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Brain Tumor Tips

Brain Cancer - Know About Its Stages And Treatments!

Dr. Vivek Kumar 92% (16 ratings)
DM - Neurology, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MD - Medicine
Neurologist, Ghaziabad
Brain Cancer - Know About Its Stages And Treatments!

Like most other organs of the human body, the brain too is susceptible to cancer. Brain cancer is typically the result of abnormal growth of primary brain cells or the spreading of cancer cells that originated in another organ of the body. This is known as secondary or metastatic brain cancer. Depending on the stage it is diagnosed in, brain cancer can be cured. Let’s take a closer look at primary brain cancer.

Primary brain cancer or the development of tumours in the brain is fairly uncommon. However, they may attack children and adults alike. There are many different types of brain tumours. Their names depend on the part of the brain affected or the type of cell they originate from. The most common types of brain tumors are meningiomas, gliomas, pituitary adenomas, primary CNS lymphomas, vestibular schwannomas and medulloblastomas. Each of these tumors grows at a different rate and causes different symptoms. However, they can all be graded on the same stages.

Stage 1
In this stage, the cell growth is usually very slow. These cells look very similar to normal brain cells and the tissue is benign.

Stage 2
When cancer reaches this stage, the cells begin to grow at a faster pace and look a little different from normal brain cells. The tissue also turns malignant at this point.

Stage 3
The abnormal cells or tumor begins to grow actively and take on a completely different look as compared to normal brain cells. These calls may also be termed as anaplastic.

Stage 4
This is the most aggressive stage of brain cancer. At this stage, the cells begin to grow at a very fast rate.

Treatment for brain cancer depends on a number of factors including the size of the tumor, cancer stage, patient’s overall health, age and any other medical issues that may be present. Brain cancer can be treated with drugs, surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Two or more of these forms of treatment are usually used together for faster and better results.

Whenever possible, a doctor will try to remove the tumor surgically. This may be preceded by drugs to prevent seizures and relieve swelling in the brain. Patients who cannot undergo surgery may be given radiation instead. This form of therapy uses high energy rays to kill the cancer cells. Radiation may also be used after surgery to kill any abnormal cells that could not be removed surgically. Radiation for brain cancer may be given externally or internally. Chemotherapy can also be used to treat brain cancer. This involves delivering medication orally or intravenously to kill the tumors. Each cycle of chemotherapy usually lasts a few weeks and is followed by a rest period. The results of chemotherapy are usually visible after 2 or 4 cycles.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2721 people found this helpful

Brain Tumor - Know Its Stages And Treatment!

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MD - Internal Medicine, DNB - Medical Oncology
Oncologist, Noida
Brain Tumor - Know Its Stages And Treatment!

Grading of brain cancer is entirely different as compared to the staging of other cancers in the body. Cancer in the breast, lung, colon etc. are staged depending on the possible spread, location of a tumor and lymph node involvement etc. However, brain tumors are graded based on the aggressiveness of the tumor cells under a microscope. The resect ability and the grade of the tumor cells guide a doctor on the treatment decisions. The decision of a brain surgery depends on factors such as the location, spread of a tumour and the general health of the patient.

Types of Brain Tumor Grading:

Grade 1 tumor- These sets of tumors are medically known as the juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma and subependymoma. They are slow growing and non-invasive. There is a likelihood of the patient getting cured with surgery.
Grade 2 tumor- These are brain tumors that do not possess dead cells as part of the tumour. But, they do portray a lot of abnormal cells. Tumors of this type can be categorized under oligodendroglioma, astrocytoma, and ependymoma.
Grade 3 tumor- Tumors of this type are graded based on the cell type of the cancer cells. For instance, an anaplastic astrocytoma is a grade 3 tumor that has no dead cells but possesses dividing cells. In contrast, anaplastic ependymoma and anaplastic oligodendroglioma are grade 3 tumor cells that have dead cells in them.
Grade 4 tumor- Tumors of this type are referred to as glioblastoma. The tumor cells are actively dividing, the growth of blood vessels is witnessed and areas of dead tissue keep expanding.

