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Brain Infection Tips

All You Need To Know About Epilepsy

Dr. Rakesh Kumar 87% (27 ratings)
DM - Neurology, MD - Medicine, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Neurologist, Ghaziabad
All You Need To Know About Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a neurological disease which is characterised by recurring epileptic seizures. These seizures can be brief or can persist for prolonged periods. Vigorous episodes which last long can result in physical injuries such as broken bones. 

Causes of Epilepsy

The cause of this condition isn’t very evident; however, most medical practitioners attribute epileptic seizures to brain injury, tumours, infections in the brain or birth defects. Some doctors believe that epilepsy is caused due to genetic mutations and is an outcome of abnormal activity of cells in the brain. Other causes for this condition can be alcohol or narcotics withdrawal and electrolyte problems.

Symptoms

  1. Repeated seizures
  2. Impaired memory
  3. Bouts of fainting
  4. Short spans of blackout
  5. Sudden bouts of blinking and chewing
  6. Panic
  7. Inappropriate repetitive movements

Types of Seizures

A seizure, also known as fit, is usually a brief episode characterised by uncontrollable jerking movement and loss of awareness due to abnormal neuronal activity in your brain. A collective occurrence of these seizures causes epilepsy.

There are three types of seizures an epileptic person usually encounters:

  1. Idiopathic: This kind of seizure has no apparent cause
  2. Cryptogenic: The doctors believe that there is a cause for the seizure but cannot detect it
  3. Symptomatic: These seizures occur due to a reason.

Treatments

  1. Medication: Medication is the most common treatment in case of epilepsy. Drugs taken on a regular basis can stop the seizure partially. But in very severe cases, they seem to have no effect at all.
  2. Surgery: For symptomatic seizures which are caused due to abnormal brain function, surgery can be a way to get rid of seizures. In some minor cases, nerve stimulation in the brain and special diets can be prescribed to control the epileptic seizures.

Five facts about epilepsy you need to know:

  1. Epilepsy is not psychosis or madness and can be treated easily 
  2. Popular celebraties with epilepsy include Aristotle, Alfred Nobel, Alexander the great, Sir Isaacs Newton, Martin Luther and Julius Caesar etc. 
  3. Women with epilepsy can have a normal pregnancy 
  4. Newer medicines for epilepsy are effective and very safe 
  5. Surgery can cure epilepsy in some patients.
2273 people found this helpful

What You Need To Know About Brain Injury?

Dr. Haresh Sampathkumar 90% (47 ratings)
MD - Brain Injury Medicine, MD - Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, MD - Internal Medicine
PMR (Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation) Specialist, Chennai

TYPES

  • Traumatic Brain Injury - Happens due to trauma 
  • Anoxic/Hypoxic brain injury - Happens due to decreased blood or oxygen supply to the brain. 
  • Ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident (commonly referred to as stroke) - Happens due to clots occluding the blood vessels in the brain or due to bleeding of blood vessels in the brain  
  • Brain tumors and metastasis (spreading of cancer) to the brain 
  • Vascular malformations of the brain such as Arteriovenous malformation, aneurysm etc - 
  • Brain infections
  • Autoimmune conditions such as  Multiple Sclerosis and auto-immune encephalitis - 
  • Toxic/metabolic causes such as post transplantation, sepsis, liver failure and kidney failure
  • Basically any injury or illness that affects your brain function for a prolonged period of time causing temporary or permanant damage 

SYMPTOMS

Usually individuals affected by these conditions can have a number of symptoms directly related to the brain injury such as

  • One-sided or both sided weakness and numbness of the arms and legs
  • Pain and tightness of the arms and legs
  • Difficulty with speech
  • Impaired consciousness (i.e. impaired arousal)
  • Cognitive impairment such as memory problems, slow thinking skills, problems with attention
  • Changes in their behavior such as aggression
  • Changes in their mood such as depression and anxiety
  • Difficulty in swallowing
  • Bladder and bowel incontinence
  • Visual problem
  • Hearing problem

MEDICAL COMPLICATIONS

There are medical complications that can be noted a few weeks or months after a brain injury. Some common ones include

  • Pneumonia
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Deep vein thrombosis – blood clot in the veins of your arms and legs
  • Pulmonary embolus – blood clot in your lungs
  • Pressure ulcers
  • Heterotopic ossification – a condition which causes stiffness of your joints
  • Seizures
  • Post-stroke shoulder pain – shoulder pain in the weak arm
  • Spasticity – tightness of the muscles of the affected arm and leg
  • Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity – a condition which causes fluctuations in your blood pressure, heart rate, and also causes abnormal stiffness of the arms and legs
  • Headache
  • Hydrocephalus – a condition where fluid builds up in your brain

HOW REHABILITATION CAN HELP?

