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Brain Injury Tips

Head Injuries - All You Must Know!

Head Injuries - All You Must Know!

Injuries are very common, especially head injuries are one of the leading causes of death and disability in adults. As per surveys conducted, 1.7 million people suffer from head injuries every year and this estimation is increasing day by day.

Head Injury is any trauma to head other than superficial injuries to face. It results in high morbidity & mortality. Head injuries are an important cause of loss of young people at their productive age.

Causes of Head Injury-

A head injury can occur due to many reasons. Some common causes of these head injuries are:

  • Vehicle accidents

  • Street fights

  • Fall from height

  • Child abuse

Symptoms of Head Injury-

A head injury is followed by various symptoms depending upon the intensity of the injury. Here is a list of the possible symptoms of brain injuries:  

Nausea and vomiting, fatigue or sleepiness, severe headache, confusion, amnesia,  loss of consciousness, seizures, loss of muscle control or paralysis in the part of the body controlled by the part of the brain that is affected, coma, dilation of the pupils and disturbance of vision, Cerebrospinal fluids might come out of the ears and nose, sometimes accompanied by blood, difficulty in breathing, low pulse rate, increase in blood pressure, difficulty in swallowing, loss of hearing, problems in cognitive functions.

Brain damage is a process, not an event. 80% are minor head injuries, 10% are moderate head injuries and 10% are major head injuries.

Management of Head Injury-

Diagnosis of a brain injury has to be detailed and very quick at the same time. It always comes under emergency cases. Some of the steps involved are:

  • Glasgow Coma Scale

  • Pupillary reaction to light

  • Brain stem reflex tests

  • Head to toe examination

CT scan of head is the initial study of choice. MRI Brain is helpful in cases of non-haemorrhagic contusions, diffuse axonal injury and deep lesions.

Surgical Indications

Precautions for Head Injury

  • Use Helmets- both riders

  • Use Seat Belts

  • Keep vehicle speed under control

  • Follow traffic rules

  • Take adequate precautions during trekking, diving

Take Away-

No head injury is minor enough to be neglected nor severe enough to be given up.

Head injuries take time to heal, but medical treatment along with neurosurgery can aid the process of recovery and also help a person to lead a healthy life in the future. Most young patients recover fully, while some older patients or patients with preexisting neurological conditions live with a degree of disability.

 

Neuroplasticity - Know About It!

Neuroplasticity - Know About It!

The neurones in the brain are constantly reorganising their connections both functionally and physically according to the environment, your thinking and behaviour. This ability is known as neuroplasticity. Through neuroplasticity the nerve cells of brain can compensate for injury to some parts of the brain and enable a person to recover from stroke, birth abnormalities. It is also beneficial in treating autism, ADD, learning disabilities and helps manage obsessive compulsive disorders.

Here are seven things you should know about neuroplasticity.

  1. Change depends on the attentiveness of the brain: Neuroplasticity changes can only happen if the brain is alert and active. When the brain is active it releases neurochemicals that are necessary for the neurone connections to change. If a person is distracted to inattentive, these changes cannot happen.
  2. The more the effort; the bigger the change: Neuroplasticity changes depend on how motivated the person is to change or learn new tasks. For this reason, when it comes to using neuroplasticity for physiotherapy, it is essential to first deal with any depression or anxiety issues the patient might be having before attempting to rehabilitate them.
  3. It helps strengthen neural connections: Repetition of actions is one of the key elements of neuroplasticity in physiotherapy. Through this, the strength of neurone connections is strengthened to include sensory information, movement and cognitive patterns.
  4. It improves cell to cell connections: This is crucial to a patient’s rehabilitation as it increases reliability and makes a person more independent. In turn, this makes behaviour patterns more reliable.
  5. It helps predict actions: A task can usually be broken down into a series of smaller tasks. For example, feeding oneself can be broken down into steps that begin with lifting a spoon and filling it with food to finally putting the spoon into your mouth. Hence, along with completing an action, the brain must also know what to do next. Neuroplasticity helps improve this associative flow and allows the brain to predict the next step.
  6. Changes can be temporary or permanent: Initial changes due to neuroplasticity are temporary ad only if the brain determines the experience to be desired is this change made permanent. This is why when treating mobility issues, patients are not always able to repeat tasks in the same way.
  7. Memory guides the learning: When making new neural connections through neuroplasticity, the brain is taught to discard unsuccessful attempts and only remember the experience of the successful attempts. From here, adjustments are made to improve the connection.
3640 people found this helpful

