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Bone Fracture Tips

Bone Fracture - Types, Causes & Treatment Of It!

Dr. Niranjan T J 85% (10 ratings)
DNB - Orthopedics, D ( ORTHO), MBBS
Orthopedist, Trivandrum
Bone Fracture - Types, Causes & Treatment Of It!

Broken bone is commonly known as bone fracture a d it occurs when an exorbitant amount of force is applied causing the bone to split or shatter. While some minor fractures lead to cracks and crannies, others may lead to complete breakage of the bones. Despite being hard, bones are formed in such a way that they can absorb pressure to only a certain extent, beyond which they break. Statistically, the incidence of broken bones are most common in children and in old age people.

Causes of Bone Fracture
Bone fracture can be caused due to a number of reasons; both intentional and accidental. Some of them include:
1. Accidents and injuries: Sports injuries, being hit by a car and tripping and falling are some of the typical episodes.
2. Old age: Diseases such as osteoporosis and brittle bone disease are common in aged people. As bones tend to become more fragile among the aged, they are at a greater chance of bone fractures.

Type of bone fractures

Primarily bone fractures are of four types, based on the way the bone splits. They are:

 

  1. Complete fracture: This type of fracture refers to a complete breakage of the bone wherein the fracture may occur at various parts of the bone.
  2. Incomplete fracture: In this type of fracture, the bone partially breaks instead of splitting entirely.
  3. Compound fractures: This is a type of a fracture wherein the bone breaks past the skin. It is also known as an open fracture.
  4. Simple fracture: In this type of a fracture, the bone breaks without causing an open wound on the skin.

Treatment of bone fractures
In case of a broken bone, the immediate course of action would be to reach for the first aid box. This can be done to stabilize the bone prior to hospitalization. Icing the injury, elevating the injured area to prevent further swelling and covering the wound with bandages are common measures. In many cases, people also make household splints (made of newspapers) to keep the bone stabilized. Hospitalization and especially surgery, can be also opted for in case of severe fractures.

1 person found this helpful

8 Exercises Best Avoided To Prevent Harmful Effects!

Dr. Kiran Kumar Lakkampalli 90% (10 ratings)
BPTh/BPT
Physiotherapist, Hyderabad
8 Exercises Best Avoided To Prevent Harmful Effects!

People who regularly work out can go on about its benefits and also show off a toned physique. However, a bad or improper movement can be more harmful than no exercise at all. Read on to know some common exercise moves that are best avoided for their potential harmful effects.

  1. Dumbbell punches: By holding dumbbells and punching them forward into the air, you are just spending your energy with absolutely no return from it. It is good as a conditioning one if done for a long time but does not help the shoulders or the arms. Bicep curls and triceps extensions yield much better results than these punches.
  2. Shoulder Shrugs: The only muscle that gets worked here is the trapezius, which is at the top of the shoulders and the neck. The arms and the back do not get any benefit and shoulder shrugs can actually cause postural problems and increase shoulder tension. Best avoided if you are not a professional bodybuilder.
  3. Thigh machines: One of the most ineffective machines in the gym, the poor posture and no workout for the abs is one of the reasons the outer and inner thigh workouts should be avoided. Better results can be achieved with squats and lunges, which also help more muscles and help in losing weight.
  4. Plank rows: While plank rows or board lines work very well for core strengthening, it is not as effective for back and arm strengthening. Better results are achieved with the usual lines for these areas.
  5. Lat pull-downs behind the neck: This can be very harmful for people who have even minor shoulder joint problems. The idea is to build arm, torso, and back muscles by pulling a weighted bar down the front and back of the chest area. This can cause misalignment, shoulder impingement, or a tear in the rotator cuff, and in severe cases, even cervical vertebral fracture.
  6. Military Presses Behind the Head: Similar to a lat pull-down, here also, a barbell is lifted up and down behind the head and can cause the same problems as the earlier one, including fracture of the cervical spine.
  7. Squatting on a bosu ball: These colorful equipment are very alluring but can be really dangerous and can cause ankles and knees to be injured, causing meniscal tears or disruptions.
  8. Crunches: When improperly done, crunches produce the same position as one achieves while working on the computer - head forward and rounded shoulder. Crunches are meant to be done by pulling up on the head and not using the abs, as most people incorrectly do.

