Common Specialities
{{speciality.keyWord}}
Common Issues
{{issue.keyWord}}
Common Treatments
{{treatment.keyWord}}

Bone Fracture Tips

Parathyroid Hormone Treatment - What Should You Know About It?

Dr. Mukesh Kumar Agarwal 89% (10 ratings)
MS - Orthopaedics, DNB (Orthopedics)
Orthopedist, Guwahati
Parathyroid Hormone Treatment - What Should You Know About It?

What is Osteoporosis?
Osteoporosis is a medical condition wherein the bone becomes fragile and breaks easily even with a minor fall. The bones of spine, wrists and hips get affected the most. These fractured bones lead to severe pain and can force a person to become immobile. A spine fracture can even lead to a loss of height.

What is parathyroid hormone?
Parathyroid is a naturally occurring hormone that regulates the amount of calcium present in the body. They mitigate the risk of bone breakage in the body for a patient suffering with osteoporosis. These hormones are injected into the body on a daily basis to maintain the normal flow of calcium in the body.

How does the treatment work?
Treatments are available in the form of drugs and injections. A doctor can prescribe drugs, if the patient is at an increased rate of bone breakage. The parathyroid hormone helps to protect the bone from breaking, but have no role when the bone actually breaks. The body has a natural process of breaking a bone and rebuilding it by itself. Osteoporosis sets in motion when this process of bone formation is disturbed.

When does a doctor prescribe hormonal treatment?
If a patient has undergone a number of vertebral compression fractures and the condition has not improved, a doctor might suggest to undergo parathyroid hormone treatment. The treatment requires nursing support due to a patient’s delicate bone condition. A maximum dosage of 20 micro grams of parathyroid can be injected for a time duration not exceeding 2 years.

Things to know about the treatment:

  1. Be informed: It is good to be well informed about the course of the treatment, treatment duration, plausible problems etc. This will help a patient to be on top of the decision making process. The helpline of the 'National Osteoporosis Society' can be reached to understand the preparation required for a patient to undergo the treatment.
  2. Take the right dosage at the right time: Parathyroid injections should be injected on a daily basis for a maximum time period of 2 years. These injections are taken daily at the same time. It should be ensured that none of the injections are skipped without the prior approval of a doctor. The injection, which lasts for 28 days, needs to be stored in a refrigerator. In case a patient is travelling, special bags are available that has space for storing gel packs.
  3. Side effects: Most patients do not report any side effects, but they do exist. Possible side effects include dizziness, arthralgia, depression and headache. These symptoms often suggest that your body is reacting to the parathyroid hormone treatment. A doctor may or may not prescribe any further drugs to address these symptoms.
1 person found this helpful

Cracks VS Fractures - How To Differentiate Between The Two?

Dr. Ashwani Maichand 84% (39 ratings)
Fellowship in Joint Replacement , M.Ch , MS - Orthopaedics, MBBS
Orthopedist, Delhi
Cracks VS Fractures - How To Differentiate Between The Two?

A fracture separates a single solid object into two or more pieces due to pressure. In medical terms, a fracture refers to a broken bone due to some kind of external trauma. A crack in the bone, on the other hand, does not cause a clean break in the bone - there is only a separation or discontinuity in the bone material. A crack in the bone caused due to repeated stress is often called a 'hairline fracture'.

Here are the basic differences between a crack and a fracture in the bone and how to treat them:

