Regardless of whether the cause is a tumor, trauma, stroke or any other illness, any injury which inflicts damage on your brain cells is considered to be a brain damage.
There are two types of brain damage, both of which interfere with the standard functioning of the brain.
How severe the brain damage is depends largely on the type of brain injury. Mild brain injuries are temporary, causing headaches, memory lapses, nausea and confusion. On the other hand, severe brain injuries cause cognitive, physical and behavioral impairments which are often life-changing and permanent.
Acquired brain injuries may be caused by:
Traumatic brain injuries are usually caused by:
Whether acquired or traumatic, symptoms of brain damage can be classified under four major groups:
1. Cognitive symptoms generally include
2. Physical symptoms generally include
3. Perceptual symptoms generally include
4. Emotional or behavioral symptoms generally include
Epilepsy is a neurological disease which is characterised by recurring epileptic seizures. These seizures can be brief or can persist for prolonged periods. Vigorous episodes which last long can result in physical injuries such as broken bones.
Causes of Epilepsy
The cause of this condition isn’t very evident; however, most medical practitioners attribute epileptic seizures to brain injury, tumours, infections in the brain or birth defects. Some doctors believe that epilepsy is caused due to genetic mutations and is an outcome of abnormal activity of cells in the brain. Other causes for this condition can be alcohol or narcotics withdrawal and electrolyte problems.
Types of Seizures
A seizure, also known as fit, is usually a brief episode characterised by uncontrollable jerking movement and loss of awareness due to abnormal neuronal activity in your brain. A collective occurrence of these seizures causes epilepsy.
There are three types of seizures an epileptic person usually encounters:
Five facts about epilepsy you need to know:
I want to infom the society that 29th october is celebrated as a World Stroke day worldwide.World stroke organisation have decided to celebrate this occassion with the theme of "SUPPORT" to make society more responsible towards the care of stroke survivors.As human is a social creature so its difficult for a sick person who has disabilities to live a healthy life without the support of family and care givers.I would like to advise you that don't leave any stroke survivor alone and tell him that you are there to support them so that he can recover quickly.
A Brain Tumour can be defined as an abnormal growth of the tissues in the brain, which can disrupt the proper brain functions. Generally, the cells in the human body die and are replaced by new cells, while in the case of a tumour, the old cells do not die and form an accumulation and continues to grow to form a mass as more and more cells are added to it.
Symptoms of Brain Tumour:
Diagnosing a brain tumour may include one or more of many tests, including CT scan, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Angiogram and biopsy. One should never ignore the symptoms of the brain tumour and should get himself/herself checked since the brain tumours might result into permanent damages to the brain; hence such issues should never be ignored.
A brain stroke can affect anyone at any point of time when the supply of blood to the brain is interrupted. It can threaten major physical functions and can prove to be fatally dangerous at times. The brain stem which is placed right above the spinal cord controls the breathing, heartbeat and levels of blood pressure. It is also in charge of controlling some elementary functions such as swallowing, hearing, speech and eye movements.
What are the different types of strokes?
There are three main kinds of stroke: ischemic strokes, hemorrhagic strokes and transient ischemic attacks. The most common type of brain stroke is the ischemic stroke is caused by narrowing or blocking of arteries to the brain, which prevents the proper supply of blood to the brain. Sometimes it so happens that the blood clot that has formed elsewhere in the body have travelled via the blood vessels and has been trapped in the blood vessel which provides blood to the brain. When the supply of blood to a part of the brain is hindered, the tissue in that area dies off owing to lack of oxygen. The other variant of brain stroke is termed as hemorrhagic stroke is caused when the blood vessels in and around the brain burst or leak. Strokes need to be diagnosed and treated as quickly as possible in order to minimize brain damage. Remembering the F.A.S.T. acronym can help with recognizing the onset of stroke (Face, Arms, Speed, Time - explained below).
What are the common symptoms of a brain stroke?
The symptoms of the brain stroke are largely dependent on the area of the brain that has been affected. It can interfere with normal functioning, such as breathing and talking and other functions which human beings can perform without thinking such as eye movements or swallowing. Since all the signals from the brain as well as other parts of the body traverse through the brain stem, the interruption of blood flow often leads to numbness or paralysis in different parts of the body.
Who is likely to have a stroke?
Anyone is at a risk of developing brain stroke although ageing is directly proportional to the risk of having a stroke. Not only that an individual with a family history of brain stroke or transient ischemic attack is at a higher risk of developing stroke. People who have aged over 65 accounts for about 33 percent of all brain strokes. It is important to point here that individuals with high blood pressure, high blood sugar, cholesterol, cancer, autoimmune diseases and some blood disorders are at a higher risk of developing brain stroke.