A comprehensive, interdisciplinary team approach (i.e. care being provided by various disciplines in a coordinated fashion) with   Physician (Physiatrist), Physiotherapist, Occupational Therapist,  Speech and Language Therapist, Neuropsychologist,  Nutritionist and a  Nurse can help reduce your symptoms directly related to the injury as well as prevent and treat common medical complications post brain injury. Not all patients will require all services and usually, a combination of these services is required for an individual patient. 

PHYSICIAN (PHYSIATRIST)

Patients can be evaluated by the Physician first to determine the nature and severity of the medical condition then come up with a treatment plan that best suits them. Depending on the patient’s symptoms and medical complications (listed above), the treatment plan will include recommending therapy services, prescribing medications and performing injections. Medications are commonly  prescribed for medical complications as well as to reduce symptoms directly related to brain injury such as arm and leg weakness, muscle tightness, speech impairment, mood and behavior issues, cognitive impairment and impaired arousal. The physician  performs injections such as tendon injections, joint injections for joint or muscle pain as well as Botulinum toxin (commonly referred as Botox injections) and nerve block injections to help relieve muscle and tendon tightness.

PHYSIOTHERAPIST

A Physiotherapist will  focus on various physical exercises to improve weakness in the arms and legs, improve their walking and balance and to reduce muscle tightness. They might use physical modalities to reduce pain and inflammation, muscle and tendon tightness and prevent muscle atrophy. They can also fit you with an orthosis to reduce muscle tightness as well as improve your walking and arm function.

OCCUPATIONAL THERAPIST

An Occupational Therapist will focus on various physical activities required for daily living for patients with severe physical and/or cognitive impairment and also teach cognitive exercises thereby compensating the cognitive deficits.  Visual Training exercises are provided to individuals with visual impairment due to the neurological problem. The final phase of treatment involves patient training for successful community integration (education, employment etc).

SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGIST

A Speech Language Pathologist (commonly referred to as a Speech and Language Therapist), will evaluate the patient’s speech, communication and swallowing skills.  The treatment plan is broken down after an initial evaluation. The program will vary depending on the extent of the injury, the stage of recovery, and the individual’s particular areas of difficulty. Specific retraining and compensatory exercises are taught to improve the above skills. However, the major focus is on helping the individual gain back his/her quality of life.

NEUROPSYCHOLOGIST

A Neuropsychologist evaluates  patients  with depression and anxiety, that is commonly seen after any major  life-changing illness or injury and guides them through the process of rehabilitation  thereby improving their quality of life through motivation and counseling.  Performing an in-depth cognitive assessment and planning cognitive re-training exercises and compensatory strategies is also a major treatment aspect of a Neuropsychologist.

NUTRITIONIST

Malnutrition or undernourishment is a common problem in this population. For optimal recovery,  a Nutritionist recommends an appropriate intake of nutrition.

REHABILITATION NURSE

A Rehabilitation Nurse  trains patients with central nervous system injury to manage their bowel and bladder independently.  Performing and training wound care management for patients with pressure ulcers are also handled by a Rehabilitation Nurse.

EXPECTATIONS OF RECOVERY

Depending on the severity and chronicity (time duration since injury/illness) of the injury/illness, your recovery time may differ. Complete neurological recovery is often possible if the injury is mild to moderate. In the case of a moderate to severe injury, a complete neurological recovery may not be possible and therefore the goal will be to help you be as independent as possible and integrate you into the community despite your physical and/or cognitive limitation. If the injury is too severe, then the goal would be to improve your quality of life by helping you be as independent as possible with your day to day living, decrease pain and prevent complications.

1 person found this helpful

When Is Brain Surgery Most Required?

Dr. Ravindra Srivastava 86% (31 ratings)
M.Ch, MS, MBBS
Neurosurgeon, Greater Noida
When Is Brain Surgery Most Required?

Brain surgery involves several medical procedures, which incorporate fixing issues with the brain, including changes in the tissues of the brain, cerebrospinal fluid and brain blood flow. Brain surgery is quite a complicated method of surgery and the type of surgery to be conducted depends on the underlying conditions.

