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Doctors for Blood Test Tips

Blood In Semen - When To See A Doctor!

Dr. Sangeeta P 93% (433 ratings)
Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Sexologist, Sindhudurg
Blood In Semen - When To See A Doctor!

Blood in semen occurs due to a variety of factors. It is also called 'hematospermia.' It mainly affects men after 30 years of age. After 50 years of age, blood in semen is caused due to prostate enlargement. Blood in semen is caused due to injuries, inflammation and blockage near the male reproductive system. Blood in semen can be linked to other diseases which might not be known by the affected person.

What can cause blood in semen?

  1. Blood in semen can be caused due to infections, tumors and stones.
  2. Abnormal body structure generally due to an autism spectrum disorder can also cause blood in semen.
  3. Prostate biopsy (removal of tissues from the prostate region which produces semen) also leads to blood in sperm sometimes. Though this is temporary and heals within three to four weeks.
  4. Vasectomy is a procedure done on men, which involves making small holes or slits in the scrotum so that the sperm doesn't flow during ejaculation. This is mainly done to prevent unwanted pregnancy. Sometimes, vasectomy causes blood in semen.
  5. It is also caused by infections such as Herpes, Chlamydia and Trichomoniasis.
  6. Sometimes, there are kidney stones found in the prostate called calculi, this is the most common reason for blood in semen.
  7. Blood in semen can also be caused due to parasitic infection, tuberculosis or chronic liver diseases.

Symptoms of blood in semen:

  1. Immense pain during ejaculation.
  2. Pain during urination.
  3. Acute lower back pain.
  4. Low to mild fever.
  5. Swelling in the scrotum and testes.
  6. Tenderness in the scrotum, testes and groin area.

Diagnosing blood in semen:

  1. While diagnosing blood in semen physical examinations are performed. The doctor checks for inflammation, swelling, tenderness and signs of injuries.
  2. Sometimes sexually transmitted diseases also cause blood in semen. So, the doctor takes a blood test to see whether you have STD's or not.
  3. Urine testing is also performed to see if any bacteria or abnormalities are found in the urine.
  4. MRIs, ultrasounds and CT scans can also locate any obstructions in the pelvic area which might be a cause of blood in semen.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

7238 people found this helpful

Nose Bleed - When To See your Doctor?

Dr. Biswajit Banik 92% (89 ratings)
MBBS, MS - ENT
ENT Specialist, Faridabad
Nose Bleed - When To See your Doctor?

A nose bleed can take place due to a number of reasons, which usually all boil down to acute dryness of the nasal passages. The nosebleed and dryness can stem from sinus, allergic reactions, constant blowing of the nose, infections, and also during very harsh winter months when there is no lubrication in the nose. Nose bleed can also occur due to conditions, such as high blood pressure and when a foreign object gets stuck inside the nose.

Here are a few tips on treating nosebleeds:

  1. First step: The very first action when you experience a nose bleed should be to sit down. Once you are sitting, you should firmly pinch the spot that is soft. This lies just above the nostril. Do this for at least ten to fifteen minutes. The trick is to stay upright rather than lying down as this will bring down the blood pressure in the nasal blood vessels to stop further bleeding.
  2. Breathe: Breathe with your mouth as you lean forward to help in draining the blood into your nose, rather than out of it or towards the throat.
  3. Ice compress: Find a bag of frozen corn or peas in your freezer or an ice pack, and press this firmly against the nose to help in stemming the bleeding. As you are doing so, do not forget to cover the bridge of your nose with a towel so that it prevents you from catching a cold.

?Medication and side effects: If you are on any kind of anticoagulants that end up thinning the blood, then you may immediately want to see your doctor about a possible side effects and a change in the medication. This could also be an effect of haemophilia where the bleeding does not stop.

What it can indicate?

  1. Children: If a child who is under the age of two years suffers from such nosebleeds, then you will need to rush him or her to the doctor immediately as it could point at a more serious problem.
  2. Anaemia: Nose bleeds could also suggest the presence of anaemia, so you may want to see your doctor about lab tests to determine and possibly rule out this cause. You can also start medication accordingly for this kind of an ailment.
  3. Nasal Packing: The doctor can carry out this procedure with the help of gauze that can seal the spot where the bleeding is happening.
  4. Cautery: This is a minor procedure that involves burning the blood vessel that is causing the persistent bleeding with a stick of silver nitrate. The stick will be inserted after local anaesthesia is administered to the patient.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3529 people found this helpful

Why and When Should I Go for HPV Test?

