से जुड़े किसी भी भाग में विकसित हो सकता है. जो कैंसर शरीर के किसी अन्य भाग से मस्तिष्क में फैलता है, उसे सेकंडरी ब्रेन ट्यूमर या ब्रेन मेटास्टेस कहा जाता है. ब्रेन कैंसर ट्यूमर मस्तिष्क पर अधिक दबाव डालता है, जिससे या तो वह ऊतक नष्ट होने लग जाते हैं या शरीर के अन्य भागों में समस्याएं उत्पन्न होने लगती हैं. ब्रेन कैंसर के लक्षणों के दिखाई पड़ने पर आपको तुरंत किसी विशेषज्ञ से दिखाना चाहिए. आइए ब्रेन कैंसर के लक्षणों को इस लेख के माध्यम से समझने का प्रयास करें.

ब्रेन कैंसर के लक्षण

किसी भी बिमारी को लक्षणों के आधार पर ही हम उसे पहचानते हैं. ठीक इसी तरह ब्रेन कैंसर होने पर भी हमें हमारे शरीर कुछ लक्षण दिखाई पड़ने लगते हैं. ये लक्षण ही ब्रेन कैंसर के होने का संकेत देते हैं. मेटास्टेटिक ब्रेन ट्यूमर के संकेत और लक्षण काफी सूक्ष्म हो सकते हैं, जिनका पता लगाने में परेशानी हो सकती है. ये ट्यूमर अक्सर किसी दूसरी स्थिति की जांच के दौरान दिखाई देते हैं. इसके लक्षण विकसित होने का कारण यह होता है कि ब्रेन का ट्यूमर या तो मस्तिष्क पर दबाव डाल रहा होता है या फिर उसके किसी हिस्से को ठीक से काम करने से रोक रहा होता है. इस दौरान मरीज क्या अनुभव कर रहा हैं? आम तौर पर यह इस बात पर निर्भर करता है कि ट्यूमर कहां पर है और आकार में कितना बड़ा है. इसके निम्नलिखित लक्षण संभावित हैं.

कभी-कभी मतली और उल्टी के साथ सिर दर्द

यह समस्या ट्यमर के कारण होती है जो आस-पास के ऊतकों को दबाकर खोपड़ी में दबाव बनाता है. आम तौर पर स्थिति सुबह के समय बद्तर होती है और दिन निकलने के साथ-साथ कम होती जाती है. पूरे शरीर में या आंशिक रूप से दौरे पड़ना, मांसपेशियों में ऐंठन, असामान्य गंध या स्वाद, बोलने में समस्या या सुन्नता और झुनझुनी अनुभव करना.

बोलने, समझने और देखते में समस्या

ब्रेन में ट्यूमर मस्तिष्क के उस भाग को प्रभावित कर सकता है, जो इन क्षमताओं को नियंत्रित करते हैं. शारीरिक कमजोरी और सुन्नता, यह तब होती है जब ट्यूमर मस्तिष्क के उन हिस्सों को प्रभावित करता है जो मांसपेशियों को नियंत्रित करते है. यदि ट्यूमर मस्तिष्क से मांसपेशियों तक जाने वाले सामान्य संकेतों के रास्ते में विकसित हो जाता है तो यह ब्रेन की कार्यगति में परेशानी पैदा करता है.

ब्रेन कैंसर में इसके अतिरिक्त कुछ अन्य लक्षण भी दिखाई पड़ सकते हैं: दौरे पड़ना, संवेदी (स्पर्श) और ब्रेन की कार्यगति (मूवमेंट कंट्रोल) में कमी, बहरापन, उनींदापन या उंघना, थकान, समन्वय में कमी, चेहरे पर कमजोरी का भाव, दोहरा दिखाई देना, डिप्रेशन (अवसाद), व्यवहारिक और सोचने समझने की क्षमता में परिवर्तन. उपरोक्त लक्षण ट्यूमर के प्रकार, आकार और उसकी जगह से जुड़े हो सकते हैं. इसके साथ ही साथ ये ब्रेन कैंसर को नियंत्रित करने के लिए उपचार में भी मदद करते हैं. सर्जरी, विकिरण (रेडिएशन), कीमोथेरेपी, और अन्य सभी प्रकार के उपचारों में नए लक्षण उत्पन्न करने की क्षमता होती है, क्योंकि ये ट्यूमर के प्रभाव को कम करने के लिए काम करते हैं.
 