Treatment options:

  1. Surgery- If the location of a brain tumor is such that it is accessible to a surgeon, the latter goes ahead and removes most of the tumor if not the whole. If, however, the brain tumor cells are placed very near to the surrounding very sensitive brain tissues, a doctor might remove a small portion of the tumor to curb its growth.
  2. Radiation Therapy- This mode of treatment uses high energy X-ray beams to kill targeted cells of the brain. External beam radiation usually targets a small area of the brain. A whole brain radiation, on the other hand, is usually employed when a tumor has spread to most parts of the brain. Radiotherapy is now so evolved that it is highly targeted to tutor cells that kills cancer and spares normal brain.
  3. Chemotherapy- Chemotherapy employs drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy can either be taken in the form of an IV or in the form of pills. The dosage of chemotherapy is decided based on the concentration of cancer cells, spread frequency, platelet count of the patient etc. The most common chemotherapy drug that is prescribed by doctors to fight cancer cells is temozolomide.
4 people found this helpful

Recovering From Brain Surgery - Tips To Help You Get Better Fast!

Dr. Rajyaguru Hardik 90% (144 ratings)
DNB(Neurosurgery)
Neurosurgeon, Durgapur
Recovering From Brain Surgery - Tips To Help You Get Better Fast!

Undergoing Brain Surgery can be a very traumatic experience, and it is common for many patients recovering from brain surgery to face depression, spells of dizziness, confusion and weakness post the surgery. It can be very critical that family members and friends talk to the patient and be empathetic towards them.

It takes approximately 12-18 months for the brain to heal after a brain surgery and slowly and gradually the patient will regain all his normal functions and get back to his daily routine. However in that time they need the complete support and understanding of their families, as well may need help from therapists. This will help the patient in gaining back their independence as well as confidence in their abilities.

Here are some tips that will help you deal with a patient recovering from Brain Surgery:

  1. After brain surgery, a person may feel disoriented and have some speech or understanding disability for a while. Family members and friends are advised to take pause when talking to the patient, so that he/she can easily understand the conversation. Speaking slowly is not recommended, as patients may recognize it and have an emotional outburst or feel hurt.

  2. Caretakers and family members should also keep reminding the conversation topic at different points to the patient, so that it is easier for them to participate in the conversation.

  3. Family members should also not react adversely in case of emotional outbursts, instead show love and patience to a person recovering from brain surgery.

  4. Caregivers should make sure that the person recovering from brain surgery gets enough sleep and rest to recuperate.

  5. People interacting with someone recovering from brain surgery should understand that the person's ability to learn and remember will improve daily, and any lapses in attention by the patient are not caused by any act of obstinacy. Your care and understanding will be essential for a person to recover.

  6. Family members should also make sure just to give enough care and not smother the brain surgery survivor. It is essential for them to regain their confidence and a sense of competence.

Family members should take the patient for a neuropsychological examination--after treatment, 6 months later, and a year later to see if they are recovering properly. Caregivers should watch out for emotional outbursts, like rage, uncontrollable laughter, withdrawal and depression. In case of such symptoms it is advisable to take the patient for a check up with medical practitioner.  

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2085 people found this helpful

CT Angiography Of Brain - Know Its Benefits!

Dr. Pradyot Kumar Govil 88% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery, Mch - Neuro Surgery
Neurosurgeon, Ghaziabad
CT Angiography Of Brain - Know Its Benefits!

A brain computed tomography angiography (CTA) is a specialized neurologic CT scan, and it involves fast CT imaging while simultaneously injecting IV contrast into a vein in the arm. This procedure allows visualization of the specific vascular anatomy of the organs in the body. It can also be used to evaluate vessels or plan a surgery. Mostly it is used to identify a small aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation (abnormal communications between blood vessels) inside the brain.

  • A patient can expect the following things during the brain CTA examination:
  • The patient is asked to lie on the examination table.
  • If contrast is used, an automatic injection pump connected intravenously will release the contrast material at a controlled rate.
  • Although the movement of the table occurs slowly at first, it gains rapid momentum when the actual CTA is performed.
  • The patient may be asked to hold his/her breath during the scanning.
  • Any motion in the form of breathing or body movements can lead to artifacts on the images.

The entire CTA exam may be completed within a few seconds. However, the patient’s actual time in the room may be long. This delay can occur as the technologist takes his/her time to position the patient on the table, check or place an IV line, do preliminary imaging to verify the beginning and end points of the exam, and set up the scan and contrast injection settings based on the part of the body being imaged.