Panchkula & Delhi
Mother and Child Care, Panchkula
Why and When Should I Go for HPV Test?

Persistent infection of the uterine cervix with high risk human papilloma virus (HPV) leads to development of cervical cancer. Infection with HPV is common especially in sexually active young women, most infections are transient and spontaneously clear within 1 to 2 years without causing cancer. These transient infections may cause temporary changes in cervical cells. If a cervical infection with high risk HPV type persists the cellular changes can eventually develop into more severe precancerous lesions. If pre cancerous lesions are not treated, they can progress to cancer. Thus, an HPV DNA test is recommended to identify the high risk types of HPV.

Why is Pap Smear done?

An HPV test is done to:

Check for high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) in women who had a Pap test that showed abnormal cervical cells called atypical squamous cells (ASCUS). An HPV test can help look for one or more high-risk types of HPV.
Check for HPV in women older than age 30 as part of screening for abnormal cervical cells.
Help check for abnormal cervical cells after treatment of a high-risk HPV infection.

When should one get screened for cervical cancer?

American Cancer Society does not recommend using HPV DNA test to screen for cervical cancer in females under 30. This is because females in their twenties who are sexually active are much more likely (than older females) to have a HPV infection that goes away on its own. For these young females, results of this test are not as significant and may be confusing.

For females age 30 and older, Pap & HPV co testing is less likely to miss an abnormality (i.e. lower false negative rate than pap testing alone. It also lengthens the screening interval to 5 years and still allows abnormalities to be detected in time to treat them.

Women of age >65 yrs who have had adequate screening history or those who have had total hysterectomy do not need any further screening.

HPV TEST

Is HPV test as safe and effective as Pap Smear?

The advantage of the HPV test is that the Pap test misses a fair number of carcinomas as it has a lower sensitivity. Studies have also shown that a negative HPV test is better at predicting that a woman will be free of lesions for the next three years than a negative Pap test.

And while the experience for the patient is the same for both tests, the HPV test requires less material from the cervix to detect an infection so there's less concern that a sample will be inadequate.

How is the HPV test performed?
Before an HPV test, do not douche, use tampons, or use vaginal medicines for at least 48 hours.
In the HPV test, a doctor takes a swab of cells from the cervix, just as for the Pap test. The cells are then analyzed in a laboratory. The genetic material (DNA) of the HPV virus is studied. This test can identify 13 or 14 of the high-risk HPV types associated with cervical cancer. HPV test results are generally available in 1 to 2 weeks.

You may have a small amount of vaginal bleeding or gray-green discharge after this test.

3103 people found this helpful

Post-Menopausal Bleeding

MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Bangalore
Post-Menopausal Bleeding

Postmenopausal bleeding
Post menopausal bleeding is vaginal bleeding that happens at least 12 months after your periods have stopped.
About 4 % of women suffer with the above problem.It is not normal to bleed after menopause and it has to be investigated.

Causes of post menopausal bleeding
Most common cause of post menopausal bleeding is atrophic vaginitis and atrophic endometritis.After menopause due to decrease in the level of harmones in the body there can be thinning and inflammation of the inner lining of the uterus.
Other causes of post menopausal bleeding are 
polyps they refer to the extra growths of the inner lining of the uterus as well as the neck of the uterus(cervix).
PMB can also be because of thickening of the inner lining of the uterus, also called as hyperplasia.it can be because of extraneous harmones or obesity.
Less than 10% of the woman who suffer from PMB may have cancer of endometrium ,cervix and vagina.

Diagnosis
1)Pelvic examination
your doctor will do an internal examination to examine the cervix and do a papsmear if it is due.
2)USG scan is done to note down the size of uterus and the thickness of the endometrium.based on these reports the doctor might decide about the further tests.

3)Endometrial biopsy a small tube will be inserted into the uterus and cells are collected and sent to lab to note if there is any thing abnormal .This is an office procedure.and ususlly does not require admission
4)Hysteroscopy it is a procedure where a small camera is put inside the uterus and a targetted biopsy taken from the suspicious area.