Brain Mapping Surgery - Understanding The Need Of It!

Brain Mapping Surgery - Understanding The Need Of It!

Brain mapping is a technique where the biological quantities of a human brain are represented as spatial quantities resulting in maps. As with many other medical technologies, brain mapping is fast-evolving as well. Among several uses, brain mapping is chiefly used while performing surgery on the brain.

When surgery is to be performed on the brain such as surgery for epilepsy, the surgeon would want to comprehend how the brain areas are affected by seizures. The surgical intervention is meant for removing as much as seizure focus as possible while preserving crucial functions like understanding, speech, vision, movement, and sensation.

Why is brain mapping performed?
Brain mapping is a process which helps in identification of functions of various parts of the brain. Mapping the brain by stimulating different areas of the brain areas can aid in creating a map for a particular person. The map allows the doctor in understanding what parts of the brain are responsible for performing critical functions including sensation, movement, speech and other functions.

Which functions of the brain can be mapped electrically?
Typical areas of the brain which have motor, language, visual and sensory functions are needed to be mapped. When current is applied to a single area at a time, the doctor understands which part of the brain is responsible for which function.
When the patient is not able to speak due to the current, then the area is likely to be crucial for language function. If the limbs, face or trunk of the patient stop moving as the current passes, the area that is tested is responsible for movement. On the other hand, if the individual experiences tingling, numbing, and other sensations when the current is applied, it means that a sensory region is discovered.

How is electrical brain mapping performed?
Electrical brain mapping for guiding brain surgery for epilepsy can be performed in two distinct processes: directly during the surgery or in a two-stage procedure.

Two-stage procedure:
In the first stage of the process, the surgeon creates an opening in the skull which helps in exposing the surface of the brain. Small electrical contacts or electrodes are placed on the brain surface even though no brain tissue is removed. As soon as the electrodes are in the right position, the scalp is closed. The electrodes not only record the seizure of the patient electrically but also allow mapping of various areas of the brain. The last stage is surgery where abnormal brain tissues are removed.

Brain mapping process during surgery:
Electrical brain mapping may also be performed during the surgery which exposes part of the brain. This is termed as intraoperative brain mapping since it occurs while performing the main operation. The process of mapping may last for an hour to several hours at a stretch.

Brain mapping is also used to diagnose neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. In these cases, the brain map shows extreme shrinkage of the brain due to tissue loss.

2556 people found this helpful

Injuries - How To Cure It?

Injuries - How To Cure It?

What is Injury?

Injury is any physical damage to the body caused by violence or accident or fracture etc

Symptoms of Injuries-

  • Loss of consciousness
  • Difficulty with speaking, seeing, hearing, walking, or understanding.
  • Irritability
  • Severe headache
  • Vomiting

Causes of Injuries-

  • Medication side effects
  • cuts from broken glass, knives, scissors or axes
  • Chronic headaches
  • Accidents
  • Falls from cots, windows, tables and stairs
  • Loss of or change in sensation, hearing, vision, taste, or smell
  • Paralysis
  • Speech and language problems

Risk factors of Injuries-

  • Use of alcohol
  • Headaches
  • use of illicit drugs
  • Road Accidents

Complications of Injuries-

  • Permanent disability
  • Brain damage
  • Death 

Diagnosis of Injuries-

In diagnosis of injuries, doctor may ask some question about the accident. If Injury is severe then certain test are needed such as X–ray. Basically different tests are depending upon the different type of injuries. For example in Brain injury CT scan and MRI are also needed.