Reasons for Brain Surgery:
Brain surgery is performed for the correction of physical brain abnormalities. These abnormalities could occur because of diseases, birth defects and injuries. A brain surgery is required when the following conditions arise in the brain:

  1. Abnormal blood vessels
  2. Aneurysm
  3. Bleeding
  4. Blood clots in the brain
  5. When the protective tissue or dura is damaged
  6. Epilepsy
  7. Due to nerve damage
  8. Parkinson's disease
  9. Any kind of pressure after an injury
  10. Abscesses9290
  11. Skull fractures
  12. In case of stroke and tumors

A surgery may not be required for all the above mentioned conditions, but in case of many, a brain surgery is very important as the conditions may worsen health problems.

Types of brain surgeries:

  1. Craniotomy: During this open brain surgery, an incision is made in the scalp, and a hole is created in the skull, near the area, which is being treated. After this process is complete, the hole or bone flap is secured in its place using plates or wires.
  2. Biopsy: This form of brain surgery helps in the removal of a small amount of brain tissues or tumors. After removal, the tissues or tumors are examined under a microscope. The creation of a small incision and a hole in the skull is indicated as a part of this process.
  3. Minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery: This form of brain surgery enables the removal or lesions and tumors via the nose and sinuses. Private parts of the brain can be accessed without creating an incision. An endoscope is utilized in the process which is used to examine tumors all across the brain.
  4. Minimally Invasive neuroendoscopy: This process is similar to the minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery. This method also involves the use of an endoscope for removal of brain tumors. Small, dime-sized holes may be made in the skull to access some brain parts.

Risks:
Brain surgeries may be associated with several risks. They may be:

  1. Allergic reactions to anesthesia
  2. Bleeding9290
  3. Blood clot formations
  4. Swelling of the brain
  5. A state of coma
  6. Impairment in speech, coordination and vision.
  7. Problems in memory
  8. Strokes and seizures
  9. Infections in the brain

A brain surgery is a serious and very complex surgery. There are different kinds of brain surgeries, which are conducted depending on the condition and severity of the disease.

1788 people found this helpful

Brian Surgery - Important Facts You Need To Be Aware Of!

Dr. Arun Sharma 92% (35 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery, MCh - Neuro Surgery
Neurosurgeon, Delhi
Brian Surgery - Important Facts You Need To Be Aware Of!

The most powerful and amazing organ in our body is the brain. It differs from many other organs of our body not only by its shape, but also by its special type of cell called neurons. When these cells gets affected or dead it can never be reverted or regenerated which is the most exclusive nature found only in brain cells. The cells in other parts of our body has the capacity to regenerate (can be replaced or new one can be grown or produced), but brain cells are exception. Hence any damage to the brain, injury or trauma is really a crucial thing to be considered with utmost care.

Brain surgeries really need skill, proper training, confidence and intelligence to perform this highly complicated and risky surgery.


Purpose:
Brain surgeries are performed to:

 

 

  1. Remove the brain tissues that are grown abnormally
  2. Make a nerve free
  3. Drain the abnormal blood or clot collection or to drain any excessive fluid collection caused by infection.
  4. To reduce pressure in brain
  5. To obtain histopathological diagnosis & guide for further requirement of chemotherapy/radiotherapy

Types:

  1. Biopsy: A part of brain tissue is removed for the brain or whole tumour is removed.
  2. Craniotomy: The skull bone is opened to remove tumour, an aneurysm and drain fluid or blood from infection.
  3. Minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery: Endoscopic devices are inserted through the nose to remove the lesions or tumour.
  4. Minimally invasive neuroendoscopy: Similar to endonasal surgery but small incision is made.

Risks:

  1. Anaesthesia risks like breathing difficulty, allergic reaction to medications, excessive bleeding or clots and infection.
  2. Risk related to the brain surgeries are seizures, coma, swelling of brain, infection to brain or meanings, surgical wound infection that intrudes to the brain structures, abnormal clot formation and bleeding.
  3. General risks include muscle weakness, disturbances in memory, speech, vision, coordination, balance and other functions that are controlled by the brain.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

1905 people found this helpful

What Are the Leading Symptoms of Aphasia in Kids?

Dr. Rahul Sharma 85% (38 ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, Diploma In Child Health (DCH)
Pediatrician, Delhi
What Are the Leading Symptoms of Aphasia in Kids?

Child Aphasia is complex disorder that is caused by damage to parts of the brain that controls language and speech. This disorder affects the child's ability to express herself through words and understand the speech of other people. The severity of the problem depends on the extent of the damage as well as the location of the damage. Since this is not an inborn trouble, therefore, you should be much more careful as so you notice that your kid is facing language disorder. A speech pathologist can diagnose language disorders and teach your child strategies to help.