Treatment
The treatment of PMB depends upon the cause.
If endometrial atrophy was the reason it can usually be traeated with estrogen creams and pessaries
Cervical and endometrial polyps require surgery to remove them.Hysteroscopic polypectomy refers to the surgery where in the polyp is removed under the guidance of the camera which is inserted into the uterus.
Endometrial hyperplasia can be treated with progesterone tablets or progesterone impregnated intrauterine devices.
Endometrial cancer will have to be treated with surgery for the removal of uterus and ovaries.Some patients may require chemo or radiotherapy as the stage of cancer may demand.
All in all postmenopusal bleeding doesnt mean the patient has cancer 90 percent of the time it is because of the benign causes but it should not be ignored but investigated.Its betTer to be safe than sorry.

1 person found this helpful

Heart Health Test

Dr. Paramjeet Singh 90% (1400 ratings)
MBBS, Dip.Cardiology, Fellowship in Clinical Cardiology(FICC), Fellowship in Echocardiology
Cardiologist, Ghaziabad
Heart Health Test

Heart diseases are the number one killer in the U.S. They are also a major cause of disability. If you do have a heart disease, it is important to find it early, when it is easier to treat. Blood tests and heart health tests can help find heart diseases or identify problems that can lead to heart diseases. There are several different types of heart health tests. Your doctor will decide which test or tests you need, based on your symptoms (if any), risk factors, and medical history.

Echocardiography

Echocardiography, or echo, is a painless test that uses sound waves to create moving pictures of your heart. The pictures show the size and shape of your heart. They also show how well your heart's chambers and valves are working. Doctors use an echo to diagnose many different heart problems, and to check how severe they are.

For the test, a technician applies gel to your chest. The gel helps sound waves reach your heart. The technician moves a transducer (wand-like device) around on your chest. The transducer connects to a computer. It transmits ultrasound waves into your chest, and the waves bounce (echo) back. The computer converts the echoes into pictures of your heart.

Electrocardiogram (EKG), (ECG)

An electrocardiogram, also called an ECG or EKG, is a painless test that detects and records your heart's electrical activity. It shows how fast your heart is beating and whether its rhythm is steady or irregular.

An EKG may be part of a routine exam to screen for heart disease. Or you may get it to detect and study heart problems such as heart attacks, arrhythmia, and heart failure.

For the test, you lie still on a table and a nurse or technician attaches electrodes (patches that have sensors) to the skin on your chest, arms, and legs. Wires connect the electrodes to a machine that records your heart's electrical activity.

Stress Testing

Stress testing looks at how your heart works during physical stress. It can help to diagnose coronary artery disease, and to check how severe it is. It can also check for other problems, including heart valve disease and heart failure.

For the test, you exercise (or are given medicine if you are unable to exercise) to make your heart work hard and beat fast. While this is happening, you get an EKG and blood pressure monitoring. Sometimes you may also have an echocardiogram, or other imaging tests such as a nuclear scan. For the nuclear scan, you get an injection of a tracer (a radioactive substance), which travels to your heart. Special cameras detect the energy from the tracer to make pictures of your heart. You have pictures taken after you exercise, and then after you rest.

Cardiac Catheterization

Cardiac catheterization is a medical procedure used to diagnose and treat some heart conditions. For the procedure, your doctor puts a catheter (a long, thin, flexible tube) into a blood vessel in your arm, groin, or neck, and threads it to your heart. The doctor can use the catheter to

  • Do a coronary angiography. This involves putting a special type of dye in the catheter, so the dye can flow through your bloodstream to your heart. Then your doctor takes x-rays of your heart. The dye allows your doctor to see your coronary arteries on the x-ray, and to check for coronary artery disease (plaque buildup in the arteries).
  • Take samples of blood and heart muscle
  • Do procedures such as minor heart surgery or angioplasty, if your doctor finds that you need it

Cardiac CT Scan

A cardiac CT (computed tomography) scan is a painless imaging test that uses x-rays to take detailed pictures of your heart and its blood vessels. Computers can combine these pictures to create a three-dimensional (3D) model of the whole heart. This test can help doctors detect or evaluate

  • Coronary artery disease
  • Calcium buildup in the coronary arteries
  • Problems with the aorta
  • Problems with heart function and valves
  • Pericardial diseases

Before you have the test, you get an injection of contrast dye. The dye highlights your heart and blood vessels in the pictures. The CT scanner is a large, tunnel-like machine. You lie still on a table which slides you into the scanner, and the scanner takes the pictures for about 15 minutes.