There are a few factors which can increase the risk of developing stroke beyond any control. But there are certain lifestyle choices as well which aids in controlling the chances of being affected by stroke. It is crucial to refrain from long-term hormone replacement therapies as well as birth control pills, smoking, lack of physical activity, excessive use of alcohol and drug addiction. A brain stroke is a life-threatening medical condition, and when an individual has symptoms that resemble that of stroke, it is crucial to seek immediate medical help.
Treatment for stroke
What is TPA?
TPA is a thrombolytic or a “Clot Buster” drug. This clot buster is used to break-up the clot that is causing a blockage or disruption in the flow of blood to the brain and helps restore the blood flow to the area of the brain. It is given by intravenous (IV). This can be given only within 4.5 hrs of the onset of symptoms
Time is brain
Another treatment option is an endovascular procedure* called mechanical thrombectomy, strongly recommended, in which trained doctors try removing a large blood clot by sending a wired-caged device called a stent retriever, to the site of the blocked blood vessel in the brain
The good news is that 80 percent of all strokes are preventable. It starts with managing key risk factors, including
The best way to get better after a stroke is to start stroke rehabilitation ("rehab"). In stroke rehab, a team of health professionals works with you to regain skills you lost as the result of a stroke.
As the famous quote says, 'prevention is better than cure', let us take you through some preventive measures to keep you and your loved ones away from the dreadful brain stroke. Brain stroke occurs due to an interruption in the regular blood flow to the brain or bursting of a blood vessel or due to the bursting of blocked artery, which reduces the supply of oxygen and nutrients, leading the brain cells to die.
Top 8 things that will reduce the likelihood of having a brain stroke:
Improving your health and taking charge of your life should be the top most priority and should never be ignored.
शरीर के अलग-अलग अंगों में होने वाले कैंसर को उसके नाम से ही जानते हैं. इसलिए ब्रेन कैंसर का मतलब कैंसर के उस रूप से है जो मस्तिष्क (ब्रेन) से शुरू होता है. ब्रेन कैंसर मस्तिष्क की एक प्रकार की बीमारी है, जिसमें मस्तिष्क के ऊतकों में कैंसर कोशिकाएं पैदा होने लगती हैं. कैंसर की कोशिकाएं मस्तिष्क में ऊतकों के समूह या एक ट्यूमर के रूप में ऊभरती हैं, जो मस्तिष्क के कार्यों में बाधा उत्पन्न करती हैं. जैसे मांसपेशियों के नियंत्रण में परेशानी, सनसनी, यादाश्त और अन्य मस्तिष्क कार्यों को प्रभावित करना. कैंसर जो मस्तिष्क में शुरू होता है उसको प्राइमरी ब्रेन ट्यूमर कहा जाता है. यह ट्यूमर मस्तिष्क की संरचना से जुड़े किसी भी भाग में विकसित हो सकता है. जो कैंसर शरीर के किसी अन्य भाग से मस्तिष्क में फैलता है, उसे सेकंडरी ब्रेन ट्यूमर या ब्रेन मेटास्टेस कहा जाता है. ब्रेन कैंसर ट्यूमर मस्तिष्क पर अधिक दबाव डालता है, जिससे या तो वह ऊतक नष्ट होने लग जाते हैं या शरीर के अन्य भागों में समस्याएं उत्पन्न होने लगती हैं. ब्रेन कैंसर के लक्षणों के दिखाई पड़ने पर आपको तुरंत किसी विशेषज्ञ से दिखाना चाहिए. आइए ब्रेन कैंसर के लक्षणों को इस लेख के माध्यम से समझने का प्रयास करें.
ब्रेन कैंसर के लक्षण
किसी भी बिमारी को लक्षणों के आधार पर ही हम उसे पहचानते हैं. ठीक इसी तरह ब्रेन कैंसर होने पर भी हमें हमारे शरीर कुछ लक्षण दिखाई पड़ने लगते हैं. ये लक्षण ही ब्रेन कैंसर के होने का संकेत देते हैं. मेटास्टेटिक ब्रेन ट्यूमर के संकेत और लक्षण काफी सूक्ष्म हो सकते हैं, जिनका पता लगाने में परेशानी हो सकती है. ये ट्यूमर अक्सर किसी दूसरी स्थिति की जांच के दौरान दिखाई देते हैं. इसके लक्षण विकसित होने का कारण यह होता है कि ब्रेन का ट्यूमर या तो मस्तिष्क पर दबाव डाल रहा होता है या फिर उसके किसी हिस्से को ठीक से काम करने से रोक रहा होता है. इस दौरान मरीज क्या अनुभव कर रहा हैं? आम तौर पर यह इस बात पर निर्भर करता है कि ट्यूमर कहां पर है और आकार में कितना बड़ा है. इसके निम्नलिखित लक्षण संभावित हैं.