Benefits of brain CTA include the following:

  • The need for surgery may be eliminated by angiography; however if surgery remains necessary, it can be performed with much accuracy because of brain CTA findings. As the CTA is able to detect the obstruction of blood vessels, it allows for potentially corrective therapy.
  • The CTA may give precise anatomic detail than a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), particularly in cases of small blood vessels.
  • The CTA is faster, noninvasive, and has lesser complications than catheter angiography, which involves placing a catheter (plastic tube), (usually at the groin) into the patients’ major blood vessels and injecting a contrast material along with probable sedation or general anesthesia.
  • The CTA examination costs lesser than catheter angiography.No radiation remains in a patient's body after a CTA examination.

Risk factors for brain CTA

A small chance of cancer from excessive exposure to radiation History of allergy to X-ray contrast material Risk for kidney failure, as the contrast material could potentially further damage the kidney function in patients with pre-existing kidney disease

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3368 people found this helpful

What Are the Side Effects of Brain Surgery?

Dr. Savitr Sastri 91% (78 ratings)
MS - General Surgery, MBBS, MCh - Neuro Surgery
Neurosurgeon, Hyderabad
What Are the Side Effects of Brain Surgery?

Brain surgery involves several medical procedures, which incorporate fixing issues with the brain, including changes in the tissues of the brain, cerebrospinal fluid and brain blood flow. Brain surgery is quite a complicated method of surgery and the type of surgery to be conducted depends on the underlying conditions.

Reasons for Brain Surgery:
Brain surgery is performed for the correction of physical brain abnormalities. These abnormalities could occur because of diseases, birth defects and injuries. A brain surgery is required when the following conditions arise in the brain:

  1. Abnormal blood vessels
  2. Aneurysm
  3. Bleeding
  4. Blood clots in the brain
  5. When the protective tissue or dura is damaged
  6. Epilepsy
  7. Due to nerve damage
  8. Parkinson's disease
  9. Any kind of pressure after an injury
  10. Abscesses
  11. Skull fractures
  12. In case of stroke and tumors

A surgery may not be required for all the above mentioned conditions, but in case of many, a brain surgery is very important as the conditions may worsen health problems.

Types of brain surgeries:

  1. Craniotomy: During this open brain surgery, an incision is made in the scalp, and a hole is created in the skull, near the area, which is being treated. After this process is complete, the hole or bone flap is secured in its place using plates or wires.
  2. Biopsy: This form of brain surgery helps in the removal of a small amount of brain tissues or tumors. After removal, the tissues or tumors are examined under a microscope. The creation of a small incision and a hole in the skull is indicated as a part of this process.
  3. Minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery: This form of brain surgery enables the removal or lesions and tumors via the nose and sinuses. Private parts of the brain can be accessed without creating an incision. An endoscope is utilized in the process which is used to examine tumors all across the brain.
  4. Minimally Invasive neuroendoscopy: This process is similar to the minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery. This method also involves the use of an endoscope for removal of brain tumors. Small, dime sized holes may be made in the skull to access some brain parts.

Risks:
Brain surgeries may be associated with several risks. They may be:

  1. Allergic reactions to anesthesia
  2. Bleeding
  3. Blood clot formations
  4. Swelling of the brain
  5. A state of coma
  6. Impairment in speech, coordination and vision.
  7. Problems in memory
  8. Strokes and seizures
  9. Infections in the brain

A brain surgery is a serious and very complex surgery. There are different kinds of brain surgeries, which are conducted depending on the condition and severity of the disease. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3218 people found this helpful

Tips For Detecting A Brain Tumor!

Dr. Apoorva Pandey 92% (18 ratings)
MS-General Surgery, Mch-Neurosurgery
Neurosurgeon, Bhopal
Tips For Detecting A Brain Tumor!

A brain tumor can occur at any age and it generally occurs in people in the age group of 40-60 years. The common types of brain tumor are termed as meningioma and gliomas. These supratentorial brain tumors generally occur above the covering of the cerebellum tissue. In children, brain tumors occur at the age of 1-12 years and the most common tumors are ependymomas, astrocytoma and meduloblastomas. Brain tumor is the common cause of death even in children.