Cardiac MRI

Cardiac MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is a painless imaging test that uses radio waves, magnets, and a computer to create detailed pictures of your heart. It can help your doctor figure out whether you have heart disease, and if so, how severe it is. A cardiac MRI can also help your doctor decide the best way to treat heart problems such as

The MRI is a large, tunnel-like machine. You lie still on a table which slides you into the MRI machine. The machine makes loud noises as it takes pictures of your heart. It usually takes about 30-90 minutes. Sometimes before the test, you might get an injection of contrast dye. The dye highlights your heart and blood vessels in the pictures.

Chest X-Ray

A chest x-ray creates pictures of the organs and structures inside your chest, such as your heart, lungs, and blood vessels. It can reveal signs of heart failure, as well as lung disorders and other causes of symptoms not related to heart disease.

Coronary Angiography

Coronary angiography (angiogram) is a procedure that uses contrast dye and x-ray pictures to look at the insides of your arteries. It can show whether plaque is blocking your arteries and how severe the blockage is. Doctors use this procedure to diagnose heart diseases after chest pain, sudden cardiac arrest, or abnormal results from other heart tests such as an EKG or a stress test.

You usually have a cardiac catheterization to get the dye into your coronary arteries. Then you have special x-rays while the dye is flowing through your coronary arteries. The dye lets your doctor study the flow of blood through your heart and blood vessels.

How Often Should You Get A Pap Smear Test?

Dr. Vandana Jain 90% (62 ratings)
MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Ghaziabad
How Often Should You Get A Pap Smear Test?

Regular preventive check ups are a must for being healthy and if you wait too long between check ups, it may become too late to detect a problem. Cervical cancer screening is especially important for women via a pap smear test, as it's the best way to detect cancer.

A Pap test is done to screen any changes in the cells of the cervix, including cervical cancer or conditions that may develop into cancer. Doctors recommend that Pap smear testing should begin at the age of 21 for women, and should be done every 3-5 years for women between the ages of 21 to 65 years.

For women between ages 30 - 65 years, the test can be done once in five years, if it is combined with testing for HPV. A doctor may recommend frequent Pap smear tests if a person is diagnosed with cervical cancer, HIV infection or a weak immune system caused due to organ transplant or chemotherapy.

When can you discontinue Pap smear Tests?
If you are sexually active, doctors may ask you to continue your Pap smear tests even after the age of 65. Women can discontinue Pap smear tests after getting a total hysterectomy. However, some women may still have to undergo the test if they have had the surgery for cervical or uterine cancers or if you are a high risk patient with HIV or have a weakened immune system. In these cases, women will have to continue getting Pap smear tests. Even if you stop getting Pap smear tests, it's advisable to keep getting regular pelvic tests.

What symptoms to watch out for between Pap smear tests?

  • Pain is not an early warning sign of the disease, and not all people experience pain while suffering from cancer of the cervix. The symptoms to watch out for are abnormal bleeding in the cervix, which is one of the most common symptoms of cancer in cervix. If you get bleeding between your regular menstrual periods and after sexual intercourse that it is another sign that you should get a Pap smear done to check for cancer in the cervix.
  • Abnormal vaginal discharge is another symptom of cancer of the cervix. You must get these symptoms checked from your doctor via a Pap smear test.
  • It is advisable to discuss with your doctor and decide how frequently you need to decide what's best for you based on different risk factors.
3821 people found this helpful

Test and Devices for Diabetes Patient

Dr. Pranali 88% (166 ratings)
Homeopath,
Test and Devices for Diabetes Patient

Home management
Glucose (blood sugar) levels
Both low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) are of concern for patients who take insulin. It is important, therefore, to carefully monitor blood glucose levels. In general, patients with type 1 diabetes need to take readings four or more times a day. Patients should aim for the following measurements:

Pre-meal glucose levels of 90 - 130 mg/dl
Bedtime levels of 110 - 150 mg/dl
Different goals may be required for specific individuals, including pregnant women, very old and very young people, and those with accompanying serious medical conditions.

Finger-prick test. A typical blood sugar test includes the following:

A drop of blood is obtained by pricking the finger.
The blood is then applied to a chemically treated strip.
Monitors read and provide results.
Home monitors are about 10 - 15% less accurate than laboratory monitors, and many do not meet the standards of the american diabetes association. Most doctors believe, however, that they are accurate enough to indicate when blood sugar is too low.