Make sure you get a trainer's advice on the right ways to work out so as to get the maximum benefits and avoid injuries.

1 person found this helpful

Different Types Of Fractures & Their Treatment!

Dr. Dinakar Rai 87% (10 ratings)
MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Coimbatore
Different Types Of Fractures & Their Treatment!

Fractures are simply a break in a bone. They can be caused due to injury, (traumatic fractures) or a pre-existing condition like osteoporosis that causes weakening of bones (pathologic fractures). There are many ways to classify fractures. All fractures fall into the major categories of simple and compound fractures. Simple fractures are fractures where bones remain inside the skin and don’t jut out. They are also called closed fractures.

Compound fractures, also called open fractures, are broken bones that penetrate through the skin. These types expose the bone and deep tissues to the environment. Compound fractures are more serious of the two. The healing here may be affected due to deep infections for which antibiotics need to be used. There are many different sub types of fractures and we’re only going to skim through them here.

  1. Comminuted fractures: Severe fractures in which a bone breaks into several smaller pieces.
  2. Avulsion fractures: A small piece of bone is completely torn off from the main bone due to fierce pulling off a part of the body.

Other types of fractures are characterised by the many different angles the bone breaks into like transverse, oblique and spiral fractures.

Diagnosis
When a bone is broken there are symptoms like swelling that doesn’t subside on its own and pain. In such a case it’s imperative that one goes to a doctor for a diagnosis. Doctors can usually recognise most fractures by examining the injury and taking an X-ray. The X-ray also provides a clear idea about the type of fracture and the degree of displacement of the bone. And, it’s important that the patient doesn’t wait too long before approaching a doctor. This is because bones begin to heal very quickly after a fracture and the bone tissue will heal using any tissue available. This can lead to a misalignment of broken pieces of bone and cause disability and loss of function.


There are cases when X-ray may not show a fracture. This is especially common in fractures in the hip and wrist in older people. For diagnosing these, doctors will get some other tests done such as a computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or a bone scan.

Treatments
Fractures have to be treated by doctors. The doctors set the fractured bones in their proper place and hold them there so that they can heal. Setting a bone is called "reduction." Reduction without surgery is called "closed reduction." But if the fracture is serious, it’s going to require surgery with bone repositioning, called open reduction.

In extreme cases, pins, plates, screws, rods, or glue are used to hold the fractured bones in place, inside the body. Once the bone abutment has been treated, the bone is immobilised to allow the broken pieces to heal. In most cases, the fractured part is set in a rigid cast. The fractured ends of the bone can be fixed into place using metal pins connected to an external frame. This is removed after the bone has healed.

 

2411 people found this helpful

Old Age Problems & How Physiotherapy Can Be Of Help?

Dr. Gaurav Mohan 90% (18 ratings)
MPTh/MPT, BPTh/BPT
Physiotherapist, Delhi
Old Age Problems & How Physiotherapy Can Be Of Help?

As a person grows older, the body undergoes wear and tear. This can be experienced in many ways. It can be quite frustrating for an elderly person to realize that they cannot do the tasks they once completed with ease. Making a healthy choice when it comes to diet and lifestyle can help people live comfortably in their old age.