What are the leading symptoms of aphasia in kids?

  1. Not understanding speech is one of the commonest symptoms. Most patients cannot understand spoken or written language. Typically in these cases, the patient suffers from fluent Aphasia, which is caused by damage to the left temporal lobe of the brain. The patient's speech might seem meaningless and incoherent with lots of unnecessary words being used. The child usually becomes upset when people don't understand what he is saying.
  2. Patients suffering from this disorder also have trouble expressing their thoughts and producing language easily and take a long time to communicate. Only short sentences are used by patients with words often left out, making the sentence sound incomplete. Such children suffer from non-fluent Aphasia where they understand what others are saying but cannot communicate or speak well themselves Their speech is almost similar to that of telegraphic languages that are usually followed by those toddlers who are just learning how to speak.
  3. Some children suffering from Aphasia might have trouble repeating words even though they don't have problem understanding what others are saying. These children suffer from conduction Aphasia and will be able to reproduce only parts of a sentence if asked to repeat.
  4. Children affected with this disorder may see to be not listening to you or ignoring you.
  5. Such kids might also have behavioral problems and may not be able to keep up with their friends and classmates. They will also suffer from forgetfulness.

Causes of Aphasia: The leading cause of Aphasia is brain injury, brain infection, brain tumour or abscess or bleeding in the brain.

Diagnosis of the disease: The disorder is diagnosed by a speech therapist who assesses the condition with a variety of tools to figure out the extent of damage. Its best to take your child to a paediatric speech pathologist who is an expert in treating children with brain injuries. The child will then be assessed on auditory comprehension, verbal expression, reading and writing ability and functional communication.

Treatment: There are many people who think that the speech trouble cannot be treated, but they are completely wrong. There are various ways to treat Aphasia. The younger the patient the better the chances of recovery since the brain is not that developed to handle specific functions in kids as in adults. The treatment will depend on the severity of the condition and the goal that is to be achieved. Factors behind this trouble need to be determined first otherwise the perfect treatment cannot be decided. Some of the most prominent factors are aphasia type, brain-injury cause, age, brain-lesion size and positioning and others.

Some of the leading tips that can be applied as per Association of National Stroke are as follows:

  1. Using props can be helpful in getting across messages.
  2. Speaking slowly and staying calm while speaking.
  3. Drawing pictures or words on paper for communication.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3418 people found this helpful

4 Types You Should Know About Brain Surgery!

Dr. Anurag Saxena 90% (16 ratings)
FRCS (Ed) Neurosugery, M.Ch - Neuro Surgery
Neurosurgeon, Indore
4 Types You Should Know About Brain Surgery!

The most powerful and amazing organ in our body is the brain. It differs from many other organs of our body not only by its shape, but also by its special type of cell called neurons. When these cells gets affected or dead it can never be reverted or regenerated which is the most exclusive nature found only in brain cells. The cells in other parts of our body has the capacity to regenerate (can be replaced or new one can be grown or produced), but brain cells are exception. Hence any damage to the brain, injury or trauma is really a crucial thing to be considered with utmost care.

Brain surgeries really need skill, proper training, confidence and intelligence to perform this highly complicated and risky surgery.

Purpose:
Brain surgeries are performed to:

  1. Remove the brain tissues that are grown abnormally
  2. Aneurysm is clipped to prevent flow of blood cliff off an aneurysm
  3. Biopsy purpose or to remove the tumour
  4. Make a nerve free
  5. Drain the abnormal blood or clot collection or to drain any excessive fluid collection caused by infection.
  6. To implant artificial electronic device as a treatment for conditions like Parkinson's disease

Types:

  1. Biopsy: A part of brain tissue is removed for the brain or whole tumour is removed.
  2. Craniotomy: The skull bone is opened to remove tumour, an aneurysm and drain fluid or blood from infection.
  3. Minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery: Endoscopic devices are inserted through the nose to remove the lesions or tumour.
  4. Minimally invasive neuroendoscopy: Similar to endonasal surgery but small incision is made.

Risks:

  1. Anaesthesia risks like breathing difficulty, allergic reaction to medications, excessive bleeding or clots and infection.
  2. Risk related to the brain surgeries are seizures, coma, swelling of brain, infection to brain or meanings, surgical wound infection that intrudes to the brain structures, abnormal clot formation and bleeding.
  3. General risks include muscle weakness, disturbances in memory, speech, vision, coordination, balance and other functions that are controlled by the brain.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2126 people found this helpful

4 Types Of Brain Surgery!

Dr. Naba J Borah 89% (10 ratings)
MS (Surgery), Mch (Neurosurgery)
Neurosurgeon, Guwahati
4 Types Of Brain Surgery!

