Planning on getting pregnant can involve taking steps that will help you in having a safe and fulfilling pregnancy and subsequent childbirth. It is important to indulge in preconception planning so as to ensure that you are in the pink of health and ready to go through the process of bearing and birthing a child in the best possible manner. Indulging in this stage is also a way of looking out for your unborn child and ensuring that he or she gets the best conditions during and right after pregnancy. So how can you tell if your body is ready for pregnancy? Here’s a quick list for you!
Type of Birth Control: In the preconception stage, it is important to ask what kind of birth control you have been using. This will make it easier for you to estimate your cycles and know when you will be due for your period once you stop the pill so that you know roughly when you will be ovulating. Usually, for most birth control pills, the time lag is about two weeks which gives you plenty of time for the menstruation cycle to get back to its normal course.
Vaccinations: You will need to check whether or not all your vaccinations are current and up to date. Before you start trying for conception, it will be best to get these vaccinations done as many of them cannot be taken once you have conceived, due to side effects like fever and more, which cannot be treated with regular allopathic medication once you are pregnant. Remember to especially check about vaccinations for German Measles and Chickenpox, which can prove to be fatal if they strike during pregnancy or the post-natal period, when the immunity of the body dips.
Chronic Medical Conditions: If you have chronic medical conditions like hypertension or diabetes or any other such ailment, then you will need to get your weight, blood pressure, blood sugar level and other such vitals to a normal level before you conceive so that you do not have to deal with the side effects of such medication that can be caused during pregnancy.
Supplements: You may have to change or switch the doses and medicines that you have been taking on a long term basis so as to make way for prenatal vitamins which will also help in preventing neural tube anomalies that can strike the baby if the development of the same does not happen properly in the very first month after conception.
While you are at it, you should also consider talking to your doctor about any family history of birth defects and anomalies to know your risk and chances.
Emergency is helpful in preventing pregnancies post unprotected sexual activity. It can be used in case of contraceptive failure, in case of sexual assault, incorrect use of contraceptives and unprotected sex.
Emergency contraception can be done by three methods. These are emergency contraceptive pills, combined oral contraceptive pills and copper intrauterine devices.
The copper IUD is considered to be one of the most effective forms of emergency contraception, when it is inserted within 5 days of unprotected sexual activity.
However, the emergency contraceptive pill regimen as per WHO is:
The Yuzpe regimen which consists of 2 doses of combined oral contraceptive pills
What is Emergency Contraception?
Emergency contraception is usually referred to as the contraception which is used to prevent pregnancy within the first 5 days after an unprotected sexual activity. It is used post failures of contraception, coerced unprotected sex, rape or misuse of contraception.
Emergency contraception is only effective in the first few days after intercourse and before the egg has released from the ovary, and before there is fertilization between the egg and the sperm. Emergency contraception can do no harm to an interrupted pregnancy and a developing embryo.
Who needs emergency contraception?
Any girl or woman who is at her reproductive age might need emergency contraception in case of unprotected sexual intercourse.
These are meant only for emergency contraception and NOT AS A REGULAR CONTRACEPTIVE. It involves pumping of a hormone inside your body at levels which are 5 times higher than normal. hence excessive and unnecessary use may cause irregularity in the period cycles and an adverse effect on the menstrual health over a period of time. Ideally, it should be taken under guided medical supervision.
In what situations should emergency contraception be used?
Emergency contraception can be used after sexual intercourse. These include:
In case of no use of contraceptives
If it is a case of rape or coerced sex, where the woman was not protected
When there is a contraceptive failure, like
incorrect use or slippage
3 or more missed combined oral contraceptives, progestogen-only pill (minipill) taken more than 3 hours late, desogestrel-containing pill 12 hours or more, norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN) progestogen-only injection taken more than 2 weeks late
Delay in placing or dislodgement or early removal of the skin patch or the hormonal ring
Breaking, dislodgement, tearing or early removal of cervical cap or diaphragm
Failure of withdrawal that is ejaculation the external genitalia or vagina
The spermicide tablet failure
Miscalculating the periods, failure from using a barrier on the fertile days
Expulsion of an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD)
Methods of Emergency Contraception:
There are three emergency contraception methods:
Copper-bearing intrauterine devices (IUDs)
Emergency contraception pills (ECPs)
Combined oral contraceptive pills or the Yuzpe method
Intrauterine devices or IUD are T shaped contraceptive devices. These contain levonorgestrel or copper and are inserted into the uterus. IUDs are considered to be one of the most effective birth control measures and also they are reversible (meaning it can be removed whenever a need arises). The copper IUd has a failure rate of 0.8%, while the levonorgestrel IUD has only had 0.2% failures till now. As per a report in 2007, IUDs are used by more than 180 million users all over the world.