To monitor the amount of glucose within the blood a person with diabetes should test their blood regularly. The procedure is quite simple and can often be done at home.
Some simple procedures may improve accuracy:

Testing the meter once a month.
Recalibrating it whenever a new packet of strips is used.
Using fresh strips; outdated strips may not provide accurate results.
Keeping the meter clean.
Periodically comparing the meter results with the results from a laboratory.
Supplementary monitoring devices. Other devices are available for monitoring blood glucose. These devices are used in addition to traditional fingerstick test kits, and glucose meters but do not replace them:

Continuous glucose monitoring systems (cgms) use a needle-like sensor inserted under the skin of the abdomen to monitor glucose levels every 5 minutes. In 2007, the sts-7 system was approved. Using a disposable sensor, the sts-7 measures glucose levels for up to a week. An alarm will sound if glucose levels are too high or low. The older minimed system measures glucose over a 72-hour period and has wireless communication between the monitor and an insulin pump.

Glucowatch is a battery-powered wristwatch-like device that measures glucose by sending tiny electric currents through the skin, a technique called reverse iontophoresis. It is painless and has a warning device when detecting high glucose levels. It takes 2 hours to warm up, and the sensor pads need to be changed every day. Glucowatch measures glucose levels three times per hour for up to 12 hours. About a quarter of the time, the results differ significantly from actual fingerstick tests, however.
Glycosylated hemoglobin
Hemoglobin a1c (also called hba1c, ha1c, or a1c) is measured periodically every 2 - 3 months, or at least twice a year, to determine the average blood-sugar level over the lifespan of the red blood cell. While fingerprick self-testing provides information on blood glucose for that day, the hba1c test shows how well blood sugar has been controlled over the period of several months. For most people with well-controlled diabetes, hba1c levels should be below 7%. Home tests are available for measuring a1c but they tend not to be as accurate as the laboratory tests ordered by doctors.

Urine tests
Urine tests are useful for detecting the presence of ketones. These tests should always be performed during illness or stressful situations, when diabetes is likely to go out of control. The patient should also undergo yearly urine tests for microalbuminuria (small amounts of protein in the urine), a risk factor for future kidney disease.

type diabetes
4 people found this helpful

TMT Test - Why It Is Done In Diabetes?

Dr. Hanish Gupta 91% (1915 ratings)
MBBS, DNB (General Medicine)
General Physician, Delhi
TMT Test - Why It Is Done In Diabetes?

A Stress test is done by making you do exercises like walking on a treadmill or riding a stationary bike during an Electro Cardiogram or ECG. Sometimes, medication to stimulate your heart is used instead of exercise.

The stress test compares the circulation of blood in the heart when you are resting and when you are under optimum physical pressure. There are various types of stress tests, but the most common of them is the Treadmill Stress Test or TMT

Why it’s done?

  1. A stress test is a common test for identifying a heart problem like Coronary Artery Disease or CAD in which the major blood vessels that supply your heart with blood, oxygen and nutrients, also called coronary arteries, get blocked, damaged or diseased. 
  2. It’s also used for determining the condition of your heart after a heart attack.
  3. TMT utilizes exercise so it helps to show up extreme shortness in breathing, chest discomfort, dizziness and sudden weakness- all of these indicating an underlying heart condition.
  4. TMT is also used to check the efficiency of the heart medications for diseases like angina and ischemia and to monitor heart function in patients who’ve had an angioplasty or a heart attack earlier.
  5. It is also to identify an abnormal heart rhythm due to exercise.

CAD and Diabetes
People with diabetes are at high risk of coronary artery disease, as it tends to present late, Diabetics also suffer more silent heart muscle problems like Ischemia. This is why TMT is a lifesaver for diabetics as early detection and intervention can save lives.

Preparation

  1. You need to prepare yourself before you take a stress test.
  2. You must not eat or drink anything but water for four hours before the exercise stress test which includes TMT.
  3. You should not drink any beverage with caffeine for twelve hours before the test too.
  4. You must stop all medications for the heart on the day the test is scheduled, unless specifically instructed by your doctor.
  5. If you are a diabetic, you should ask your doctor how much insulin can you inject on the day of the test, and if you are on pills, be aware that the medication is only to be taken after the completion of the stress test.
  6. You should wear comfortable clothes and soft walking shoes or sneakers for the TMT.

How is a TMT done?
A nurse or technician will place electrodes on your chest. These are then attached to wires that carry the electrical activity of your heart to the monitor and recorder of the ECG/EKG machine. These leads record different parts of your heart.

