Colour blindness is not a type of blindness at all; it is an insufficiency in the way some people see colour. Once afflicted by this vision problem, people face difficulty in distinguishing specific colours like red, green, blue or yellow. So to call it colour vision deficiency would be much appropriate, and it hits men more often than women. In a report by Prevent Blindness America, it is revealed that about 8% of males and less than 1% of females are affected with colour vision problems. Generally, red and green colour deficiency is the most commonly found. In very rare instances, a person may carry a trait which lessens his ability to distinguish between blue and yellow colours. This blue-yellow hue insufficiency normally is found in men and women equally.
Understanding signs and symptoms: Do you have any difficulty in seeing yellow, green or red colours? Do people often tell you that you are seeing the wrong colour? If so, then these are key signs that you are affected with a colour perception deficiency. Quite opposite to popular belief, hardly a colour blind person is able to see only the shades of gray. Most people who are deemed as colour blind are able to see shades but cannot distinguish between one colour and another and get easily confused with other shades, depending on the kind of colour blindness they are affected with. If you have suddenly developed a colour vision deficiency when you were able to view and distinguish all the shades previously, then you should visit an ophthalmologist without further delay.
Causes behind colour blindness: Colour blindness takes place when the light-sensitive cells within the retina stop responding accurately to variations in wavelengths of light.
Photoreceptors present in the retina are termed as rods and cones. Rods are present abundantly, and about 100 million rod cells are present in human retina and these cells are very sensitive to light, but rods are impervious to sunlight and therefore, are incapable of perceiving colours. The cones, on the other hand, are responsible for our understanding of different colours. There are three types of cones, each of which is responsible for perceiving red, green and blue light. The three cones work together to help us see the whole range of colours. People who are colour blind usually have faults in a particular cone cell, which makes them unable to distinguish that particular shade.
Combatting colour blindness: Gene therapies are reported to cure colour blindness in monkeys, as per the reports of a study conducted by researchers of the University of Washington and Florida in September 2009. While early methods appear promising, gene therapy is not considered effective for human beings unless the treatments are verified to be safe.
Hence there is no effective means of curing colour blindness, but there are some strategies that may aid you to function better. However, if you are into graphic designing or anything that requires handling of different colours, then you will need professional help. The sooner you become aware of your insufficiency, the better you can compensate for it.
Some people also use contact lenses or eyeglasses that act as filters to enhance colour perception.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Parenting is a lifetime job be it for a normal child or a child with special needs. Parents are teachers, guides, leaders, protectors and providers for their children. Parenting is a process of promoting and supporting the physical, emotional, social, financial and intellectual development of a child from infancy to adulthood. Every child is a gift and a blessing to their parents. On the other hand, parenting itself is one of the toughest jobs and that too for a child with special needs, it is both a blessing and challenge.
It is a very unique experience to live with a disabled child as it has a major impact on the family, siblings and extended family members. However, discovering a problem should be the initial step to start with parenting such children. Discovering a child's special needs is often a confusing and painful process for parents as sometimes learning difficulties can be multiple and difficult to pinpoint and it can be hard for parents to know whether things are normal or not.
There are various categories of disabilities that your child might fall under. For example: Specific Learning Disability (SLD), Other Health Impairment, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Emotional disturbance, Speech or language impairment, Visual impairment, including blindness, Deafness, Deaf-blindness, Orthopedic impairment, Intellectual disability, Traumatic brain injury, Multiple disabilities.
Some common indications for the development of learning disabilities which can be taken into consideration
But the above mentioned signs are not enough to determine that a person has a learning disability. A professional assessment is also necessary to diagnose a learning disability because every disability has its own signs and unless they persist over time cannot be considered as a 'disability'.
एक तो होता है ब्लाइंडनेस और दुसरा है कलर ब्लाइंडनेस. ये एक ऐसी स्थिति है जिसमें कुछ रंगों में अंतर करने की क्षमता सामान्य से काम हो जाती है. इसका अर्थ है कि कलर ब्लाइंडनेस से पीड़ित व्यक्ति को लाल, हरे, नीले या इनका मिश्रण देखने में परेशानी होती है. ऐसा बहुत कम होता है कि किसी व्यक्ति की रंग देखने की क्षमता ही चली जाए (इसे कहते मोनोक्रोमसी हैं). बहुत से लोग यह हैं कि कलर ब्लाइंडनेस से पीड़ित व्यक्ति को केवल काले और सफेद रंग ही दिखते हैं. यह एक गलत धारणा है. कलर ब्लाइंडनेस के कई अलग-अलग प्रकार और स्तर हैं. भारत में कलर ब्लाइंडनेस का प्रचलन पुरुषों में 8% और महिलाओं में केवल 0.5% है.