Precautions & Prevention of Injuries-

  • To reduce the risk of injury, warm up before engaging in sports and other physical activities.
  • Children with bicycles should be trained in road safety.
  • first aid measures should be taken to prevent worsening of the situation
  • Wear comfortable shoes and avoid high heels, this can reduce the risk of twisting an ankle or falling.
  • Children should not play near the road

Treatment of Injuries-

Homeopathic Treatment of Injuries-

Homeopathic remedies are useful for injuries to the body as from falls,  accidents, surgery, etc. It has excellent response in treatment of both acute and chronic injuries. They are also used to treat the pain, soreness and other complications. Below are some of the homeopathic remedies for injuries.

  • Aconitum napellus
  • Arnica
  • Calcarea phosphorica
  • Hypericum
  • Bellis perennis
  • Rhus Tox
  • Ruta
  • Symphytum

Acupuncture and Acupressure Treatment of Injuries-

Acupuncture helps to trigger the immune system to help injuries heal. It is an excellent for helping recovery from injuries and improving aches and pain..Acupuncture works directly to free the flow of vital energy through the areas of stagnation.

Psychotherapy and Hypnotherapy Treatment of Injuries-

In psychotherapy treatment, family provides social support for the patient by being involved in the rehabilitation program. Psychotherapy may help in assisting people adjusting to loss and grief following brain injury. Hypnotherapy can be used to treat psychological impact of injury and remove any fear or other negative emotions.

Conventional / Allopathic Treatment of Injuries-

Allopathic Treatment of Injuries depends on the area and harshness of the injury. Serious injuries would require more intensive therapy, whereas more minor conditions are treated symptomatically.

Surgical Treatment of Injuries-

There are several types of injuries and the surgical treatment depends upon the condition of the patient. Surgery can be of head injury, leg injury, and knee injury and so on.

Dietary & Herbal Treatment of Injuries-

  • Eat a low carbohydrate diet
  • Diet rich in fruits and vegetables
  • Diet high in Omega 3 fatty acids such as fish

Other Treatment of Injuries-

Exercise helps in improving your strength, balance, coordination and flexibility and thus reduces the chances of injuries.

Intracranial Hematoma!

Intracranial Hematoma!

What is Intracranial hematoma?

An intracranial hematoma occurs when a blood vessel ruptures within your brain or between your skull and your brain. An intracranial hematoma often requires surgery to remove the blood.

Symptoms of Intracranial hematoma-

  • Headache
  • Vomiting
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Dizziness
  • Confusion
  • Lethargy
  • Seizures
  • Unequal pupil size
  • Weak limbs on one side of your body
  • Increased blood pressure

Causes of Intracranial hematoma-

  • Automobile or motorcycle accident
  • Bumping your head
  • Mild head trauma

Diagnosis of Intracranial hematoma-

Diagnosis of Intracranial hematoma involves the following tests:

Precautions & Prevention of Intracranial hematoma-

  • Wear a helmet and make sure your kids wear helmets
  • Keep children from climbing on unsafe or unsteady objects.
  • Buckle your seat belt and make sure your kids are buckled in

Treatment of Intracranial hematoma-

  • Homeopathic Treatment of Intracranial hematoma
  • Acupuncture & Acupressure Treatment of Intracranial hematoma
  • Psychotherapy Treatment of Intracranial hematoma
  • Conventional / Allopathic Treatment of Intracranial hematoma
  • Surgical Treatment of Intracranial hematoma
  • Dietary & Herbal Treatment of Intracranial hematoma
  • Other Treatment of Intracranial hematoma

Homeopathic Treatment of Intracranial Hematoma-

Homeopathic treatment is supportive to save life and prevent complications. Some of the homeopathic medicines that can be used for treatment of intracranial hematoma are:

  • Broth
  • Cocc
  • Glon
  • Lach
  • Gels
  • Anac
     

Conventional / Allopathic Treatment of Intracranial hematoma-

Allopathic Treatment of Intracranial hematoma involves diuretic medications that may help control brain swelling (edema) after a head injury.