Some of the most common problems experienced by elderly people are:

  • Arthritis: Arthritis is typically experienced in the form of joint pain. It can affect any joint of the body and typically worsens with time. There is no medical cure for arthritis but with the right lifestyle, it can be managed and its progression can be slowed. Exercise is crucial to dealing with arthritis. While it may seem counterintuitive, regular exercise can help the joints stay supple and protect the cartilage between bones. Since obesity, is one of the main risk factors for arthritis, exercise also helps with weight control and hence reduces the risk of suffering from this condition.
  • Osteoporosis: Osteoporosis refers to brittle bones or hollow bones. This is marked by the lowering of bone density that makes them weaker and more prone to fractures. Very often, this condition is not diagnosed until the person has broken a bone. Osteoporosis can be prevented by eating the right diet. Calcium is the building block of our bones and hence, a calcium-rich diet can help prevent and manage osteoporosis.
  • Depression: Many elderly people are affected by depression. In many cases, it is caused by the inability to perform tasks, they once did comfortably and the frustrations of seeing their body get weaker. Depression can lead to a number of other mental disorders if it is not nipped in the bud. The easiest way to prevent depression is by spending at least one hour outdoors every day. Going for a walk or even sitting in the park where the person gets to interact with other people can help improve their mental health.
  • Heart disease: As one grows older, the risk of heart disease increases. People with high cholesterol levels or high blood pressure have an increased risk of heart diseases. Thankfully, eating right can help prevent these conditions. In addition to a well-balanced diet and regular exercise, adding herbs such as garlic, turmeric and cayenne to food have also been known to be beneficial for heart patients.
  • Incontinence: As a person ages, the pelvic muscles weaken and he or she may find it difficult to control their bladder. This can create an embarrassing situation. Kegel exercises are ideal to strengthen the pelvic floor muscles and treat incontinence. Drinking a teaspoon of apple cider vinegar in a glass of water each morning can also be helpful in dealing with the problem.

Much of these conditions associated with chronic diseases can be avoided through home remedies and preventive measures such as healthy lifestyle, regular exercise, injury prevention and proper care.

4920 people found this helpful

Osteoporosis Spine Fractures - Sign & Symptoms To Watch Out For!

Dr. Vipin Garg 91% (65 ratings)
MS - Orthopaedics, Fellowship In Minimal Invasive Spine Surgery
Orthopedist, Gwalior
Osteoporosis Spine Fractures - Sign & Symptoms To Watch Out For!

Osteoporosis is a condition wherein the bones become brittle and weak; so much so that even mildly stressful activities such as coughing, bending over or even a slight fall (such as the one from a high rise chair) can result in fractures. Osteoporosis-related fractures commonly occur in the spine, hip or the wrist. The human body has a continuous mechanism of bone absorption and removal. In case of osteoporosis, the creation of new bones doesn’t happen in accordance with the removal of old bones.

Spinal Fractures:

The bones of the spine get extremely vulnerable to breakage and even cracking open. The fractures in the spine, also known as vertebral compression fractures can cause a sharp stinging pain in the back that may make sitting, standing, or even walking a very tardy task.

Risk Factors:

  1. Increasing age

  2. Abnormally less or high body weight

  3. Smoking

  4. Menopause or low levels of sex hormones

  5. Gender: This disorder is more likely to affect women as compared to men. Also women, who are above 50 are more likely to suffer from this debilitating disorder.

  6. Race is a significant risk factor of osteoporosis. If you are of Asian descent, you are more likely to be affected by it.

  7. Having a family history of osteoporosis will put you at a greater risk of this disorder.

Symptoms:

  1. Fractured or collapsed vertebra causing back pain

  2. A stooped posture

  3. A shrunken appearance (as if one has had loss of height)

  4. Very fragile bones, thus increasing risks of fractures

  5. Severe and sudden pain in the back

  6. Difficulty in twisting or bending the body

Lower spine fractures are way more troublesome as compared to fractures in the upper spine. Fracturing more than a bone in the spine also remains a huge possibility.

Diagnosis and Treatment:

Firstly, an X-ray or a computerized tomography (CT scan) will be done to have a closer look at the bones. A bone density test is another commonly used method of diagnosing osteoporosis.

  1. Steroids and medications: Some medications may be used to prevent or combat osteoporosis. These include alendronate, ibandronate, risedronate and zoledronic acid.

  2. Physical therapy: Just like muscles, bones get stronger too when you exercise. Weight-bearing and muscle- strengthening exercises are the most helpful in this regard and are considered best for the treatment of osteoporosis. Cardiovascular exercises such as walking, jogging or even swimming can prove to be immensely beneficial.