Acoustic Neuroma - What Are The Risk Factors?

Dr. Brajpal Singh Tyagi 87% (25 ratings)
MBBS, MS - ENT
ENT Specialist, Mumbai
Acoustic Neuroma - What Are The Risk Factors?

Acoustic neuroma is the development of noncancerous and slow-growing tumors on the main, vestibular nerve that travels from the inner ear to the brain, connecting the two organs. They are also known as vestibular schwannoma, as it arises from Schwann cells covering the vestibular nerve. It rarely grows rapidly or attains a large enough size that can press against the brain and interfere with the vital functions of the brain. Since the tumor is benign, the patient can be assured that it won’t spread to the other parts of the body; however, they can grow large enough to disrupt the normal function of the body.

The pressure from the acoustic neuroma on the main nerve can cause loss of hearing, a constant ringing in the ear and unsteadiness. As per a report published by the Acoustic Neuroma Association, 1 out of every 50,000 people suffers from this condition.

Risk factors for acoustic neuroma
Acoustic neuroma does not have quite as many risk factors. The only established risk factor for acoustic neuroma is having a parent who suffers from the rare genetic disorder neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2). However, having said that, neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) accounts for only 5 percent of the reported cases. In most of the cases, it has been found that the tumors appear spontaneously without any indication of a family member having this disease or any medical history of the same.

The development of noncancerous tumors on the ear nerves as well as other nerves in the body is scientifically supported as a characteristic indication of neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2). Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) is also termed as an autosomal dominant disorder, which indicates that the mutated gene can pass from just one parent. Each of the children has a fifty-fifty chance of inheriting the disease.

However, scientists and doctors have failed to identify why specific people get these tumors. They have reached a generic conclusion about the risk factors, which may include:

  • Loud noises near the ear.
  • A parathyroid neuroma, which is a similar benign tumor of the thyroid.
  • A chance of exposure to low levels of radiation in the childhood.

How to diagnose the risk factors for acoustic neuroma?
If you are experiencing loss of hearing or other neurological symptoms, try to keep track of them. Later on, mention them to your doctor for a proper diagnosis. A detailed history of the symptoms will help your doctor. Your doctor will perform a hearing test to check whether you have an acoustic neuroma. Then the doctor may perform a brainstem auditory evoked response tests along with an electronystagmography to detect any changes in eye movement, caused due to the inner ear. MRI and CT scans are also quite common diagnoses methods for acoustic neuroma.

3743 people found this helpful

What You Need To Know About Brain Injury?

Dr. Haresh Sampathkumar 90% (47 ratings)
MD - Brain Injury Medicine, MD - Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, MD - Internal Medicine
PMR (Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation) Specialist, Chennai

TYPES

  • Traumatic Brain Injury - Happens due to trauma 
  • Anoxic/Hypoxic brain injury - Happens due to decreased blood or oxygen supply to the brain. 
  • Ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident (commonly referred to as stroke) - Happens due to clots occluding the blood vessels in the brain or due to bleeding of blood vessels in the brain  
  • Brain tumors and metastasis (spreading of cancer) to the brain 
  • Vascular malformations of the brain such as Arteriovenous malformation, aneurysm etc - 
  • Brain infections
  • Autoimmune conditions such as  Multiple Sclerosis and auto-immune encephalitis - 
  • Toxic/metabolic causes such as post transplantation, sepsis, liver failure and kidney failure
  • Basically any injury or illness that affects your brain function for a prolonged period of time causing temporary or permanant damage 