Surgical Treatment of Intracranial hematoma-

Surgical Treatment of Intracranial hematoma involves the following surgeries:

  • Surgical drainage – If the blood is localized and isn’t clotting excessively, your doctor may create a burr hole through your skull and use suction to remove the liquid.
  • Craniotomy – Large hematomas may require that a section of your skull be opened (craniotomy) to remove the blood.

Dietary & Herbal Treatment of Intracranial hematoma-

  • Limit your intake of strawberries, blackberries, dewberries, gooseberries and raspberries
  • Avoid wheat germ oil, sunflower seeds, shellfish and fish,
  • Avoid spicy foods
  • Eat fruits rich in vitamin C

 

3 people found this helpful

Erectile Dysfunction!

Erectile Dysfunction!

The occasional difficulty in getting or keeping an erection is normal. It starts to become a problem when you’re regularly having difficulty getting or maintaining an erection — to the extent that you’re purposefully avoiding intimate moments with your partner.

Erectile dysfunction takes many forms. Some guys with ED are unable to achieve an erection under any circumstances, while others can occasionally become erect. You can also suffer from ED if you have no trouble getting an erection, but can’t consistently sustain an erection sufficient for satisfying sexual intercourse.

ED is not normal and is by no means an inevitable consequence of aging. In fact, most men with ED still have the ability to have an orgasm and father a child, but often have difficulty doing these things because they can’t get or sustain an erection.

What Causes ED?

To start with, ED is NOT all in your head. You can’t simply will yourself to get an erection, no matter how much you try. Studies show that only 20% of the causes of ED are due to a psychological problem or disorder. Diseases such as diabeteshigh blood pressure, and high cholesterol are common causes. Even a perfectly healthy man can develop ED after a brain or spinal cord injury. ED can be a side effect of certain medications, too.

2 people found this helpful

Brain Damage - Causes & Symptoms Of It!

Brain Damage - Causes & Symptoms Of It!

Regardless of whether the cause is a tumor, trauma, stroke or any other illness, any injury which inflicts damage on your brain cells is considered to be a brain damage. 

There are two types of brain damage, both of which interfere with the standard functioning of the brain. 
They are:

  1. Acquired brain injury (ABI): Either resulting from a tumor or a neurological illness, for instance a stroke, this type of brain injury originates from the cellular level and is commonly linked with brain pressure.
  2. Traumatic brain injury (TBI): It results from any damage imparted to the skull usually from an external and physical force like a blow to the head or a head accident, which in turn damages the brain.

How severe the brain damage is depends largely on the type of brain injury. Mild brain injuries are temporary, causing headaches, memory lapses, nausea and confusion. On the other hand, severe brain injuries cause cognitive, physical and behavioral impairments which are often life-changing and permanent.

Causes:
Acquired brain injuries may be caused by:

  1. Poisoning
  2. Being exposed to toxic substances
  3. Choking, strangulation or drowning
  4. Heart attacks
  5. Infections
  6. Stroke
  7. Tumors
  8. Neurological illnesses
  9. Aneurysms
  10. Illegal drug abuse

Traumatic brain injuries are usually caused by:

  1. Car accidents
  2. Sports injuries
  3. Physical violence
  4. Head blows
  5. Falls and other mishaps

Symptoms:
Whether acquired or traumatic, symptoms of brain damage can be classified under four major groups:

1.  Cognitive symptoms generally include

  • Having a hard time processing information or expressing thoughts
  • Difficulty in understanding others or abstract concepts
  • Indecisiveness
  • Memory loss
  • Short attention spans