  1. A crack or hairline fracture is rarely caused by a single injury. It is usually the result of bone fatigue which may be caused due to repeated concentrated stress over a long period of time and thus it is also called a stress fracture. Other bone fractures are almost always the result of sudden and severe force on the bones.
  2. The skeletal system constantly remodels itself. The cells called osteoblasts absorb calcium and secrete bone connective tissue. If a particular site is exposed to recurrent bouts of force (which are individually not impactful enough to cause a crack), over time the osteoblasts in that region malfunction and the crack appears. Muscular exhaustion can also cause cracks in the bones. Fractures are caused due to sudden external single force trauma to the bone. Nutritional problems like deficiencies of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D and excessive smoking decrease the bone mineral density and increase the chances of both cracks and fractures.
  3. The symptoms of a crack are swelling, tenderness and sharp pain in the injured region. The symptoms worsen over time. A fracture has similar symptoms and might also exhibit an external physical distortion and makes it impossible to move the part of the body that where the broken bone is.
  4. An MRI is better for the detection of cracks or crack-prone areas because an X-ray can only detect the crack after it widens somewhat or the bone starts paining because the rays cannot pass through the tiny gap in bone material. A fracture is easily detectable by an X-ray because the rays pass right through the break.
  5. Complete rest for six to eight weeks is the most effective way of healing a crack. Using a walking boot in case of cracks in the leg bones in also helpful. Healing fractures requires extensive medical intervention. Surgical techniques like bone grafting and insertion of metal plates are used to reposition the broken bone.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3896 people found this helpful

Knee Replacement - Is Second Surgery Actually Required?

Dr. Vikas Mehra 90% (12 ratings)
Fellowship in Joint Replacement, M S Ortho, DNB (Orthopaedics)
Orthopedist, Chandigarh
Knee Replacement - Is Second Surgery Actually Required?

Of all the joints in the body, the knees probably see the maximum wear and tear. In cases of severe osteoarthritis, or injuries which destroy the knee joint, a total knee replacement surgery may be advised. This procedure involves the replacement of diseased cartilage and bone in the knees with artificial materials.

In cases of osteoarthritis and other such degenerative conditions, this procedure is performed only when the adjacent joints such as the hips are strong and healthy. Before the procedure, you may be advised to discontinue any blood thinning and anti-inflammatory medication. Your doctor will also conduct blood and urine tests to check for signs of anaemia, abnormal metabolism and infections. You may also be asked to lose weight if you are on the heavier side to reduce the pressure on your knees.

A total knee replacement surgery is usually performed under general anaesthesia. The lower end of the femur bone or thigh bone and the upper end of the tibia or calf bone are removed and replaced with a metal shell and plastic piece respectively. In some cases, a plastic ‘button’ may also be placed on the surface of the knee cap. If the posterior cruciate ligament in intact it is left as is or it is replaced by a polyethene post to stabilise the joint and prevent the calf from slipping backwards.

In most cases, a patient is discharged after 3-5 days of hospitalisation following the surgery. Post-surgery, it takes about a month for the patient to experience notable improvements. For optimal results, total knee surgery must be followed by physiotherapy and regular exercise. This helps prevent scarring and keeps the muscles strong enough to maintain joint stability. Exercising can also reduce recovery time. However, not all exercises are advisable. Avoid running, jumping, climbing stairs and contact sports which have a high risk of knee injury. Swimming is highly encouraged as it boosts endurance and muscle strength without putting any pressure on the joint.

In some cases, a second surgery may be required in cases of total knee replacement to fix fractures, loosening or complications of the artificial joint. As with any other surgical procedure, a total knee replacement surgery also has risks. Some of these are:

  1. Formation of blood clots that can cause shortness of breath, chest pain and shock
  2. Urinary tract infection
  3. Nausea and vomiting
  4. Knee pain and stiffness
  5. Nerve damage
  6. Internal bleeding in the knee
  7. Increased risk of infections

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2683 people found this helpful

Understanding The Types + Causes Of Bone Fracture

Dr. Suhel Khan 86% (10 ratings)
MBBS, Diploma In Orthopaedics, DNB (Orthopedics), MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Pune
Understanding The Types + Causes Of Bone Fracture

Broken bone is commonly known as bone fracture a d it occurs when an exorbitant amount of force is applied causing the bone to split or shatter. While some minor fractures lead to cracks and crannies, others may lead to complete breakage of the bones. Despite being hard, bones are formed in such a way that they can absorb pressure to only a certain extent, beyond which they break. Statistically, the incidence of broken bones are most common in children and in old age people.

