Usher syndrome is a genetic disorder that is characterized by complications in vision and hearing; the most common of them being partial/complete loss of hearing and retinitis pigmentosa. Retinitis pigmentosa is characterized by progressive deterioration of the retina, resulting in deprivation of peripheral vision and subsequent night blindness.
The symptoms and its rate of progression usually vary among people. Usher syndrome is classified into three types:
Hearing loss in Usher syndrome occurs when the nerve cells that are present in the cochlear (inner ear’s spiral cavity) are affected by genetic mutation. A similar problem occurs in the cells of the retina leading to loss of vision. These cells allow conversion of light into electrical signals for the brain to interpret them. Both the parents need to pass the mutated gene to the child for it to be affected. If the child has only one gene, then he/she rarely develops the symptoms.
This disorder does not have any prescribed course of treatments. The vision loss that occurs in this disorder can be slowed down by nutritional therapy. This therapy involves providing the body with essential amounts of vitamin A which can help in reducing vision loss. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
If you are diabetic then it is important that you visit your Ophthalmologist for regular Retinal check-ups. Even if you no eye sight problem at all Diabetes is known to be one of main causes for blindness in this modern times. If you suffer from bouts of blurred vision then it can be as simple as fluctuating blood sugar levels in the body. Hence, don't make new glasses if your blood glucose is high or fluctuating. Wait till about 3 to 4 weeks after it reaches stable levels.
How diabetes affects your eyes?
The lens of your eyes can swell in diabetes, and this blurs your vision.
What are the serous problems that are caused by diabetes?
Cataract: Cataract occurs when the lens of the eye become foggy. Although cataract mostly occurs in people who are above fifty, one can get this at an earlier age in diabetics. It progresses at a much faster rate than usual in diabetics. Cataracts also makes retinal assessment more difficult for your Retinal surgeon. Once the diabetes is under control, diabetics can comfortably undergo modern cataract surgery. Healing will be as good as in normals, and visual recovery will be excellent if there is no Retinopathy. The modern topical Phacosurgery and IOL implantation can be performed with a hospital daycare stay of only few hours, and almost all the activities can be resumed on the very next day. There is no need to stop blood thinners.
Glaucoma: This is another disease that can silently cause blindness in diabetes. Due to the non draining of fluids from the eye, the intra ocular pressure goes up, and this causes damage to the delicate Optic nerve of the eye. The vision remains spuriously good till the end stages. Hence annual eye pressure check up is mandatory in Glaucoma. Glaucoma tends to run in families. If Glaucoma is diagnosed or suspected, OCT of optic nerves and Ganglion cell layer and Visual fields are periodically performed to assess the possible worsening. Once damaged, the ganglion cells and the optic nerve cannot be rejuvenated. So prevention is the main stay of treating this disease. Usually eye drops will be prescribed, which should be used strictly as per advise. Sometimes a surgery is advised.
Diabetic Retinopathy: is a progressive damage to the fine vessels and to the nourishment of the retina. It can occur in either type 2 or type 1 diabetes. Till end stages of the illness, there may not be any symptoms, and vision will remain good! There are two major types, Macular where fluid accumulates in the central retina, and Proliferative, where retinal ischemia sets in causing vaso proliferation, which cause bleeding inside teh eye. If not treated in early stages, both of them can lead to blindness. Retinal LASERS, Anti VEGF injections and vitreo retinal surgery are the common approaches, depending on the seriousness. There has been tremendous improvement in the surgical techniques in advanced cases.
If you have of diabetes or even borderline diabetic tendencies, it is advisable to periodically check your blood sugar levels, Hemoglobin, Creatinine, Blood pressure & Lipid levels and also get your eyes checked at regular intervals. It is recommended that you need a pupil dilated vitreo retinal assessment as soon as you are diagnosed to have diabetes, and follow up once an year. If you already has Diabetics retinopathy, you may be asked to review once in 3 to 6 months.
Night blindness is also called nyctalopia.It's a type of vision impairment. People with night blindness experience poor vision at night or in dimly lit environments. It is not a disease in itself, but rather a symptom of an underlying problem, usually a retina problem.
What Causes Night Blindness?
A number of eye conditions can cause night blindness, including:
Are the Symptoms of Night Blindness?
The sole symptom of night blindness is difficulty seeing in the dark. You're more likely to experience night blindness when your eyes transition from a bright environment to an area of low light, such as when you leave a sunny sidewalk to enter a dimly lit restaurant. You're likely to experience poor vision when driving due to the intermittent brightness of headlights and streetlights on the road.
How can I Prevent Night Blindness?
You can't prevent night blindness that's the result of birth defects or genetic conditions, such as Usher syndrome. You can, however, properly monitor your blood sugar level and eat a balanced diet to make night blindness less likely.
Orange colored foods are excellent sources of vitamin A, including:
What are the Treatment Options for Night Blindness?
The treatment will depend on its causes.
Antrior most transparent layer of the eye is called cornea. It is an extremely useful layer for refraction and protection of eye. Any trauma, foreign body or chemical etc can invade the integrity of this layer and can be invaded by bacteria, fungus or virus, resulting in the corneal ulcer. Sometimes, due to hypoxia induced by contact lenses too can result in a corneal ulcer.
Depending on clinical presentation, a doctor diagnoses the cause of the ulcer and start the therapy. Since the transparency of cornea is very important, a doctor starts very intensive therapy. With repeated frequent checkups if a proper and intensive therapy is not given, the ulcer can progress and can cause collection of pus in the anterior chamber which if not attended properly, can cause the infection to travel into the interior of the eyeball (vitreous chamber) resulting in total blindness. The ulcer can become deeper and lead to perforation of the cornea, causing severe damage to the eye and may require removal of pus (evisceration) or total removal of the eye ball.
Generally, fungal ulcers are more dangerous and occur mostly in rainy season.
Conclusion: Corneal Ulcer is a serious challenging problem with the potentiality to cause total and irreparable blindness and must be attended promptly by a very expert ophthalmologist to save the eye. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Parenting is a lifetime job be it for a normal child or a child with special needs. Parents are teachers, guides, leaders, protectors and providers for their children. Parenting is a process of promoting and supporting the physical, emotional, social, financial and intellectual development of a child from infancy to adulthood. Every child is a gift and a blessing to their parents. On the other hand, parenting itself is one of the toughest jobs and that too for a child with special needs, it is both a blessing and challenge.
It is a very unique experience to live with a disabled child as it has a major impact on the family, siblings and extended family members. However, discovering a problem should be the initial step to start with parenting such children. Discovering a child's special needs is often a confusing and painful process for parents as sometimes learning difficulties can be multiple and difficult to pinpoint and it can be hard for parents to know whether things are normal or not.
There are various categories of disabilities that your child might fall under. For example: Specific Learning Disability (SLD), Other Health Impairment, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Emotional disturbance, Speech or language impairment, Visual impairment, including blindness, Deafness, Deaf-blindness, Orthopedic impairment, Intellectual disability, Traumatic brain injury, Multiple disabilities.
Some common indications for the development of learning disabilities which can be taken into consideration
But the above mentioned signs are not enough to determine that a person has a learning disability. A professional assessment is also necessary to diagnose a learning disability because every disability has its own signs and unless they persist over time cannot be considered as a 'disability'. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!