What you should know about Intrauterine devices
1. Types of IUDs: There are 2 types of IUDs Copper and Hormone.
Copper IUD is considered to be the conventional form of the contraceptive. It is T shaped with strings and is inserted into the uterus by a doctor. It can remain in the body for three to five years.
Minera is a known brand of the hormone IUD. It contains low dose of hormone progestin and releases the same when inserted in the uterus. This is also T shaped and has strings. This can be left for three years.
2. Pelvic infections are not caused by IUDs
There is a belief that IUDs cause pelvic infection but this is not true. The strings of the new IUDs are very thin and they do not cause any pelvic infection even if a person is suffering from a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Though there might be a slight risk of infection when the IUD is inserted and in the first 20 days, but that also dissolves soon.
3. IUD can be used at any age
Earlier IUDs were not recommended for women who had never got pregnant. However, now anyone can use these irrespective of being pregnant or not. It is very safe for all age groups from teenagers to women involved in active sex to women post menopause.
4. IUD is as effective as getting a tubal ligation
It is believed that Minera is 99.4% effective while sterilization (tubal ligation) is 99% effective in preventing a pregnancy. Ligation is considered to be a permanent birth control solution, while IUDs can be reversed.
5. IUDs do not cause infertility
It was believed that a STI would creep into the pelvis through the string of the IUD and cause infertility but this is not so. Though a STI can cause infertility but the IUD has no role in the same and does not contribute or worsen the infection.
6. Hormonal IUD have less side effects than birth control pills
Breast tenderness, acne, and bleeding for a short time may persist for the initial 3-4 months in case of hormonal IUDs. The copper IUD lead to cramping and heavy flow during menstruation.
What are the latest advancements in male contraception?
The drawback of surgical approaches (such as vasectomy), especially patient compliance and low success rates with condoms has spurred research on hormonal contraceptive dosage forms. There is a dearth of investigations in the development of pharmaceutical preparations. Evolving technology in the 21st century, as well as improvement in living standards, further underline the need for new male contraception approaches, especially those that entail new drug delivery methods.
Here are a few areas where male contraception is being researched and used in some countries
Hormonal contraception for men is possible, and we are at the threshold of an important breakthrough. Combined testosterone plus progestin administration is more effective and safer than testosterone alone. Combination of testosterone plus an anti-androgenic progestin has several advantages over other formulations. In combined therapy, single injection formulation may have better compliance.
There are other methods being developed but not sure they are there yet. But for guys? Their options are stuck in a time warp. If a man wants to take pregnancy prevention into his own hands, his choice basically comes down to condoms, a vasectomy, withdrawal, or abstinence. That’s why it's so amazing that scientists are finally developing some real advancements when it comes to male contraception.
Researchers writing in the April issue of the Open Access Journal Contraception published a rundown of the top emerging options. A few hold real promise, particularly a daily or weekly pill that would deliver a dose of artificial hormones to a guy’s bloodstream, which would then act on reproductive hormones to stop sperm from being produced. Like the female hormonal pill, the male hormonal pill would be reversible. But also like the female hormonal pill, there appear to be side effects, among them acne, weight gain, and even trickier to work around, changes in testosterone levels that trigger a plunge in libido.
Non-hormonal techniques are also being developed, particularly a vaccine that immunizes men with antibodies to halt sperm production. This so-called male birth-control shot is encouraging because it targets sperm directly (rather than targeting other hormones in the body) and doesn’t have the testosterone-lowering side effects of a hormonal pill. Each injection would last for long intervals (experts aren’t yet sure how long), but the pregnancy-preventing effects would be reversible, if and when a guy decides he’s ready to be a dad.
So when can you expect to see men rushing out to the pharmacy counter to pick up their new birth control Rx? “I think we may see a novel male contraceptive within 10-12 years, That may seem far off, but hey at least it’s finally within sight.
Mirena is contraception that can be inserted into the uterus for long term use. This insertion is done with a proper clinical procedure. The Mirena is a device that may be classified as a hormonal Intrauterine device (IUD). This device releases a kind of progestin, which prevents the sperm from travelling to the egg to fertilise it. This hormone basically makes the cervical mucus thick and makes the uterine lining thin, so that ovulation gets suppressed.
Let us get to know more about the procedure and the results of Mirena Insertion.