  1. Before you start the test, the EKG will record your heart activity on paper. This is called the Resting EKG.
  2. Initially, the treadmill is switched on at a rather slow ‘warm-up’ speed and gradually both the incline of the treadmill and the speed is increased every three minutes called stages.
  3. During TMT your blood pressure is recorded at the second minute in every stage.
  4. A stress test generally takes up to 90 minutes from beginning to end, but the exercise part of the test takes only 20 minutes.
  5. If you develop any uneasiness, TMT is stopped before the target heart rate is achieved.

How TMT Works
During the TMT, the healthy arteries in the heart dilate more than the blocked ones. This uneven dilation means that more blood is provided to the heart by the healthy arteries as compared to the blocked ones to their designated areas. This lowered blood flow makes the muscles in those areas thirsty for more blood during the TMT, creating symptoms like chest pain, and/or shortness of breath. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Endocrinologist.

3185 people found this helpful

High Blood Pressure And Low Blood Pressure

Dr. Prashant K Vaidya 94% (12746 ratings)
Diploma In Gastroenterology, Diploma In Dermatology, BHMS
Homeopath, Hyderabad
High Blood Pressure And Low Blood Pressure

What is blood pressure?

When your heart beats, it pumps blood round your body to give it the energy and oxygen it needs. As the blood moves, it pushes against the sides of the blood vessels. The strength of this pushing is your blood pressure. If your blood pressure is too high, it puts extra strain on your arteries (and your heart) and this may lead to heart attacks and strokes.

What is high blood pressure?

You probably have high blood pressure (hypertension) if your blood pressure readings are consistently 140 over 90, or higher, over a number of weeks.

You may also have high blood pressure if just one of the numbers is higher than it should be over a number of weeks. 

If you have high blood pressure, this higher pressure puts extra strain on your heart and blood vessels. Over time, this extra strain increases your risk of a heart attack or stroke.

High blood pressure can also cause heart and kidney disease, and is closely linked to some forms of dementia.


What is low blood pressure?

Many people worry about low blood pressure (hypotension), but probably don't need to.

Some people have a blood pressure level that is lower than normal. In general this may be good news - because the lower your blood pressure is, the lower your risk of stroke or heart disease. However, in a few cases, having low blood pressure can cause problems, so you might need to speak to your doctor or nurse.

What are the symptoms of hypertension?

Hypertension is generally a silent condition. Many people won’t experience any symptoms. It may take years or even decades for the condition to reach levels severe enough that symptoms become obvious. Even then, these symptoms may be attributed to other issues.

Symptoms of severe hypertension can include:

headaches
shortness of breath
nosebleeds
flushing
dizziness
chest pain
visual changes
blood in the urine
These symptoms require immediate medical attention. They don’t occur in everyone with hypertension, but waiting for a symptom of this condition to appear could be fatal.

The best way to know if you have hypertension is to get regular blood pressure readings. Most doctors’ offices take a blood pressure reading at every appointment.

If you only have a yearly physical, talk to your doctor about your risks for hypertension and other readings you may need to help you watch your blood pressure.

For example, if you have a family history of heart disease or have risk factors for developing the condition, your doctor may recommend that you have your blood pressure checked twice a year. This helps you and your doctor stay on top of any possible issues before they become problematic.

What causes high blood pressure?
There are two types of hypertension. Each type has a different cause.

Primary hypertension
Primary hypertension is also called essential hypertension. This kind of hypertension develops over time with no identifiable cause. Most people have this type of high blood pressure.

Researchers are still unclear what mechanisms cause blood pressure to slowly increase. A combination of factors may play a role. These factors include:

Genes: Some people are genetically predisposed to hypertension. This may be from gene mutations or genetic abnormalities inherited from your parents.
Physical changes: If something in your body changes, you may begin experiencing issues throughout your body. High blood pressure may be one of those issues. For example, it’s thought that changes in your kidney function due to aging may upset the body’s natural balance of salts and fluid. This change may cause your body’s blood pressure to increase.

Environment: Over time, unhealthy lifestyle choices like lack of physical activity and poor diet can take their toll on your body. Lifestyle choices can lead to weight problems. Being overweight or obese can increase your risk for hypertension.
Secondary hypertension
Secondary hypertension often occurs quickly and can become more severe than primary hypertension. Several conditions that may cause secondary hypertension include:

kidney disease
obstructive sleep apnea
congenital heart defects
problems with your thyroid
side effects of medications
use of illegal drugs
alcohol abuse or chronic use
adrenal gland problems
certain endocrine tumors

Diagnosing high blood pressure
Diagnosing hypertension is as simple as taking a blood pressure reading. Most doctors’ offices check blood pressure as part of a routine visit. If you don’t receive a blood pressure reading at your next appointment, request one.