1. रंगीन फ़िल्टर
वर्तमान में, कलर ब्लाइंडनेस का कोई इलाज नहीं है. रंगीन फिल्टर या कॉन्टैक्ट लेन्स उपलब्ध हैं जो कि कुछ परिस्थितियों में इस्तेमाल किए जा सकते हैं (स्पष्ट दृष्टि बढ़ाने में मदद करने के लिए और रंगों को पहचानना आसान बनाने के लिए. लेकिन कई मरीज़ उन्हें असुविधाजनक मानते हैं. यदि आपको भी ये असुविधाजनक लगता है तो इसकी जगह अन्य तरीके आजमा सकते हैं जिसमें आप सुविधजनक महसूस करें. अब इसके कई तरह के विकल्प मौजूद हैं, आपको बस चुनना है.
2. रंगीन कांटेक्ट लेंस
रंगीन कॉन्टैक्ट लेंस रंगीन कॉन्टैक्ट लेंस कुछ रंगों को मंद या उज्ज्वल दिखा सकते हैं और कुछ रंग दृष्टि की कमियों में मदद कर सकते हैं. कुछ लोग यह दावा करते हैं कि एक आंख में लेंस पहनकर उनकी दृष्टि और कामकाज में मदद मिलती है. हालाँकि, ऐसा नहीं है कि वास्तव में लेंस उन्हें अधिक रंग देखने में मदद करते हैं. लेंस दृष्टि को धुंधला कर सकते हैं और अन्य खतरनाक परिस्थितियां भी बना सकते हैं.
3. इलेक्ट्रॉनिक आंख
इलेक्ट्रॉनिक आंख हाथ में पकड़ने वाला एक उपकरण है जो रंगों की पहचान करता है. इस उपकरण में, एक ऑडियो सिंथेसाइज़र होता है जो रंग की पहचान करके जोर से बोलता है. यदि आपके बच्चे को कलर ब्लाइंडनेस है तो आप रंगों की पहचान करने में उसकी मदद कर सकते हैं जैसे कपड़ों के रंग पहचानना, सहायक उपकरण इस्तेमाल करना, ट्रैफिक लाइट पर हरे, पीले और लाल रंगों की जगह की पहचान करवाना और संकेतों का अर्थ आकारों के आधार पर बताना. स्कूल में पढ़ने की चीज़ों में भी आपको बदलाव करना पड़ सकता है. शिक्षकों को सूचित करें कि आपके बच्चे के लिए रंगों से सम्बंधित कार्य उपयुक्त नहीं हैं.
4. हम भी कर सकते हैं उनकी मदद
आमतौर पर, कलर ब्लाइंडनेस से प्रभावित लोग अपनी हालत के साथ समायोजन करना सीख जाते हैं. आप कलर ब्लाइंडनेस से प्रभावित व्यक्ति की मदद इन प्रकारों से कर सकते हैं - दोस्तों या परिवार के सदस्यों से रंग समन्वय करने में मदद करवाना (यह विशेष रूप से गंभीर कमी के मामलों में आवश्यक है). घर में उचित रोशनी का होना सुनिश्चित करना और काम करने की जगह का रंगों में भेद करने में मदद करने के लिए पर्याप्त होना सुनिश्चित करना. शिक्षकों को समस्या के बारे में सूचित करना ताकि सीखने की चीज़ों को संशोधित किया जा सके या शिक्षण विधियों को समायोजित किया जा सके.
The diabetic eye is considered to be the leading cause of the blindness among the working age. It is usually caused by the change in the blood vessels on the retina of the eye. Retina is that layer of the eye which is light sensitive. In case of diabetic macular oedema, the blood vessels cause the fluid to leak into the retina.
How does diabetic macular oedema cause vision loss?
The loss of vision only occurs when the fluid reaches the macula. Macula is the center of the retina which is responsible for a sharp vision. When the fluid reaches the macula it builds up and causes inflammation. Initially this is not noticed but with time the diabetic macular oedema causes a change in the vision making it more blurred. A healthy macula is very essential for a good vision.
Who is at risk of diabetic macular oedema?
People with type 1 and type 2 diabetes are at a higher risk of getting diabetic macular oedema. Also other risk factors are:
1. About 0ne in three people with diabetes develop macular oedema
2. Poor control of blood sugars
3. High blood pressure
4. High cholesterol level
6. In smokers
How to reduce the risks of diabetic macula oedema?
The risk of diabetic macula oedema can be reduced by quitting smoking, and to make sure that blood sugar and cholesterol levels are under control. This is achieved by regularly measuring the cholesterol and blood sugar levels.
How is diabetic macular oedema detected?