Reasons: There are a variety of reasons why women use this kind of long term contraception. After insertion, one does not need to have any interruptions in the act of sex in order to look for and use contraception. It also reduces the risk of developing pelvic inflammatory disease. This kind of disease is usually caused by STDs or sexually transmitted diseases. This kind of device can also help in bringing down the pain experienced during menstrual cycles. It also reduces the risk of falling prey to endometrial cancer as well as cervical cancer.
Eligibility: You are not an eligible candidate for this kind of procedure if you have suffered from breast cancer, cervical cancer or liver disease. Also, if you suffer from diabetes or other cardiovascular diseases, then it is not safe to go through this procedure.
Procedure: The procedure will be carried out at the doctor’s clinic. The gynaecologist will insert a speculum into your vagina. Then, the doctor will continue to clean the area including the cervix with the help of an antiseptic solution. Thereafter, a special instrument will be used in order to align the uterine cavity with the cervical canal. During this process, the doctor will also measure the depth of the patient’s uterine cavity. The device will then be folded and placed within an applicator tube, which will be inserted into the cervical canal. Then, the applicator tube will be removed. After this, the device will remain in place.
Result: Once the device has been inserted, it will be effective for a period of at least five years. Every month, you will need to get the strings of the device checked so that they are not protruding from the cervix. You may experience side effects like pain during sex as well as others like headaches and persistent migraines. These must be reported to the doctor so that the doctor may deal with any complications.
Removal: If there are any kinds of complications and risks that may develop after the procedure, the doctor can remove this device. This can be done with the help of forceps. The device can also be removed and replaced after five years.
Birth control is defined as the measures that are taken by an individual in order to prevent pregnancy or reduce the likelihood of its occurrence. Nowadays, many birth control measures are available in the medicinal branch in order to be chosen as a safe and reliable mode of birth control.
To control the chances of unwanted pregnancy is a matter for both men and women. Hence, different birth control methods are available separately for both men and women so as to prevent or decrease the chances of pregnancy.
Birth control measures for men
There are majorly four methods available for the males which are described below:
The outer course is defined as performing sex without penetrating, i.e. the sex without penetrating into the vagina. This helps in preventing the sperms from entering into the vagina and hence, proven to be an effective method for controlling pregnancy. This method does not exert any side effects and causes no changes in hormonal balances.
Most of the population uses condoms and it is the best way to prevent the individuals from Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) as it prevents the contact of skin. Condoms are the thin layered stretchy material containing latex that is used to cover the penis in order to prevent the semen from reaching eggs by collecting the semen while performing sex.
In this method, also known as pull out method, the male withdraws his penis just before ejaculation. It helps in preventing sperms from entering into the vagina and therefore preventing pregnancy. It is not a reliable method as pregnancy can occur even if the withdrawal of the penis is done on time.
It is the permanent birth control measure and completely effective. It is a surgical procedure in which the vas deferens tube that is responsible for carrying sperms are blocked or closed. Therefore, the sperm could not be ejaculated and absorbed in the man's body.
Birth control measures for women
It can be done using various ways such as:
Birth control pills
There is a lot of promotion being done through social media regarding the use of birth control pills to prevent pregnancy. There are a variety of birth control pills. These pills are a combination of estrogen and progesterone or simply the composition of one of these two hormones. These pills have to be taken regularly to prevent pregnancy and different types of pills have a different working mechanism.
Fertility Awareness-based methods
These methods are useful in keeping track of ovulation. A woman is highly likely to get pregnant during the ovulation period. It helps for women to keep her away from vaginal intercourse during the ovulation days or using preventive measures such as a condom or some other measure for birth control. It can be done using various methods such as cervical mucus method, temperature method and calendar method.
Also called the morning after pill, it is one of the safest and most reliable methods to prevent pregnancy once having unprotected sex. So, if you aren’t using any birth control measure during sexual intercourse, you may use this as the birth control measure.
भारत में गर्भधारण से बचने के मध्य में महिलाओं को ही रखा जाता है. इसमें भी लोग यौन स्वास्थ या यौन समस्याओं पर बात करने में बहुत संकोच करते हैं. महिलाओं को कॉण्ट्रासेप्टिव के इस्तेमाल के बारे में पूरी तरह से शिक्षित नहीं किया जाता है जिस कारण कभी कभी वे चाहकर भी असक्षम महसूस करती हैं. प्रेगनेंसी को रोकने के लिए इस्तेमाल किये जाने वाले तरीकों या डिवाइस को बर्थ कंट्रोल, कॉण्ट्रासेप्टिव या फैमिली प्लानिंग कहा जाता है. प्राचीनकाल से कॉण्ट्रासेप्टिव का उपयोग किया जाता रहा है, लेकिन इसके प्रभावी और सुरक्षित तरीके 20 वीं शताब्दी में उपलब्ध हो पाए हैं. 1952 में भारत, परिवार नियोजन कार्यक्रम शुरू करने वाला दुनिया का पहला देश बन चुका है. आइये इस लेख के माध्यम से हम गर्भधारण से बचने के उपायों पर एक नजर डालें ताकि इस विषय में लोगों की जानकारी बढ़ सके.