The most powerful and amazing organ in our body is the brain. It differs from many other organs of our body not only by its shape, but also by its special type of cell called neurons. When these cells gets affected or dead it can never be reverted or regenerated which is the most exclusive nature found only in brain cells. The cells in other parts of our body has the capacity to regenerate (can be replaced or new one can be grown or produced), but brain cells are exception. Hence any damage to the brain, injury or trauma is really a crucial thing to be considered with utmost care.

Brain surgeries really need skill, proper training, confidence and intelligence to perform this highly complicated and risky surgery.

Purpose:
Brain surgeries are performed to:

  1. Remove the brain tissues that are grown abnormally
  2. Aneurysm is clipped to prevent flow of blood cliff off an aneurysm
  3. Biopsy purpose or to remove the tumour
  4. Make a nerve free
  5. Drain the abnormal blood or clot collection or to drain any excessive fluid collection caused by infection.
  6. To implant artificial electronic device as a treatment for conditions like Parkinson’s disease

Types:

  1. Biopsy: A part of brain tissue is removed for the brain or whole tumour is removed.
  2. Craniotomy: The skull bone is opened to remove tumour, an aneurysm and drain fluid or blood from infection.
  3. Minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery: Endoscopic devices are inserted through the nose to remove the lesions or tumour.
  4. Minimally invasive neuroendoscopy: Similar to endonasal surgery but small incision is made.

Risks:

  1. Anaesthesia risks like breathing difficulty, allergic reaction to medications, excessive bleeding or clots and infection.
  2. Risk related to the brain surgeries are seizures, coma, swelling of brain, infection to brain or meanings, surgical wound infection that intrudes to the brain structures, abnormal clot formation and bleeding.
  3. General risks include muscle weakness, disturbances in memory, speech, vision, coordination, balance and other functions that are controlled by the brain. 

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2098 people found this helpful

What is The Purpose Behind Brain Surgery?

MBBS, Cerebrovascular and Micro neurosurgery fellowship, MS - General Surgery, MCh Neurosurgery
Neurosurgeon, Jaipur
What is The Purpose Behind Brain Surgery?

The most powerful and amazing organ in our body is the brain. It differs from many other organs of our body not only by its shape, but also by its special type of cell called neurons. When these cells gets affected or dead it can never be reverted or regenerated which is the most exclusive nature found only in brain cells. The cells in other parts of our body has the capacity to regenerate (can be replaced or new one can be grown or produced), but brain cells are exception. Hence any damage to the brain, injury or trauma is really a crucial thing to be considered with utmost care.

Brain surgeries really need skill, proper training, confidence and intelligence to perform this highly complicated and risky surgery.

Purpose:
Brain surgeries are performed to:

  1. Remove the brain tissues that are grown abnormally
  2. Aneurysm is clipped to prevent flow of blood cliff off an aneurysm
  3. Biopsy purpose or to remove the tumour
  4. Make a nerve free
  5. Drain the abnormal blood or clot collection or to drain any excessive fluid collection caused by infection.
  6. To implant artificial electronic device as a treatment for conditions like Parkinson's disease

Types:

  1. Biopsy: A part of brain tissue is removed for the brain or whole tumour is removed.
  2. Craniotomy: The skull bone is opened to remove tumour, an aneurysm and drain fluid or blood from infection.
  3. Minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery: Endoscopic devices are inserted through the nose to remove the lesions or tumour.
  4. Minimally invasive neuroendoscopy: Similar to endonasal surgery but small incision is made.

Risks:

  1. Anaesthesia risks like breathing difficulty, allergic reaction to medications, excessive bleeding or clots and infection.
  2. Risk related to the brain surgeries are seizures, coma, swelling of brain, infection to brain or meanings, surgical wound infection that intrudes to the brain structures, abnormal clot formation and bleeding.
  3. General risks include muscle weakness, disturbances in memory, speech, vision, coordination, balance and other functions that are controlled by the brain.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2124 people found this helpful

What Are The Risk Associated With Brain Surgery?

Dr. Kodeeswaran Marappan 93% (64 ratings)
MCh, MBBS, MRCS (UK)
Neurosurgeon, Chennai
What Are The Risk Associated With Brain Surgery?