Causes of Bone Fracture
Bone fracture can be caused due to a number of reasons; both intentional and accidental. Some of them include:
1. Accidents and injuries: Sports injuries, being hit by a car and tripping and falling are some of the typical episodes.
2. Old age: Diseases such as osteoporosis and brittle bone disease are common in aged people. As bones tend to become more fragile among the aged, they are at a greater chance of bone fractures.

Type of bone fractures
Primarily bone fractures are of four types, based on the way the bone splits. They are:

  1. Complete fracture: This type of fracture refers to a complete breakage of the bone wherein the fracture may occur at various parts of the bone.
  2. Incomplete fracture: In this type of fracture, the bone partially breaks instead of splitting entirely.
  3. Compound fractures: This is a type of a fracture wherein the bone breaks past the skin. It is also known as an open fracture.
  4. Simple fracture: In this type of a fracture, the bone breaks without causing an open wound on the skin.

Treatment of bone fractures
In case of a broken bone, the immediate course of action would be to reach for the first aid box. This can be done to stabilize the bone prior to hospitalization. Icing the injury, elevating the injured area to prevent further swelling and covering the wound with bandages are common measures. In many cases, people also make household splints (made of newspapers) to keep the bone stabilized. Hospitalization and especially surgery, can be also opted for in case of severe fractures.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2371 people found this helpful

How To Diagnose Fractures?

MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics, Fellowship In Arthroscopy & Arthroplasty, Advanced Life trauma Support, Diploma In Sports Injuries
Orthopedist, Delhi
How To Diagnose Fractures?

Fractures are simply a break in a bone. They can be caused due to injury, (traumatic fractures) or a pre-existing condition like osteoporosis that causes weakening of bones (pathologic fractures). There are many ways to classify fractures. All fractures fall into the major categories of simple and compound fractures. Simple fractures are fractures where bones remain inside the skin and don’t jut out. They are also called closed fractures.

Compound fractures, also called open fractures, are broken bones that penetrate through the skin. These types expose the bone and deep tissues to the environment. Compound fractures are more serious of the two. The healing here may be affected due to deep infections for which antibiotics need to be used. There are many different sub types of fractures and we’re only going to skim through them here.

  1. Comminuted fractures: Severe fractures in which a bone breaks into several smaller pieces.
  2. Avulsion fractures: A small piece of bone is completely torn off from the main bone due to fierce pulling off a part of the body.

Other types of fractures are characterised by the many different angles the bone breaks into like transverse, oblique and spiral fractures.

Diagnosis
When a bone is broken there are symptoms like swelling that doesn’t subside on its own and pain. In such a case it’s imperative that one goes to a doctor for a diagnosis. Doctors can usually recognise most fractures by examining the injury and taking an X-ray. The X-ray also provides a clear idea about the type of fracture and the degree of displacement of the bone. And, it’s important that the patient doesn’t wait too long before approaching a doctor. This is because bones begin to heal very quickly after a fracture and the bone tissue will heal using any tissue available. This can lead to a misalignment of broken pieces of bone and cause disability and loss of function.

There are cases when X-ray may not show a fracture. This is especially common in fractures in the hip and wrist in older people. For diagnosing these, doctors will get some other tests done such as a computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or a bone scan.

Treatments
Fractures have to be treated by doctors. The doctors set the fractured bones in their proper place and hold them there so that they can heal. Setting a bone is called "reduction." Reduction without surgery is called "closed reduction." But if the fracture is serious, it’s going to require surgery with bone repositioning, called open reduction.

In extreme cases, pins, plates, screws, rods, or glue are used to hold the fractured bones in place, inside the body. Once the bone abutment has been treated, the bone is immobilised to allow the broken pieces to heal. In most cases, the fractured part is set in a rigid cast. The fractured ends of the bone can be fixed into place using metal pins connected to an external frame. This is removed after the bone has healed.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4362 people found this helpful

How Long Do You Need Physiotherapy Post Fracture?