  3. Diet: Make a diet chart that includes high-calcium food items, dairy products such as yogurt, cheese, and low-fat milk, tofu, green vegetables such as collard greens and broccoli, sea fish such as salmon and sardines.

  4. Salt: Limit salt intake

  5. Therapy: Hormone replacement therapy (treatment method consisting of estrogens to alleviate and treat symptoms of osteoporosis) is another method of treatment that can be recommended by the doctor.

2519 people found this helpful

Old Age - How It Impacts Your Muscles & Bones?

Dr. Amit Shridhar 88% (23 ratings)
MBBS, D (ORTHO), DNB (Orthopedics), MCH (Orthopedic), Spine Fellowship DePUY, Medtronics Spine Fellowship
Orthopedist, Delhi
Old Age - How It Impacts Your Muscles & Bones?

If you are the on the wrong side of your fifties, then you will know the importance of regular checkups to the orthopedist. Aging related physical changes such as greying hair and wrinkles are a few things that you can cope with easily, however, when it comes to the health of your bones and muscles, you need to be very careful. You need to be particular about being active, as it can help reverse or reduce the risks of most of the bone disorders that you may suffer from. Ageing affects both the muscles and bones, but not always in the same manner. So, it is important that you understand how each is affected by ageing.

Changes in your muscles due to aging
As you age, your muscles tend to lose strength and size. This can make you prone to fatigue, weakness and a decrease in your tolerance levels to exercise. The various factors that play a role in this are:

  1. Modifications in your nervous system can impair the ability of the muscle to contract.
  2. The muscle fibers in the body reduce both in size and number.
  3. The replacement rate of the muscle tissue in the body falls.

Changes in your bones due to aging
Ageing impacts the structure of the bone and leads to a loss of the bone tissue. Aging causes low bone mass, thus rendering them weak. This means a simple fall can have a serious effect on your bones.
The various causes that can bring about these changes are:

  1. Loss of vital minerals such as calcium
  2. Being physically inactive
  3. Undergoing hormonal changes in the body such as menopause, wherein the body loses minerals from the bone tissues. In case of men, progressive decline of sex hormones can lead to changes in the bone structure.

Common conditions that affect your musculoskeletal system in your old age:

  1. Osteoporosis: This disorder results from a loss of bone density resulting in fragile bones. This makes the bones highly susceptible to fractures and breakage.
  2. Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disorder that usually develops after the age of 40; here, the immune system of the body attacks the body tissues, thus leading to inflammation in your joints.
  3. Osteoarthritis: It is a disorder of the joints which is caused by deterioration of the cartilage that cushions the joints.
3530 people found this helpful

Osteogenesis Imperfecta - How It Happens?

Dr. Amit Shridhar 88% (23 ratings)
MBBS, D (ORTHO), DNB (Orthopedics), MCH (Orthopedic), Spine Fellowship DePUY, Medtronics Spine Fellowship
Orthopedist, Delhi
Osteogenesis Imperfecta - How It Happens?

Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is a group of genetic disorders that primarily affect the bones, making them extremely weak. It is also known as ‘brittle bones disease’. This genetic disease is incurable and the treatment is primarily focused on pacifying the condition by reducing pain and strengthening the bones.

The symptoms of OI include, but are not limited to, recurring fractures, bluish tinge in the white of the eyes, hearing loss, breathing problems, short height, loose joints and dental problems. There is no definitive test for OI but doctors recommend certain scans and DNA testing before confirming their diagnosis. 

What Causes Osteogenesis Imperfecta?
Osteogenesis Imperfecta is caused by genes that are not functioning properly. These genes can be inherited from one or both of the parents, although there have been cases in which neither parent gives the bad genes. These bad genes inhibit the production and functioning of collagen (the skin’s building block); a material found in bones and is responsible for making them strong. Low amounts of collagen lead to weakening of bones, which get fractured easily or sometimes without any reason at all.