Tips to Detecting a Brain Tumor

The general symptoms that are indications of a brain tumor include severe headaches, memory changes, nausea, drowsiness, sleep problems, fatigue and sudden involuntary movements of muscles of an individual. The symptoms can be either specific or generic and the general symptoms are mainly caused by the pressure of the tumor on the brain. The specific symptoms on the other hand are caused when specific parts of the brain does not function properly. Many people even experience loss of control of body functions.

The other problems that are experienced by individuals include changes in the ability to perform daily activities and loss of balance. They find difficulty in hearing, speech and at times are very aggressive. If these symptoms exist, then your doctor would recommend a physical examination and ask about your health history and that of your family.

Tests to Detect Brain Tumor
The tests that are advised by doctors to detect a brain tumor include MRI, neurologic exam, CT scan, biopsy, angiogram and spinal tap.

In the neurologic exam the vision, alertness, hearing, coordination, muscle strength and reflexes are checked by the doctor. The doctor also checks for any swelling in the eyes which can be caused by the pressing of the nerve which connects the brain and the eye.

The CT scan done for detecting brain tumor provides detailed pictures of your head and it is done through an X-ray machine which is connected to a computer. The contrast material is injected into the blood vessel of your hand and abnormal areas can be seen easily.

Biopsy
In this method tissues from the brain are removed and tested for tumor cells. The cells are observed by a pathologist under a microscope mainly to check for abnormal cells. The biopsy method is used to show tissue changes that can further lead to cancer. Brain tumor can be easily diagnosed with this method.

MRI:
Magnetic Resonance Imaging or MRI as it is commonly referred to is of great use as it helps to diagnose brain tumors. In this procedure, a dye is injected through a vein in the arm using which the variances in the tissues of the brain can be identified In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

1881 people found this helpful

Brain Tumor In Children - Understanding It In Detail!

Dr. Pradyot Kumar Govil 88% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery, Mch - Neuro Surgery
Neurosurgeon, Ghaziabad
Brain Tumor In Children - Understanding It In Detail!

Though childhood brain tumor is a rare disease, still, many children of any age all over the world suffer from this condition. Unlike the brain tumors in adults, brain tumors in children is a bit different. Brain tumors are probably the most common form of solid tumors affecting children. However, having knowledge of the symptoms, probable treatment of the disease can help the parents in coping with the situation in a better way and taking the right decision at the right time.

What is a brain tumor?
A group of abnormal cell growth in the brain is referred to as a brain tumor. The types of brain tumor depend upon the structure of the tumor cells, their rate of growth, composition and several other characteristics. However, two most common types of brain tumor affecting children are primary and secondary. In primary brain tumor, the tumor cells develop in the brain, while in secondary, cancerous cells invade the brain from other parts of the body.

Symptoms that determine the presence of tumor may vary in every child. The variation is due to certain aspects including size of the tumor, the location of the tumor, how the tumor is affecting the brain, etc. Some of the most common symptoms of childhood brain tumor are severe headaches, occasional seizures, feeling of sickness and vomiting, eye problems such as blurred visions, feelings of drowsiness without any reason, etc. Some children suffering from brain tumour may also experience difficulty in maintaining balance when walking or behavioral changes in children.

Treatment
While for some, surgical removal of the tumor may be the only treatment solution, for some sessions of radiotherapy and chemotherapy turn out to be really helpful. To control or reduce the effects of the brain tumor symptoms, taking regular medications may also be necessary for the affected children. Doctor may devise the best treatment plan despending on the condition of a child. As the treatment completely depends on the severity of the problem.

Prognosis
Depending on the grade, location, and type of tumor as well as the treatment, the overall health of children can be determined. While a significant number of children often successfully recover from the brain tumor, for some, the treatment needs to be continued for many years. As the nervous system of a child is in its developing stage, sometimes, children may develop some kind of learning or behavioral or physical disability as a result of the brain tumor treatment. If a child has any of these symptoms mentioned above, his or her parents should consult a medical professional right away. The sooner it is diagnosed, the better are the chances for the child to recover from a brain tumor. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3204 people found this helpful

Warning Signs Associated With Brain Tumor!