Wellness Diploma, MBA (Healthcare), BPTh/BPT, Post Graduate Specialization In Preventive Health Care
Physiotherapist, Delhi
How Long Do You Need Physiotherapy Post Fracture?

Fractures constitute one of the most challenging aspects of healthcare sector - clocking the most number of lost work hours after lifestyle diseases. These injuries though appearing innocuous in nature because of their initial mild swellings and pain can bring untold sufferings in the long run, if left unchecked. Since fractures are concealed from the naked eye, and the extent of damage is never revealed during the first few days; the damage done if left untreated may cost the victim quite a fortune when measured in monetary terms.

  1. Physiotherapy is often the treatment of choice for secondary complications which pop up, followed by implementation of procedures for healing. Healing of bones requires a long period of immobilization of limbs or the affected region such that the bones of the affected region do not experience any stress which may impair the healing process.
  2. The duration during which the limb is kept immobilized, there is a gradual buildup of calcium layers around the joints, which result in stiffness and joint pains, associated with loss of muscular strength. Generally, the duration of immobilization may range from somewhere between two to three weeks based on the extent and nature of the fracture. During the 3rd or the 4th week, physicians generally recommend commencing of physical therapy sessions to overcome limb stiffness, increase blood flow to the affected area, as well as improve the flexibility of nearby joints.
  3. Physiotherapy sessions once commenced, would greatly improve the particular functions, albeit slowly. This is an area of treatment where progress is rather slow, and which is monitored closely by physicians and physiotherapists alike. Though the affected bones are allowed to move gently and subjected to a gradual increase in stress, an estimated duration of four to six weeks is generally recommended for the bones to strengthen as well as for the limbs to function in a perfect manner.
  4. Though physiotherapy is highly sought after following a fracture, only experts should be allowed to decide when to begin the sessions. If such sessions begin too early in the healing period, secondary damage may occur. Physical therapy is continued till the body displays optimum mobility and the subsequent response to such treatment.

Physiotherapy can be regarded as a supplementary course of treatment, which is essential as a ‘force multiplier’ of the treatment regime. Overall, the victim’s physiology the type of fracture and treatment regimen followed plays a more decisive role in deciding the duration of physical therapy.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4211 people found this helpful

Relation Between Vitamin D Deficiency And Bone Problems!

Dr. Neetan Sachdeva 86% (31 ratings)
DNB - Orthopedics, Diploma In Orthopaedics, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, Fellowship In Rheumatology & Joint Dosorder
Orthopedist, Delhi
Relation Between Vitamin D Deficiency And Bone Problems!

When we speak of bone health, calcium is usually the hero of the story. However, by itself, calcium is not enough for healthy bones. Vitamin D is equally important for healthy bones and the prevention of orthopedic conditions.

What does Vitamin D do?
Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium from the food being eaten. It also controls the calcium and phosphate levels in the body. This is critical for the growth and development of new bones. Vitamin D also controls how much calcium and phosphates are being expelled by the body. In this way, vitamin D helps strengthen the bones and improve overall bone health.

Vitamin D Deficiency
Vitamin D is not commonly found in food. It is present only in certain types of oily fishes, egg yolks and mushrooms. Most of the vitamin D we eat comes from fortified cereals, breads and dairy products. The sun is an important source of vitamin D but exposing yourself to too much sunlight could cause various skin problems. Thus, vitamin D deficiency is very common. When it comes to bone health, vitamin D deficiency can cause low-density bones. This, in turn, can cause rickets and osteoporosis. People with vitamin D deficiency are likely to suffer frequent fractures. Vitamin D deficiency can also cause skeletal deformities such as bow legs and a stooped spine.