The most powerful and amazing organ in our body is the brain. It differs from many other organs of our body not only by its shape, but also by its special type of cell called neurons. When these cells gets affected or dead it can never be reverted or regenerated which is the most exclusive nature found only in brain cells. The cells in other parts of our body has the capacity to regenerate (can be replaced or new one can be grown or produced), but brain cells are exception. Hence any damage to the brain, injury or trauma is really a crucial thing to be considered with utmost care.

Brain surgeries really need skill, proper training, confidence and intelligence to perform this highly complicated and risky surgery.

Purpose:
Brain surgeries are performed to:

  1. Remove the brain tissues that are grown abnormally
  2. Aneurysm is clipped to prevent flow of blood cliff off an aneurysm
  3. Biopsy purpose or to remove the tumour
  4. Make a nerve free
  5. Drain the abnormal blood or clot collection or to drain any excessive fluid collection caused by infection.
  6. To implant artificial electronic device as a treatment for conditions like Parkinson's disease

Types:

  1. Biopsy: A part of brain tissue is removed for the brain or whole tumour is removed.
  2. Craniotomy: The skull bone is opened to remove tumour, an aneurysm and drain fluid or blood from infection.
  3. Minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery: Endoscopic devices are inserted through the nose to remove the lesions or tumour.
  4. Minimally invasive neuroendoscopy: Similar to endonasal surgery but small incision is made.

Risks:

  1. Anaesthesia risks like breathing difficulty, allergic reaction to medications, excessive bleeding or clots and infection.
  2. Risk related to the brain surgeries are seizures, coma, swelling of brain, infection to brain or meanings, surgical wound infection that intrudes to the brain structures, abnormal clot formation and bleeding.
  3. General risks include muscle weakness, disturbances in memory, speech, vision, coordination, balance and other functions that are controlled by the brain. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Neurosurgeon.
3168 people found this helpful

Brain Surgery - What Should You Know About It?

Dr. Manish Vaish 86% (77 ratings)
IFAANS, DNB (Neurosurgery), MBBS
Neurosurgeon, Ghaziabad
Brain Surgery - What Should You Know About It?

Brain surgery involves several medical procedures, which incorporate fixing issues with the brain, including changes in the tissues of the brain, cerebrospinal fluid and brain blood flow. Brain surgery is quite a complicated method of surgery and the type of surgery to be conducted depends on the underlying conditions.

Reasons for Brain Surgery:
Brain surgery is performed for the correction of physical brain abnormalities. These abnormalities could occur because of diseases, birth defects and injuries. A brain surgery is required when the following conditions arise in the brain:

  1. Abnormal blood vessels
  2. Aneurysm
  3. Bleeding
  4. Blood clots in the brain
  5. When the protective tissue or dura is damaged
  6. Epilepsy
  7. Due to nerve damage
  8. Parkinson's disease
  9. Any kind of pressure after an injury
  10. Abscesses
  11. Skull fractures
  12. In case of stroke and tumors

A surgery may not be required for all the above mentioned conditions, but in case of many, a brain surgery is very important as the conditions may worsen health problems.

Types of brain surgeries:

  1. Craniotomy: During this open brain surgery, an incision is made in the scalp, and a hole is created in the skull, near the area, which is being treated. After this process is complete, the hole or bone flap is secured in its place using plates or wires.
  2. Biopsy: This form of brain surgery helps in the removal of a small amount of brain tissues or tumors. After removal, the tissues or tumors are examined under a microscope. The creation of a small incision and a hole in the skull is indicated as a part of this process.
  3. Minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery: This form of brain surgery enables the removal or lesions and tumors via the nose and sinuses. Private parts of the brain can be accessed without creating an incision. An endoscope is utilized in the process which is used to examine tumors all across the brain.
  4. Minimally Invasive neuroendoscopy: This process is similar to the minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery. This method also involves the use of an endoscope for removal of brain tumors. Small, dime sized holes may be made in the skull to access some brain parts.

Risks:
Brain surgeries may be associated with several risks. They may be:

  1. Allergic reactions to anesthesia
  2. Bleeding
  3. Blood clot formations
  4. Swelling of the brain
  5. A state of coma
  6. Impairment in speech, coordination and vision.
  7. Problems in memory
  8. Strokes and seizures
  9. Infections in the brain

A brain surgery is a serious and very complex surgery. There are different kinds of brain surgeries, which are conducted depending on the condition and severity of the disease. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Neurosurgeon.

1862 people found this helpful
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