2.  Physical symptoms generally include

3.  Perceptual symptoms generally include

  • Spatial disorientation
  • Smell and taste disorders
  • Heightened pain sensitivity
  • Changes in hearing, seeing, or touch sensations
  • Unable to perceive time
  • Balance problems

4.  Emotional or behavioral symptoms generally include

  • Decreased stress tolerance
  • Heightened or flattened reactions or emotions
  • Aggressiveness
  • Sluggishness
  • Impatience and irritability
  • Self-denial
2532 people found this helpful

India's First Successful Skull Implant Surgery - All About Cranioplasty!

India's First Successful Skull Implant Surgery - All About Cranioplasty!

A few Pune-based doctors have created history by successfully replacing 60 per cent of a four-year-old girl’s damaged skull with a specially-made customised three-dimensional polyethylene bone.

This was reportedly the first ever skull implant surgery (also known as Cranioplasty) carried out in India. The 3D bone was made by a US-based firm as per the exact measurements and shape of the skull defect, which the little girl had sustained in a deadly car accident about a year ago.

What is Cranioplasty?

It is a surgical procedure which is followed to repair any defect or deformity in the skull. This defect or deformity could be congenital, a result of an accident or an injury sustained in the previous surgery involving the skull.

Types of Cranioplasty:

There are various types of cranioplasties, but in almost everyone of them, the doctors lift the scalp and restore the contour of the skull with the original skull piece or a custom contoured graft made from materials such as:

  • Titanium (plate or mesh)
  • Synthetic bone substitute
  • Acrylic (prefabricated or moulded at the time of surgery)

These surgeries can be divided mainly into two parts:

Conventional Cranioplasty:

In the conventional cranioplasty methods, the doctors peel back all five layers of the scalp and place the bone remnant or custom implant in the proper cranial location.

Pericranial-Onlay Cranioplasty:

It is a new technique in which the surgeon pulls back the three uppermost layers of the scalp and places an implant in between the third and fourth layers.

Reasons for undertaking Cranioplasty:

  • To secure the brain: In certain cases, a cranial defect may leave brain in a vulnerable situation where it might sustain deadly injuries.
  • Improving the functioning: Cranioplasty may also improve the neurological functioning of some patients.
  • Aesthetics: A skull defect can affect the appearance and confidence of the patient.
  • Headaches: It may also help in reducing the frequency of headaches caused due to previous surgery or injury.

Cranioplasty Procedure:

The surgeons shave the area of incision and prepare it with antiseptic. They also ensure that the rest of the head is draped, leaving only the surgical area exposed.

Then an anesthetic is given to the patient and the surgeon cuts the skin of the scalp and gently separates it into layers. The process eventually shields the dura, which covers the brain.

The surgeon cleans the edges of surrounding bone and prepares the surface so that the implant can be positioned appropriately in the defected area. Subsequently, it is secured to the cranial bones with screws, plates or both.

After placing the implant, the team controls the bleeding and moves back the scalp to its original position. Then the incision is closed with nylon suture.

Post surgery, you will be kept under observation for three to four days and then will be discharged after performing a final CT scan.

Risks of Cranioplasty:

Mentioned below are the risks associated with cranioplasty:

  • Infection
  • Post-operative blood clot requiring drainage
  • Stroke
  • Seizure
  • Clot in the legs (which rarely can travel to the lungs)

Complications not related directly to the surgery:

As it is associated to head, Cranioplasty is undoubtedly a major surgery which is not easy to be performed. The success of the Pune-based doctors is a big breakthrough for Indian medical fraternity as it has opened ways for more of such critical surgeries.