कभी-कभी मतली और उल्टी के साथ सिर दर्द
यह समस्या ट्यमर के कारण होती है जो आस-पास के ऊतकों को दबाकर खोपड़ी में दबाव बनाता है. आम तौर पर स्थिति सुबह के समय बद्तर होती है और दिन निकलने के साथ-साथ कम होती जाती है. पूरे शरीर में या आंशिक रूप से दौरे पड़ना, मांसपेशियों में ऐंठन, असामान्य गंध या स्वाद, बोलने में समस्या या सुन्नता और झुनझुनी अनुभव करना.
बोलने, समझने और देखते में समस्या
ब्रेन में ट्यूमर मस्तिष्क के उस भाग को प्रभावित कर सकता है, जो इन क्षमताओं को नियंत्रित करते हैं. शारीरिक कमजोरी और सुन्नता, यह तब होती है जब ट्यूमर मस्तिष्क के उन हिस्सों को प्रभावित करता है जो मांसपेशियों को नियंत्रित करते है. यदि ट्यूमर मस्तिष्क से मांसपेशियों तक जाने वाले सामान्य संकेतों के रास्ते में विकसित हो जाता है तो यह ब्रेन की कार्यगति में परेशानी पैदा करता है.
ब्रेन कैंसर में इसके अतिरिक्त कुछ अन्य लक्षण भी दिखाई पड़ सकते हैं: दौरे पड़ना, संवेदी (स्पर्श) और ब्रेन की कार्यगति (मूवमेंट कंट्रोल) में कमी, बहरापन, उनींदापन या उंघना, थकान, समन्वय में कमी, चेहरे पर कमजोरी का भाव, दोहरा दिखाई देना, डिप्रेशन (अवसाद), व्यवहारिक और सोचने समझने की क्षमता में परिवर्तन. उपरोक्त लक्षण ट्यूमर के प्रकार, आकार और उसकी जगह से जुड़े हो सकते हैं. इसके साथ ही साथ ये ब्रेन कैंसर को नियंत्रित करने के लिए उपचार में भी मदद करते हैं. सर्जरी, विकिरण (रेडिएशन), कीमोथेरेपी, और अन्य सभी प्रकार के उपचारों में नए लक्षण उत्पन्न करने की क्षमता होती है, क्योंकि ये ट्यूमर के प्रभाव को कम करने के लिए काम करते हैं.
Acoustic neuroma is the development of noncancerous and slow-growing tumors on the main, vestibular nerve that travels from the inner ear to the brain, connecting the two organs. They are also known as vestibular schwannoma, as it arises from Schwann cells covering the vestibular nerve. It rarely grows rapidly or attains a large enough size that can press against the brain and interfere with the vital functions of the brain. Since the tumor is benign, the patient can be assured that it won’t spread to the other parts of the body; however, they can grow large enough to disrupt the normal function of the body.
The pressure from the acoustic neuroma on the main nerve can cause loss of hearing, a constant ringing in the ear and unsteadiness. As per a report published by the Acoustic Neuroma Association, 1 out of every 50,000 people suffers from this condition.
Risk factors for acoustic neuroma
Acoustic neuroma does not have quite as many risk factors. The only established risk factor for acoustic neuroma is having a parent who suffers from the rare genetic disorder neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2). However, having said that, neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) accounts for only 5 percent of the reported cases. In most of the cases, it has been found that the tumors appear spontaneously without any indication of a family member having this disease or any medical history of the same.
The development of noncancerous tumors on the ear nerves as well as other nerves in the body is scientifically supported as a characteristic indication of neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2). Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) is also termed as an autosomal dominant disorder, which indicates that the mutated gene can pass from just one parent. Each of the children has a fifty-fifty chance of inheriting the disease.
However, scientists and doctors have failed to identify why specific people get these tumors. They have reached a generic conclusion about the risk factors, which may include:
How to diagnose the risk factors for acoustic neuroma?