कॉण्ट्रासप्टिव पिल्स उन हार्मोन की तरह हैं जो प्रेगनेंसी को रोकने के लिए रोजाना ली जाती हैं. यदि आप इसे समय पर लेती हैं तो ये पिल्स सुरक्षित, किफायती और प्रभावी हैं. कॉण्ट्रासेप्शन रोकने के अलावा, इन पिल्स के कई स्वास्थ्य फायदे भी हैं. यह दो टाइप की होती हैं - जॉइंट ओरल कॉण्ट्रासेप्टिव पिल्स जिसमें एस्ट्रोजन और प्रोजेस्टोजेन हार्मोन मौजूद होते हैं और दिन में एक बार इनका इस्तेमाल किया जाता है. इसके दूसरे टाइप में केवल प्रोजेस्टोजेन हार्मोन होता है और यह भी दिन में एक बार ही इस्तेमाल की जाती है. यह जॉइंट पिल्स की तुलना में अलग तरीके से कार्य करता है. इसको लेने से एस्ट्रोजन हार्मोन के इस्तेमाल से बचने का लाभ होता है, क्योंकि उसके कुछ दुष्प्रभाव होते हैं.
कॉण्ट्रासेप्टिव इम्प्लांट माचिस की तीली के बराबर छोटा और पतली रॉड जैसा होता है. यह आपके शरीर में हार्मोन रिलीज करता है जो आपको गर्भवती होने से बचाता है. एक नर्स या डॉक्टर आपके हाथ में भीतर प्रत्यारोपण डालेंगे और आप 4 साल तक गर्भधारण से बच जाएंगी. यह 99% से अधिक प्रभावी है. यदि आप पुनः गर्भवती होना चाहती हैं या आप अब प्रत्यारोपण नहीं करना चाहतीं, तो डॉक्टर की सहायता से इसे बाहर निकाला जा सकता है. अगर मासिक चक्र के पहले 5 दिनों के दौरान प्रत्यारोपण का इस्तेमाल करती हैं तो आप गर्भधारण से पूरी तरह सुरक्षित हो जाती हैं. यदि आपने मासिक चक्र के किसी अन्य समय प्रत्यारोपण कराया है, तो पहले सप्ताह के दौरान किसी अन्य जन्म नियंत्रक (जैसे कंडोम) का उपयोग करें. इस पहले सप्ताह के बाद, प्रत्यारोपण काम करना शुरू कर देता है.
वासेक्टोमी को पुरुष नसबंदी भी कहा जाता है. यह एक सर्जरी है. इसके द्वारा स्थिर रूप से गर्भधारण नहीं होता है. इसलिए यह अत्यधिक प्रभावी है. यह प्रक्रिया बहुत जल्दी हो जाती है और आप उसी दिन घर भी जा सकते हैं. यह गर्भावस्था को रोकने में लगभग 100% प्रभावी है. पुरुष नसबंदी दो प्रकार की होती है. चीरा विधि और बिना चीरे वाली विधि. बिना चीरे वाली विधि से संक्रमण और अन्य जटिलताओं का जोखिम कम हो जाता है.
महिला नसबंदी या ट्यूबल लाईगेशन को दोनों फैलोपियन ट्यूब को दो स्थानों से बांधना भी कहा जाता है एक सुरक्षित और प्रभावी सर्जरी है जो स्थायी रूप से गर्भधारण को रोकती है. यह एक सर्जिकल प्रक्रिया है जो आपके फैलोपियन ट्यूबों को स्थायी रूप से बंद या अवरुद्ध करता है. इसमें दोनों फैलोपियन ट्यूब को बांध दिया जाता है, जिससे शुक्राणु अंडे तक नहीं पहुंच पाते और गर्भधारण नहीं होता है.