Connection Between Brain Inflammation And Suicidal Tendencies

Connection Between Brain Inflammation And Suicidal Tendencies

Ending one’s life is terrible. But often, instead of analysing the patient’s mental condition at that time, we tend to judge them. The most common cause for suicides is undoubtedly depression. Adverse social or financial conditions often contribute to the mental condition of patients. However, a recent paper published in the journal Neuropsychopharmacology might change the way we think about suicides. Lena Brundin and her co-workers have come to the conclusion in the paper titled “Role of inflammation in suicide: from mechanism to treatment,” that our immune system can trigger off suicidal thoughts and tendencies. Let us find out how.

  1. There is proof that certain medicines that are used to treat cancer patients can affect the immune responses. This in turn can trigger off suicidal tendencies.
  2. Certain injuries can lead to brain disorders which are related to inflammatory responses that might be responsible for some changes in behaviour often leading to suicidal thoughts.
  3. Just like certain medications trigger of suicidal thoughts, there are some that might diminish them like Lithium. It is used to treat bi-polar disorder. What it does is decrease immune related chemicals. Another drug has proved to be very effective in reducing suicidal thoughts and tendencies – Ketamine. Ketamine, like Lithium, has been found to block certain chemicals that are related to immune response.
  4. Though the whole topic is still under extensive research, it can perhaps be concluded that certain drugs have the ability to lessen suicidal thoughts and depression because they block some chemicals that are related to immunity.

The suicidal mentality is very complex. It requires not just medicines, but counselling, empathy, love and understanding. Often, many patients cannot come out of their depression, resulting in therapy sessions that are fruitless. In those cases, medicines that might reduce the negative thoughts and moods will come handy. It will help the patient initially to deal with the situation and start with a lot of positivity. Every year, almost one million deaths occur due to suicide. Not only does it leave behind survivors who attempt to kill themselves but also broken families that struggle to get over the death. If this research is successful, several people will benefit from it, all over the world. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2400 people found this helpful

5 Important Facts You Need To Know About Neuroplasticity!

5 Important Facts You Need To Know About Neuroplasticity!

The neurones in the brain are constantly reorganising their connections both functionally and physically according to the environment, your thinking and behaviour. This ability is known as neuroplasticity. Through neuroplasticity the nerve cells of brain can compensate for injury to some parts of the brain and enable a person to recover from stroke, birth abnormalities. It is also beneficial in treating autism, ADD, learning disabilities and helps manage obsessive compulsive disorders.

Here are seven things you should know about neuroplasticity.

  1. Change depends on the attentiveness of the brain: Neuroplasticity changes can only happen if the brain is alert and active. When the brain is active it releases neurochemicals that are necessary for the neurone connections to change. If a person is distracted to inattentive, these changes cannot happen.
  2. The more the effort; the bigger the change: Neuroplasticity changes depend on how motivated the person is to change or learn new tasks. For this reason, when it comes to using neuroplasticity for physiotherapy, it is essential to first deal with any depression or anxiety issues the patient might be having before attempting to rehabilitate them.
  3. It helps strengthen neural connections: Repetition of actions is one of the key elements of neuroplasticity in physiotherapy. Through this, the strength of neurone connections is strengthened to include sensory information, movement and cognitive patterns.
  4. It improves cell to cell connections: This is crucial to a patient’s rehabilitation as it increases reliability and makes a person more independent. In turn, this makes behaviour patterns more reliable.
  5. It helps predict actions: A task can usually be broken down into a series of smaller tasks. For example, feeding oneself can be broken down into steps that begin with lifting a spoon and filling it with food to finally putting the spoon into your mouth. Hence, along with completing an action, the brain must also know what to do next. Neuroplasticity helps improve this associative flow and allows the brain to predict the next step.
  6. Changes can be temporary or permanent: Initial changes due to neuroplasticity are temporary ad only if the brain determines the experience to be desired is this change made permanent. This is why when treating mobility issues, patients are not always able to repeat tasks in the same way.
  7. Memory guides the learning: When making new neural connections through neuroplasticity, the brain is taught to discard unsuccessful attempts and only remember the experience of the successful attempts. From here, adjustments are made to improve the connection.
2018 people found this helpful
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