If you are experiencing loss of hearing or other neurological symptoms, try to keep track of them. Later on, mention them to your doctor for a proper diagnosis. A detailed history of the symptoms will help your doctor. Your doctor will perform a hearing test to check whether you have an acoustic neuroma. Then the doctor may perform a brainstem auditory evoked response tests along with an electronystagmography to detect any changes in eye movement, caused due to the inner ear. MRI and CT scans are also quite common diagnoses methods for acoustic neuroma.
Usually individuals affected by these conditions can have a number of symptoms directly related to the brain injury such as
There are medical complications that can be noted a few weeks or months after a brain injury. Some common ones include
HOW REHABILITATION CAN HELP?
A comprehensive, interdisciplinary team approach (i.e. care being provided by various disciplines in a coordinated fashion) with Physician (Physiatrist), Physiotherapist, Occupational Therapist, Speech and Language Therapist, Neuropsychologist, Nutritionist and a Nurse can help reduce your symptoms directly related to the injury as well as prevent and treat common medical complications post brain injury. Not all patients will require all services and usually, a combination of these services is required for an individual patient.
Patients can be evaluated by the Physician first to determine the nature and severity of the medical condition then come up with a treatment plan that best suits them. Depending on the patient’s symptoms and medical complications (listed above), the treatment plan will include recommending therapy services, prescribing medications and performing injections. Medications are commonly prescribed for medical complications as well as to reduce symptoms directly related to brain injury such as arm and leg weakness, muscle tightness, speech impairment, mood and behavior issues, cognitive impairment and impaired arousal. The physician performs injections such as tendon injections, joint injections for joint or muscle pain as well as Botulinum toxin (commonly referred as Botox injections) and nerve block injections to help relieve muscle and tendon tightness.
A Physiotherapist will focus on various physical exercises to improve weakness in the arms and legs, improve their walking and balance and to reduce muscle tightness. They might use physical modalities to reduce pain and inflammation, muscle and tendon tightness and prevent muscle atrophy. They can also fit you with an orthosis to reduce muscle tightness as well as improve your walking and arm function.
An Occupational Therapist will focus on various physical activities required for daily living for patients with severe physical and/or cognitive impairment and also teach cognitive exercises thereby compensating the cognitive deficits. Visual Training exercises are provided to individuals with visual impairment due to the neurological problem. The final phase of treatment involves patient training for successful community integration (education, employment etc).
A Speech Language Pathologist (commonly referred to as a Speech and Language Therapist), will evaluate the patient’s speech, communication and swallowing skills. The treatment plan is broken down after an initial evaluation. The program will vary depending on the extent of the injury, the stage of recovery, and the individual’s particular areas of difficulty. Specific retraining and compensatory exercises are taught to improve the above skills. However, the major focus is on helping the individual gain back his/her quality of life.
A Neuropsychologist evaluates patients with depression and anxiety, that is commonly seen after any major life-changing illness or injury and guides them through the process of rehabilitation thereby improving their quality of life through motivation and counseling. Performing an in-depth cognitive assessment and planning cognitive re-training exercises and compensatory strategies is also a major treatment aspect of a Neuropsychologist.
Malnutrition or undernourishment is a common problem in this population. For optimal recovery, a Nutritionist recommends an appropriate intake of nutrition.
A Rehabilitation Nurse trains patients with central nervous system injury to manage their bowel and bladder independently. Performing and training wound care management for patients with pressure ulcers are also handled by a Rehabilitation Nurse.
EXPECTATIONS OF RECOVERY
Depending on the severity and chronicity (time duration since injury/illness) of the injury/illness, your recovery time may differ. Complete neurological recovery is often possible if the injury is mild to moderate. In the case of a moderate to severe injury, a complete neurological recovery may not be possible and therefore the goal will be to help you be as independent as possible and integrate you into the community despite your physical and/or cognitive limitation. If the injury is too severe, then the goal would be to improve your quality of life by helping you be as independent as possible with your day to day living, decrease pain and prevent complications.
Brain tumours vary in shape and size and the same is the case with their symptoms. The location of the tumour affects the symptoms greatly. Just like in any other type of a malignant tumour, brain tumour has a rapid growth and proliferation of abnormal cells that may have its origin in affected site or areas adjacent to it. As per studies, every 2 in 1,00,000 people are said to be affected by brain tumour in India. However, it may come as a relief to some as not all brain tumors are cancerous or life threatening. Some are benign tumors and seldom pose any threat to the affected individual.
Types of Brain Tumor
Brain tumors may be primary or secondary.
The symptoms may not necessarily indicate a brain tumor but it is always wise not to neglect the symptoms either.