Treatment of Osteogenesis Imperfecta
Osteogenesis Imperfecta is an incurable disease. The treatment for this disease focuses on reducing the pain and strengthening the bones of the patient so that he/she may lead a somewhat normal life. The treatment of OI depends on how severe it is. There are 8 types of Osteogenesis Imperfecta. Types 2, 3, 7 and 8 are considered severe while types 4, 5 and 6 are considered moderate. Type 1 is considered to be least severe. The treatment includes:

  • The drug ‘Bisphosphonate’ can be used to increase bone mass and reduce bone pain and fracture.
  • Surgery can be carried out to improve the bone structure. Surgery can also be used to insert metal rods in the long bones in order to strengthen them.
  • Physiotherapy can be used to increase bone and muscle strength and also to improve mobility.
2544 people found this helpful

How To Diagnose Fracture?

Dr. Romil Rathi 84% (28 ratings)
MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Nagpur
How To Diagnose Fracture?

Fractures are simply a break in a bone. They can be caused due to injury, (traumatic fractures) or a pre-existing condition like osteoporosis that causes weakening of bones (pathologic fractures). There are many ways to classify fractures. All fractures fall into the major categories of simple and compound fractures. Simple fractures are fractures where bones remain inside the skin and don’t jut out. They are also called closed fractures.

Compound fractures, also called open fractures, are broken bones that penetrate through the skin. These types expose the bone and deep tissues to the environment. Compound fractures are more serious of the two. The healing here may be affected due to deep infections for which antibiotics need to be used. There are many different sub types of fractures and we’re only going to skim through them here.

  1. Comminuted fractures: Severe fractures in which a bone breaks into several smaller pieces.
  2. Avulsion fractures: A small piece of bone is completely torn off from the main bone due to fierce pulling off a part of the body.

Other types of fractures are characterised by the many different angles the bone breaks into like transverse, oblique and spiral fractures.

Diagnosis
When a bone is broken there are symptoms like swelling that doesn’t subside on its own and pain. In such a case it’s imperative that one goes to a doctor for a diagnosis. Doctors can usually recognise most fractures by examining the injury and taking an X-ray. The X-ray also provides a clear idea about the type of fracture and the degree of displacement of the bone. And, it’s important that the patient doesn’t wait too long before approaching a doctor. This is because bones begin to heal very quickly after a fracture and the bone tissue will heal using any tissue available. This can lead to a misalignment of broken pieces of bone and cause disability and loss of function.

There are cases when X-ray may not show a fracture. This is especially common in fractures in the hip and wrist in older people. For diagnosing these, doctors will get some other tests done such as a computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or a bone scan.

Treatments
Fractures have to be treated by doctors. The doctors set the fractured bones in their proper place and hold them there so that they can heal. Setting a bone is called "reduction." Reduction without surgery is called "closed reduction." But if the fracture is serious, it’s going to require surgery with bone repositioning, called open reduction.

In extreme cases, pins, plates, screws, rods, or glue are used to hold the fractured bones in place, inside the body. Once the bone abutment has been treated, the bone is immobilised to allow the broken pieces to heal. In most cases, the fractured part is set in a rigid cast. The fractured ends of the bone can be fixed into place using metal pins connected to an external frame. This is removed after the bone has healed.

Diagnosing & Treating Fractures The Right Way!

Dr. Mukesh Kumar Agarwal 89% (16 ratings)
MS - Orthopaedics, DNB (Orthopedics)
Orthopedist, Guwahati
Diagnosing & Treating Fractures The Right Way!

Fractures are simply a break in a bone. They can be caused due to injury, (traumatic fractures) or a pre-existing condition like osteoporosis that causes weakening of bones (pathologic fractures). There are many ways to classify fractures. All fractures fall into the major categories of simple and compound fractures. Simple fractures are fractures where bones remain inside the skin and don’t jut out. They are also called closed fractures.

Compound fractures, also called open fractures, are broken bones that penetrate through the skin. These types expose the bone and deep tissues to the environment. Compound fractures are more serious of the two. The healing here may be affected due to deep infections for which antibiotics need to be used. There are many different sub types of fractures and we’re only going to skim through them here.