Vitamin D and Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis is a musculoskeletal condition that is marked by low bone density. Studies have shown that people with osteoporosis have lower levels of vitamin D as compared to others. Some studies also suggest that fractures are more common in winter as compared to summer. The winter sun is often hazy and many days can go by without strong sunlight. Thus it can be inferred that people do not get their required quota of vitamin D from the sunlight in winters leading to a deficiency and aggravated osteoporosis-related fractures.

Who is most susceptible to bone conditions caused by vitamin D deficiency?
Vitamin D deficiency is a very common condition across the globe. Some surveys have claimed that approximately 30% of the global population suffers from vitamin D deficiency. People with dark skin, women and elderly people are most susceptible to this deficiency. People suffering from kidney diseases may also be affected by vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D supplements are usually very helpful in combatting this deficiency. These can be taken by young children as well as adults.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4737 people found this helpful

Homeopathic Help For Broken Bones

Dr. Kalyani Badwaik 92% (1195 ratings)
BHMS, M.D.
Homeopath, Pune
Homeopathic Help For Broken Bones

Breaking a bone can be counted among one of the most painful experiences that one can possibly suffer from. Inflicted usually by external injuries, fractured bones generally require surgeries for recuperation. In the occasion of minor fractures however, plasters often facilitate recovery. Although these are the primary treatments that are meted out, recovering from fractured bones entail much more. For some, the time to restore normalcy takes longer than others. In such cases, one tends to opt for palliatives to ease out the pain.

Homeopathic medicines not only offer respite to the pain but also provide a holistic cure for the emotional anxiety one goes through in such times. Many therefore seek out homeopathic remedies for treating bone fractures. Some of the most effective antidotes in this regard have been enlisted below.

1. Arnica: Arnica is extremely helpful at curbing swelling and as a consequence, reducing pain. Prolonged use of Arnica can potentially minimize the swelling to absolute normalcy.
2. Hypericum: This soothes the fracture induced pains, especially when the fractures affect the nerves. This is a beneficial remedy for fractures in fingers, toes and the spinal regions.
3. Bryonia: Bryonia is known to bring relief in cases of the jarring pain that surfaces post trauma. Sometimes, even the slightest movement in the affected area can lead to a lot of distress. This is an ideal cure for such cases.
4. Calcarea Phosphorica: This speeds up the healing process following a bone fracture. Consumption of Calcarea Phosphorica accords a calming effect on the moods of the patient and helps to deal better with the pain, anxiety and irritability in the due course.
5. Eupatorium Perfoliatum: This helps in mitigating deep wounds and the consequent aches. The healing powers of Eupatorium Perfoliatum are extremely pervasive and results in quicker recovery.
6. Ruta Graveolens: This re-nourishes the damaged body fibers and soothes the bruised areas. It is also known to reduce restlessness.
7. Symphytum: It is extremely helpful in the rejoining of bones. It enables the body to heal faster and effectively cures joint pains.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3579 people found this helpful

5 Ways Runners Can Avoid Injuries!

Dr. Mohd Alim 88% (1163 ratings)
M.P.T. (Neuro), BPTh/BPT
Physiotherapist, Lucknow
5 Ways Runners Can Avoid Injuries!

Running is a sport that many people indulge in, on a daily basis. For many professional athletes, running is also a part of their job. While it may be an extremely fulfilling experience in sheer physical terms, it also has varied implications in the long run as far as the health of your bones, joints and muscles go. Also, runners are constantly at the risk of getting injured, which can lead to many complications. Read on to know how you can protect the same with these five tips to avoid injuries.