Dr. Monish De 88% (62 ratings)
MBBS, Post Graduate Diploma In Medicine, Fellowship In Medical Oncology
Oncologist, Kolkata
Warning Signs Associated With Brain Tumor!

Brain tumours vary in shape and size and the same is the case with their symptoms. The location of the tumour affects the symptoms greatly. Just like in any other type of a malignant tumour, brain tumour has a rapid growth and proliferation of abnormal cells that may have its origin in affected site or areas adjacent to it. As per studies, every 2 in 1,00,000 people are said to be affected by brain tumour in India. However, it may come as a relief to some as not all brain tumors are cancerous or life threatening. Some are benign tumors and seldom pose any threat to the affected individual.

Types of Brain Tumor
Brain tumors may be primary or secondary.

  1. Primary brain tumor: Here the abnormal mass of cells that originated in the brain do not metastasize to the other organs. Based on their location in the brain, the primary brain tumors may be of the following types.
    • Gliomas: One of the most common types of primary brain tumors, gliomas can have their origin in the spinal cord or the brain. Some of the common types of gliomas include Astrocytomas (originates in the cerebrum of the brain), Glioblastomas (these tumors form from the Astrocytes which form the supportive tissues of the brain), Ependymoma (these develop from the ependymal cells which are present within the CNS), Oligodendrogliomas (these tumors are found to arise from the oligodendrocytes).
    • Schwannomas: Also called as Acoustic neuromas, these primary brain tumors form on the nerves that play an important role in regulating the balance and hearing from the inner ear to the brain.
    • Meningiomas: These type of tumors are usually benign and have their origin in the meninges (membranes surrounding the spinal cord and the brain).
    • Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs): Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are rare malignant tumors that originate from the fetal (embryonic) cells in the brain.
    • Pituitary adenomas: As the name suggests, these tumors arise from the pituitary gland located at the base of the brain.
    • Medulloblastomas: Common among the children, these malignant primary tumors develop in the brain (lower back) and gradually spread via the spinal fluid.
    • Other types of primary brain tumors include Craniopharyngiomas and the Germ cell tumors.
  2. Secondary brain tumors: Unlike the primary brain tumors, these tumors have their origin in the other body parts and organs (mostly in the lungs, skin, colon, breast, and kidney) and then gradually metastasize to the brain. The secondary brain tumors are found to be more common.

Symptoms or warning signs associated with brain tumors:
Some of the signs and symptoms that may be indicative of a brain tumor include

  1. People with brain tumors often get seizures (due to the irritation caused by the tumors in the brain).
  2. A headache (mild to severe depending on the part of the brain affected by the tumor).
  3. A person experiences numbness or a tingling sensation in the legs and arms.
  4. There may be difficulties in walking or balancing.
  5. A person finds it difficult to concentrate.
  6. There may be some problems with hearing, speech or even vision.
  7. A person may experience weakness restricted to only one part of the body.

The symptoms may not necessarily indicate a brain tumor but it is always wise not to neglect the symptoms either. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2789 people found this helpful

Brain Tumor - Signs You Must Not Ignore!

MBBS, MD - General Medicine, DM - Neurology
Neurologist, Chennai
Brain Tumor - Signs You Must Not Ignore!

June is known as the Brain Tumour Month worldwide. It’s worthwhile to raise public awareness and educate people about brain tumour, a disease which, though is rare is but can be really deadly. More than 500 new cases are diagnosed with brain tumour every day worldwide. The number of patients with secondary tumours are even higher than 500. However, it is common across all ages.  A primary brain tumour is a tumour that begins in the brain. It can be either malignant, which means it contains cancer cells or benign i.e. does not contain cancer cells. A secondary or metastatic brain tumour is usually cancerous. It starts elsewhere in the body and sends cancerous cells which grow in the brain.

Here are a few facts that each one of us should know about this dangerous disease

  1. Brain tumours can occur at any age.
  2. We don’t know what causes brain tumors. Family history and high dose radiation like X-rays increases your risk.
  3. Doctors group brain tumors by grade which means the way the brain cells look under a microscope. A higher grade number means the cells appear more abnormal and the more aggressively the tumour usually behaves.
  4. Brain tumors are graded as grade I, grade II, or grade III, or grade IV.