  1. Comminuted fractures: Severe fractures in which a bone breaks into several smaller pieces.
  2. Avulsion fractures: A small piece of bone is completely torn off from the main bone due to fierce pulling off a part of the body.

Other types of fractures are characterised by the many different angles the bone breaks into like transverse, oblique and spiral fractures.

Diagnosis
When a bone is broken there are symptoms like swelling that doesn’t subside on its own and pain. In such a case it’s imperative that one goes to a doctor for a diagnosis. Doctors can usually recognise most fractures by examining the injury and taking an X-ray. The X-ray also provides a clear idea about the type of fracture and the degree of displacement of the bone. And, it’s important that the patient doesn’t wait too long before approaching a doctor. This is because bones begin to heal very quickly after a fracture and the bone tissue will heal using any tissue available. This can lead to a misalignment of broken pieces of bone and cause disability and loss of function.


There are cases when X-ray may not show a fracture. This is especially common in fractures in the hip and wrist in older people. For diagnosing these, doctors will get some other tests done such as a computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or a bone scan.

Treatments
Fractures have to be treated by doctors. The doctors set the fractured bones in their proper place and hold them there so that they can heal. Setting a bone is called "reduction." Reduction without surgery is called "closed reduction." But if the fracture is serious, it’s going to require surgery with bone repositioning, called open reduction.

In extreme cases, pins, plates, screws, rods, or glue are used to hold the fractured bones in place, inside the body. Once the bone abutment has been treated, the bone is immobilised to allow the broken pieces to heal. In most cases, the fractured part is set in a rigid cast. The fractured ends of the bone can be fixed into place using metal pins connected to an external frame. This is removed after the bone has healed. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

 

4320 people found this helpful

Emergency Management Of Fracture For Children At Home!

Dr. Sameer Desai 89% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics, DNB - Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Pune
Emergency Management Of Fracture For Children At Home!

Bones make up the skeletal framework of the body. They are a type of connective tissues and are made up of calcium. Their main function is to provide support and to protect our internal organs. When a bone in our body breaks, it is said to be a fracture.

Fracture occurs when an external force is exerted on a part of the body making the bones break. This breakage can be caused by reasons ranging from traumatic to medical. Traumatic causes include accidents, falls, and injuries, whereas medical conditions include osteoporosis and cancer of different types.

There are various types of fractures that affect individuals. The main types are closed and compound fractures. In a closed fracture, the broken bone does not pierce through the skin. In a compound fracture, the bone is broken down into pieces, thereby resulting in internal bleeding and infection. However, the most common type of fracture in children is the greenstick fracture. It is defined as a small and slender crack affecting children because their bones are more flexible and soft compared to that of adults.

When it comes to fractures in children, parents are advised to follow certain first aid measures to ensure faster healing and repairing. 

  1. Immobilisation- The most important step in first aid for fracture is immobilizing the fractured portion. Do not move your child from his or her place unless there is a paramedic.
  2. Stop the bleeding- If the fracture has pierced the skin and has resulted in heavy bleeding, then you should put pressure on the wound with a sterile cloth. This should stop the bleeding.
  3. Put ice packs- If your child is in pain, put ice packs on the injured area. However, wrap the ice in cloth first and then put the pack on the wound to prevent swelling and to reduce pain.
  4. Provide support- If the fracture has taken place in the child's limb, provide support to him/her by placing a pillow under the leg. Try to comfort your child and do not panic in front of him/her.
  5. Use a splint- It is important to splint the injured area and know the basic steps involved in making a splint. For a splint, you can use a wooden scale or a folded magazine. Place the splints above and below the fractured area. Use gauze or tape to keep the splints in place. Do not put the tape or gauze directly over the fractured region. It is important to note that you do not move or realign the broken bone, causing further pain to your children.

After providing proper first aid care to your child, you should immediately call for an ambulance and take him or her to a doctor. Whatever you do, do not panic in front of your child and comfort him/her. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2560 people found this helpful
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