  1. Warming Up and Stretching: Many injuries can happen when you do not stretch before you indulge in a strenuous activity like running. Warming up should be done with the help of a quick brisk walk that should happen a few minutes before you start running. Also, when you are stretching, you should not hold your breath and do it slowly without rushing yourself. Avoid stretching your muscles when they are cold. The stretching exercises should happen after the warm up.
  2. Strengthening Exercises: It is important to indulge in good amount of exercises that will strengthen your quads, calves and feet so that your muscles are strong enough to support your weight while you run without putting undue pressure on the joints, which can succumb to injuries and fractures.Strengthening exercises are given to hamstring muscles as well.
  3. Weight: Managing your weight is one of the most important parts of the regimen for a runner. If you are taking up running professionally or if you are doing it as exercise, you must ensure that your weight is at a normal level as per your ideal BMI so that you do not end up putting pressure on your knees. A good diet and plenty of exercise will help in maintaining a good weight.
  4. Footwear: Your shoes are one of the most important aspects when you are running. You must choose shoes that have a good cushion or gel inside. Be sure to select shoes that are designed for runners specifically, so that the shoes take on the shape of your feet and give you good balance and motion even as the friction with the ground happens. The correct footwear will support the running motion and keep injuries at bay.
  5. Stride Length and Impact: It is imperative to practice the correct stride length and impact when your feet hit the ground as this is where injuries most commonly happen. You will need to ensure that you get professional help from a trainer so that you can gauge and accordingly practice your stride length in keeping with your frame so that the impact is minimal on the rest of the body and its joints. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
3379 people found this helpful

Nonunion Fractures - Know What Are They!

Dr. Prabhat Agarwal 86% (52 ratings)
MS - Orthopaedics, MBBS
Orthopedist, Delhi
Nonunion Fractures - Know What Are They!

Both young and old are vulnerable to fractures. While the former gets them during intense physical activities, the latter experience fractures due to less bone density. Thus, quite common, they are, however, if you experience a persistent pain in the fracture spot even after undergoing treatment, you must visit your doctor without delay as it might be a case of nonunion.

Despite modern treatment methods that heal most fractures, sometimes new bone tissue doesn't begin to form and repair the broken pieces. This hindrance to the healing of bones is known as ‘nonunion.' Patients suffering from nonunion of fractures usually feel pain in the fractured area even after the fracture disappears and can last for months or years. In some cases, these pains may get triggered, if pressure is applied to the fractured area.

Why does a nonunion occur?
The three most important aspects of bone healing include stability, blood supply, and nutrition. If the broken bones that have been put together are moved out of place before they fully heal, it can lead to complications. Cases, where surgical fixation is involved, can be disrupted due to various reasons, including ineffective surgery which can happen due to unforeseen complications and can cause nonunion.

  • Limited blood supply to the fracture site can be caused due to a lack of or disruption of the body's healing cells. Blood supply to the injured area usually returns to normal during the healing period, but there might be medical complications that prevent fractured bones from healing.
  • Nutrition is the third biggest factor that can cause nonunion of fractures if the patient does not have a well-balanced diet and lacks essential vitamins, calcium, and proteins in the body. Dietary guidelines need to be followed to allow proper healing.
  • Other situational risk factors that may contribute to nonunion include age, diabetes, infections, anemia or use of tobacco and other forms of nicotine.

Treatment of A Nonunion

  • Depending on the situation, treatment is possible using both surgical and non-surgical methods. A bone stimulator may be used to treat a nonunion non-surgically. This small device helps send ultrasonic waves to stimulate healing, and through repeated usage of the device, it can help patients start healing.
  • Surgical treatment involves the usage of a bone graft that can help new bone (or bones) to grow in the affected area. Bone grafts are surgically planted, and they provide fresh bone cells and necessary chemicals that the body needs for healing. Surgeons make an incision and remove pieces of bone from different areas of the patient and transplant them into the affected area. Bone harvesting can be a painful process, but it does not affect the bodily functions or cause any cosmetic problems in any way to the patient.
  • In many cases, bone harvesting can be avoided by using allografts (bone grafts from cadavers) or other substitutes (known as osteobiologics) made of chemicals that can be fixated both internally and externally.
  • These methods kickstart the healing process and allow the fractured bones to heal and return the area to its normal and undamaged state.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3751 people found this helpful
Icon

Book appointment with top doctors for Bone Fracture treatment

View fees, clinic timings and reviews