Symptoms
The symptoms of brain tumour depend on the size, type, and location of the brain tumour. Some common symptoms which should not be ignored are-

  1. Headaches
  2. Seizures
  3. Problems with vision
  4. Vomiting
  5. Mental and personality changes
  6. Balance problems and trouble walking
  7. Problems in speaking

Diagnosis
Brain tumours are diagnosed by the doctor based on the medical history and physical examination along with a slew of specialized tests of the brain and nervous system.

Treatment

  1. Surgery
  2. Radiation therapy
  3. Chemotherapy
  4. Anti-seizure medicines
  5. Steroids
  6. Ventricular peritoneal shunt
  7. Combination of treatments

How can you safeguard yourself?
The primary tool to prevent brain tumours is by controlling your lifestyle. This means eating healthy, exercising, avoiding known carcinogens in your environment, and reducing stress.

  1. Sleep: Sleep is a friend for brain health. An adequate amount of rest with eyes shut keeps your brain health.
  2. Frankincense oil: Along with yoga, meditation, and breathing exercises to reduce stress, inhaling frankincense oil can help alleviate inflammation in the brain.
  3. Anti cancer diet: Consuming a diet rich in cancer-fighting nutrients like antioxidants is critical in preventing brain tumors.
  4. Ketogenic diet: A ketogenic diet is a high protein diet. It reduces oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain which is associated with brain tumours. It also shuts down the nutrient supply to tumors.
  5. Calorie restriction: Dietary restriction, especially fasting has anti-carcinogenic properties just as the ketogenic diet.
  6. Limit exposure to mobile phones: Cell phones use increases risk for brain tumours. So restriction prevents these tumours.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3361 people found this helpful

Brain Tumor - Types Of Surgeries Available!

Dr. Anshul Gupta 86% (13 ratings)
DNB (Neuro-Surgeon), MBBS
Neurosurgeon, Delhi
Brain Tumor - Types Of Surgeries Available!

Although surgery is considered to be the first step of treatment in any form of tumor but its feasibility depends upon the type, size and location of the tumor. It is not necessary that every kind of brain tumor might require surgery.

Indications of Brain Tumor Surgery

  • Diagnosis of the type of tumor by taking a sample of the tumor for laboratory examination
  • Complete resection of tumor
  • Removal of the tumor as much as possible to slow down its growth and improve the symptoms.
  • Remove the tumor in order to help other treatment
  • Provide direct access for other forms of treatment like chemotherapy, radiotherapy etc.
  • To relieve pressure caused by tumor on surrounding structures

Types of Brain Tumor Surgery

The different types of surgery that are performed in cases of brain tumor include the following:

Craniotomy: Craniotomy is the most commonly performed procedure to remove brain tumor along with a piece of bone. The removed bone is replaced and the tumor is sent for histopathology (biopsy). The surgery is performed using a high end microscope by any of the following techniques:

  • Extended bifrontal craniotomy
  • "Eyebrow" craniotomy (supra-orbital craniotomy)
  • "Keyhole" craniotomy (retro-sigmoid craniotomy)
  • Orbitozygomatic craniotomy
  • Translabyrinthine craniotomy

Shunt: A narrow piece of flexible tube with a pressure regulated valve in between is called a shunt. This is used to relieve the intracranial pressure caused by obstruction of the natural brain fluid (CSF) pathway by tumor mass. The procedure involves insertion of a drainage system into the brain to remove or drain excess of blocked fluid into the peritoneal cavity.

Stereotactic surgery: This surgery is done by creating a three-dimensional image called stereotaxy using computers. It aims to find out the location and position of the tumor. In fact it can also be done to aid tumor removal, implant radiation pellets or for other treatments.

Embolization: It is a procedure used to reduce the amount of blood supply to a tumor by blocking the blood flow in the selected arteries. It is generally performed before the main surgery.

Endoscopy and endoscope assisted surgery: Endoscope is the tool which helps to closely visualize the tissue through small openings in difficult to reach areas. This tool can be used in various brain surgeries to precisely reach the target location without damaging the adjacent structures.

Adjuvant modalities to improve outcome: In addition to above mentioned surgeries, following surgeries may also be performed in relation to brain tumor treatment:

  • Laser surgery
  • Photodynamic laser surgery
  • Ultrasonic aspiration
  • Fluorescent-guided surgery
  • Electrophysiological monitoring
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