Diabetic macular oedema can be detected during regular visits to the doctor. Patients with diabetes should be offered screening tests. Digital photographs of the patients can be taken as they show the early signs of diabetic macular oedema, though changes in vision might not be noticed at this time.
What happens when you attend the medical retina clinic?
When you go for an eye checkup you will undergo a comprehensive examination which includes:
1. Visual acuity test: This is a sight test which measures how well you can see the different distances
2. Eye pressure test: This test is done to measure the pressure of the eyes and usually drops which numb the eyes are used when this test is conducted
3. Dilated eye examination: In this the drops are placed in the eye to dilate the pupils and then the back of the eye is examined.
4. Fluorescein angiography: This is a diagnostic test in which an injection of fluorescein dye is given in the hand and then the photographs are taken.
5. Optical coherence tomography: This is done to measure the retinal swelling.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Usher syndrome is a genetic disorder that is characterized by complications in vision and hearing; the most common of them being partial/complete loss of hearing and retinitis pigmentosa. Retinitis pigmentosa is characterized by progressive deterioration of the retina, resulting in deprivation of peripheral vision and subsequent night blindness.
The symptoms and its rate of progression usually vary among people. Usher syndrome is classified into three types:
Hearing loss in Usher syndrome occurs when the nerve cells that are present in the cochlear (inner ear’s spiral cavity) are affected by genetic mutation. A similar problem occurs in the cells of the retina leading to loss of vision. These cells allow conversion of light into electrical signals for the brain to interpret them. Both the parents need to pass the mutated gene to the child for it to be affected. If the child has only one gene, then he/she rarely develops the symptoms.
This disorder does not have any prescribed course of treatments. The vision loss that occurs in this disorder can be slowed down by nutritional therapy. This therapy involves providing the body with essential amounts of vitamin A which can help in reducing vision loss. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
If you are diabetic then it is important that you visit your Ophthalmologist for regular Retinal check-ups. Even if you no eye sight problem at all Diabetes is known to be one of main causes for blindness in this modern times. If you suffer from bouts of blurred vision then it can be as simple as fluctuating blood sugar levels in the body. Hence, don't make new glasses if your blood glucose is high or fluctuating. Wait till about 3 to 4 weeks after it reaches stable levels.
How diabetes affects your eyes?
The lens of your eyes can swell in diabetes, and this blurs your vision.
What are the serous problems that are caused by diabetes?
Cataract: Cataract occurs when the lens of the eye become foggy. Although cataract mostly occurs in people who are above fifty, one can get this at an earlier age in diabetics. It progresses at a much faster rate than usual in diabetics. Cataracts also makes retinal assessment more difficult for your Retinal surgeon. Once the diabetes is under control, diabetics can comfortably undergo modern cataract surgery. Healing will be as good as in normals, and visual recovery will be excellent if there is no Retinopathy. The modern topical Phacosurgery and IOL implantation can be performed with a hospital daycare stay of only few hours, and almost all the activities can be resumed on the very next day. There is no need to stop blood thinners.
Glaucoma: This is another disease that can silently cause blindness in diabetes. Due to the non draining of fluids from the eye, the intra ocular pressure goes up, and this causes damage to the delicate Optic nerve of the eye. The vision remains spuriously good till the end stages. Hence annual eye pressure check up is mandatory in Glaucoma. Glaucoma tends to run in families. If Glaucoma is diagnosed or suspected, OCT of optic nerves and Ganglion cell layer and Visual fields are periodically performed to assess the possible worsening. Once damaged, the ganglion cells and the optic nerve cannot be rejuvenated. So prevention is the main stay of treating this disease. Usually eye drops will be prescribed, which should be used strictly as per advise. Sometimes a surgery is advised.
Diabetic Retinopathy: is a progressive damage to the fine vessels and to the nourishment of the retina. It can occur in either type 2 or type 1 diabetes. Till end stages of the illness, there may not be any symptoms, and vision will remain good! There are two major types, Macular where fluid accumulates in the central retina, and Proliferative, where retinal ischemia sets in causing vaso proliferation, which cause bleeding inside teh eye. If not treated in early stages, both of them can lead to blindness. Retinal LASERS, Anti VEGF injections and vitreo retinal surgery are the common approaches, depending on the seriousness. There has been tremendous improvement in the surgical techniques in advanced cases.
If you have of diabetes or even borderline diabetic tendencies, it is advisable to periodically check your blood sugar levels, Hemoglobin, Creatinine, Blood pressure & Lipid levels and also get your eyes checked at regular intervals. It is recommended that you need a pupil dilated vitreo retinal assessment as soon as you are diagnosed to have diabetes, and follow up once an year. If you already has Diabetics retinopathy, you may be asked to review once in 3 to 6 months.