If your blood pressure is elevated, your doctor may request you have more readings over the course of a few days or weeks. A hypertension diagnosis is rarely given after just one reading. Your doctor needs to see evidence of a sustained problem. That’s because your environment can contribute to increased blood pressure, such as the stress you may feel by being at the doctor’s office. Also, blood pressure levels change throughout the day.

If your blood pressure remains high, your doctor will likely conduct more tests to rule out underlying conditions. These tests can include:

urine test
cholesterol screening and other blood tests
test of your heart’s electrical activity with an electrocardiogram (EKG, sometimes referred to as an ECG)
ultrasound of your heart or kidneys
These tests can help your doctor identify any secondary issues causing your elevated blood pressure. They can also look at the effects high blood pressure may have had on your organs.

During this time, your doctor may begin treating your hypertension. Early treatment may reduce your risk of lasting damage.

High blood pressure: Tips for prevention

If you have risk factors for hypertension, you can take steps now to lower your risk for the condition and its complications.

Add healthy foods to your diet
Slowly work your way up to eating more servings of heart-healthy plants. Aim to eat more than seven servings of fruits and vegetables each day. Then aim to add one more serving per day for two weeks. After those two weeks, aim to add one more serving. The goal is to have ten servings of fruits and vegetables per day.
Adjust how you think of the average dinner plate
Leafy greens. Potassium helps your kidneys get rid of more sodium through your urine. ...
Berries. Berries, especially blueberries, are rich in natural compounds called flavonoids. ...
Red beets. ...
Skim milk and yogurt. ...
Oatmeal. ...
Bananas. ...
Salmon, mackerel, and fish with omega-3s. ...
Seeds
Cut sugar
Set weight loss goals
 

1 person found this helpful

Blood in Semen: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Dr. Manu Rajput 95% (108 ratings)
Diploma in Body Therapy, England, PG Diploma in Skin Treatments, England, BAMS, Certified Cosmetologist & Nutritionist , Certificate in Facial Electrical Treatments, England, PG Diploma in Diet & Nutrition, England, UK Level 4 Certificate in Specialist Hair & Scalp Services
Sexologist, Delhi
Blood in Semen: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Blood in semen occurs due to a variety of factors. It is also called 'hematospermia.' It mainly affects men after 30 years of age. After 50 years of age, blood in semen is caused due to prostate enlargement. Blood in semen is caused due to injuries, inflammation and blockage near the male reproductive system. Blood in semen can be linked to other diseases which might not be known by the affected person.

What can cause blood in semen?

  1. Blood in semen can be caused due to infections, tumors and stones.
  2. Abnormal body structure generally due to an autism spectrum disorder can also cause blood in semen.
  3. Prostate biopsy (removal of tissues from the prostate region which produces semen) also leads to blood in sperm sometimes. Though this is temporary and heals within three to four weeks.
  4. Vasectomy is a procedure done on men, which involves making small holes or slits in the scrotum so that the sperm doesn't flow during ejaculation. This is mainly done to prevent unwanted pregnancy. Sometimes, vasectomy causes blood in semen.
  5. It is also caused by infections such as Herpes, Chlamydia and Trichomoniasis.
  6. Sometimes, there are kidney stones found in the prostate called calculi, this is the most common reason for blood in semen.
  7. Blood in semen can also be caused due to parasitic infection, tuberculosis or chronic liver diseases.

Symptoms of blood in semen:

  1. Immense pain during ejaculation.
  2. Pain during urination.
  3. Acute lower back pain.
  4. Low to mild fever.
  5. Swelling in the scrotum and testes.
  6. Tenderness in the scrotum, testes and groin area.

Diagnosing blood in semen:

  1. While diagnosing blood in semen physical examinations are performed. The doctor checks for inflammation, swelling, tenderness and signs of injuries.
  2. Sometimes sexually transmitted diseases also cause blood in semen. So, the doctor takes a blood test to see whether you have STD's or not.
  3. Urine testing is also performed to see if any bacteria or abnormalities are found in the urine.
  4. MRIs, ultrasounds and CT scans can also locate any obstructions in the pelvic area which might be a cause of blood in semen.

If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor.

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