SYMPTOMS

Usually individuals affected by these conditions can have a number of symptoms directly related to the brain injury such as

  • One-sided or both sided weakness and numbness of the arms and legs
  • Pain and tightness of the arms and legs
  • Difficulty with speech
  • Impaired consciousness (i.e. impaired arousal)
  • Cognitive impairment such as memory problems, slow thinking skills, problems with attention
  • Changes in their behavior such as aggression
  • Changes in their mood such as depression and anxiety
  • Difficulty in swallowing
  • Bladder and bowel incontinence
  • Visual problem
  • Hearing problem

MEDICAL COMPLICATIONS

There are medical complications that can be noted a few weeks or months after a brain injury. Some common ones include

  • Pneumonia
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Deep vein thrombosis – blood clot in the veins of your arms and legs
  • Pulmonary embolus – blood clot in your lungs
  • Pressure ulcers
  • Heterotopic ossification – a condition which causes stiffness of your joints
  • Seizures
  • Post-stroke shoulder pain – shoulder pain in the weak arm
  • Spasticity – tightness of the muscles of the affected arm and leg
  • Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity – a condition which causes fluctuations in your blood pressure, heart rate, and also causes abnormal stiffness of the arms and legs
  • Headache
  • Hydrocephalus – a condition where fluid builds up in your brain

HOW REHABILITATION CAN HELP?

A comprehensive, interdisciplinary team approach (i.e. care being provided by various disciplines in a coordinated fashion) with   Physician (Physiatrist), Physiotherapist, Occupational Therapist,  Speech and Language Therapist, Neuropsychologist,  Nutritionist and a  Nurse can help reduce your symptoms directly related to the injury as well as prevent and treat common medical complications post brain injury. Not all patients will require all services and usually, a combination of these services is required for an individual patient. 

PHYSICIAN (PHYSIATRIST)

Patients can be evaluated by the Physician first to determine the nature and severity of the medical condition then come up with a treatment plan that best suits them. Depending on the patient’s symptoms and medical complications (listed above), the treatment plan will include recommending therapy services, prescribing medications and performing injections. Medications are commonly  prescribed for medical complications as well as to reduce symptoms directly related to brain injury such as arm and leg weakness, muscle tightness, speech impairment, mood and behavior issues, cognitive impairment and impaired arousal. The physician  performs injections such as tendon injections, joint injections for joint or muscle pain as well as Botulinum toxin (commonly referred as Botox injections) and nerve block injections to help relieve muscle and tendon tightness.

PHYSIOTHERAPIST

A Physiotherapist will  focus on various physical exercises to improve weakness in the arms and legs, improve their walking and balance and to reduce muscle tightness. They might use physical modalities to reduce pain and inflammation, muscle and tendon tightness and prevent muscle atrophy. They can also fit you with an orthosis to reduce muscle tightness as well as improve your walking and arm function.

OCCUPATIONAL THERAPIST

An Occupational Therapist will focus on various physical activities required for daily living for patients with severe physical and/or cognitive impairment and also teach cognitive exercises thereby compensating the cognitive deficits.  Visual Training exercises are provided to individuals with visual impairment due to the neurological problem. The final phase of treatment involves patient training for successful community integration (education, employment etc).

SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGIST

A Speech Language Pathologist (commonly referred to as a Speech and Language Therapist), will evaluate the patient’s speech, communication and swallowing skills.  The treatment plan is broken down after an initial evaluation. The program will vary depending on the extent of the injury, the stage of recovery, and the individual’s particular areas of difficulty. Specific retraining and compensatory exercises are taught to improve the above skills. However, the major focus is on helping the individual gain back his/her quality of life.

NEUROPSYCHOLOGIST

A Neuropsychologist evaluates  patients  with depression and anxiety, that is commonly seen after any major  life-changing illness or injury and guides them through the process of rehabilitation  thereby improving their quality of life through motivation and counseling.  Performing an in-depth cognitive assessment and planning cognitive re-training exercises and compensatory strategies is also a major treatment aspect of a Neuropsychologist.

NUTRITIONIST

Malnutrition or undernourishment is a common problem in this population. For optimal recovery,  a Nutritionist recommends an appropriate intake of nutrition.

REHABILITATION NURSE

A Rehabilitation Nurse  trains patients with central nervous system injury to manage their bowel and bladder independently.  Performing and training wound care management for patients with pressure ulcers are also handled by a Rehabilitation Nurse.

EXPECTATIONS OF RECOVERY

Depending on the severity and chronicity (time duration since injury/illness) of the injury/illness, your recovery time may differ. Complete neurological recovery is often possible if the injury is mild to moderate. In the case of a moderate to severe injury, a complete neurological recovery may not be possible and therefore the goal will be to help you be as independent as possible and integrate you into the community despite your physical and/or cognitive limitation. If the injury is too severe, then the goal would be to improve your quality of life by helping you be as independent as possible with your day to day living, decrease pain and prevent complications.

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Types And Symptoms Of Brain Tumor!

Dr. Ketan Dang 88% (111 ratings)
DNB - Medical Oncology, MD - Medicine, MBBS
Oncologist, Chandigarh
Types And Symptoms Of Brain Tumor!

Brain tumours vary in shape and size and the same is the case with their symptoms. The location of the tumour affects the symptoms greatly. Just like in any other type of a malignant tumour, brain tumour has a rapid growth and proliferation of abnormal cells that may have its origin in affected site or areas adjacent to it. As per studies, every 2 in 1,00,000 people are said to be affected by brain tumour in India. However, it may come as a relief to some as not all brain tumors are cancerous or life threatening. Some are benign tumors and seldom pose any threat to the affected individual.

Types of Brain Tumor
Brain tumors may be primary or secondary.

  1. Primary brain tumor: Here the abnormal mass of cells that originated in the brain do not metastasize to the other organs. Based on their location in the brain, the primary brain tumors may be of the following types.
    • Gliomas: One of the most common types of primary brain tumors, gliomas can have their origin in the spinal cord or the brain. Some of the common types of gliomas include Astrocytomas (originates in the cerebrum of the brain), Glioblastomas (these tumors form from the Astrocytes which form the supportive tissues of the brain), Ependymoma (these develop from the ependymal cells which are present within the CNS), Oligodendrogliomas (these tumors are found to arise from the oligodendrocytes).
    • Schwannomas: Also called as Acoustic neuromas, these primary brain tumors form on the nerves that play an important role in regulating the balance and hearing from the inner ear to the brain.
    • Meningiomas: These type of tumors are usually benign and have their origin in the meninges (membranes surrounding the spinal cord and the brain).
    • Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs): Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are rare malignant tumors that originate from the fetal (embryonic) cells in the brain.
    • Pituitary adenomas: As the name suggests, these tumors arise from the pituitary gland located at the base of the brain.
    • Medulloblastomas: Common among the children, these malignant primary tumors develop in the brain (lower back) and gradually spread via the spinal fluid.
    • Other types of primary brain tumors include Craniopharyngiomas and the Germ cell tumors.
  2. Secondary brain tumors: Unlike the primary brain tumors, these tumors have their origin in the other body parts and organs (mostly in the lungs, skin, colon, breast, and kidney) and then gradually metastasize to the brain. The secondary brain tumors are found to be more common.

Symptoms or warning signs associated with brain tumors:
Some of the signs and symptoms that may be indicative of a brain tumor include

  1. People with brain tumors often get seizures (due to the irritation caused by the tumors in the brain).
  2. A headache (mild to severe depending on the part of the brain affected by the tumor).
  3. A person experiences numbness or a tingling sensation in the legs and arms.
  4. There may be difficulties in walking or balancing.
  5. A person finds it difficult to concentrate.
  6. There may be some problems with hearing, speech or even vision.
  7. A person may experience weakness restricted to only one part of the body.

The symptoms may not necessarily indicate a brain tumor but it is always wise not to neglect the symptoms either.

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