गर्भनिरोधक शॉट एक इंजेक्शन है जो आपको हर तीन महीने में नर्स या डॉक्टर लगाते हैं. यह एक सुरक्षित, सुविधाजनक और निजी जन्म नियंत्रण पद्धति है. जन्म नियंत्रण शॉट में प्रोजेस्टिन हार्मोन होता है. प्रोजेस्टिन ओवुलेशन को रोककर आपमें गर्भ धारण होने से रोकता है. जब ट्यूब में कोई अंडा ही नहीं होगा, तो गर्भधारण भी नहीं हो सकता. सही प्रकार से उपयोग करने पर गर्भनिरोधक शॉट की प्रभावशीलता 99% से अधिक है. लेकिन जब वास्तविक जीवन की बात आती है, तो यह शॉट लगभग 94% प्रभावी होता है, क्योंकि कभी-कभी लोग समय पर अपने शॉट्स को लेना भूल जाते हैं.
गर्भनिरोधक पैच एक सुरक्षित, सरल और सस्ती जन्म नियंत्रक विधि है जो आप अपने पेट, ऊपरी बांह, कूल्हे या पीठ की त्वचा पर लगा सकती हैं. पैच में एस्ट्रोजन और प्रोजेस्टेरोन नामक हार्मोन होते हैं, जो हमारे शरीर में स्वाभाविक रूप से पाए जाने वाले हार्मोन के समान ही होते हैं. आप अपने शरीर के किसी हिस्से पर पैच लगाइये और हार्मोन स्वयं त्वचा द्वारा अवशोषित हो जायेंगे. पैच अंडाशय से अंडे को निकलने से रोकता है. कोई ओवुलेशन न होने का अर्थ है कि शुक्राणु से निषेचन नहीं होगा और इस प्रकार गर्भावस्था भी नहीं हो पाएगी.
Female condoms are generally pouches made of latex and polyurethane, which are used by women during sex in order to prevent pregnancy and thereby reduce the chances of infection by sexually transmitted diseases. Each end of these pouches are made of rings that are flexible. They should be inserted deep inside the vagina before sex is initiated and held in the position by utilizing the rings available at the closed end while the rings which are at the open end remain outside the vagina during sex.
Even though it can be safely used by most people, some women would find female condoms to be an inappropriate form of contraception and would not feel comfortable with their genital areas being touched. Thus, it is very important that the appropriate form of contraception be considered for you and your partner. Condoms should be used correctly. In case of need for extra protection, other options of contraception should be considered.
Pros of female condoms:
Cons of female condoms:
If you’ve had unprotected sex, that is, sex without using contraception, or think your contraception might have failed, you can use emergency contraception. There are different types of emergency contraception.
Emergency contraception can be very effective, but it’s not as effective as using other methods of contraception regularly. The emergency IUD is the most effective emergency contraception.
An emergency contraceptive pill needs to be taken as soon as possible after sex to have the best chance of working.
Emergency contraception is not required for the first 21 days after giving birth.
Does emergency contraception cause an abortion?
No. Emergency contraception may stop ovulation (releasing an egg), fertilisation of an egg, or a fertilised egg from implanting in the uterus (womb). It prevents pregnancy and is not abortion.
How will I know if my emergency contraception has worked?
Do a pregnancy test to make sure you’re not pregnant if:
A pregnancy test will be accurate if the test is done three weeks after the last time you had unprotected sex.
Am I protected from future pregnancy?
You can continue to use the IUD as your regular contraceptive method if you want to. It will be highly effective at preventing pregnancy. The emergency contraceptive pill won't continue to protect you from pregnancy. If you have unprotected sex again you’re at risk of pregnancy. Seek advice – you may need emergency contraception again.
Can I take the emergency pill more than once in a menstrual cycle?
You can take the same type of emergency pill more than once in any menstrual cycle if you need to, but it may not be possible to take a different type of pill in the same cycle.
Emergency contraceptive pills aren’t as effective as using other methods ofcontraception regularly. It’s important to start an effective method of contraception after using the emergency contraceptive pill.
Contraception refers to something, which works to prevent a pregnancy from occurring. But what is emergency contraception? This sort of contraception is made use of in case other methods of birth control do not work or a woman has had unprotected sex.
This sort of contraception is also referred to as the morning after pill and postcoital contraception, which effectively means that it is taken after sex. Well, if while having sexual intercourse, there is a breakage of the condom or it slips off the penis, then it is a good idea to make use of emergency contraceptives, as should a woman if it so happens that she misses two or more birth control pillsover the course of her monthly cycle.
While it is true that a large majority of emergency contraceptives, which are available in the market today are in the form of pills, note that this is not the only form of emergency contraception. As a matter of fact, copper containing intra uterine devices (IUDs) happen to be the most effective way to prevent a pregnancy from occurring, but this is only true if they are fitted within five days of unprotected sex. Again, even in this case, the sooner, the better!
Most people believe that an emergency contraceptive is almost always successful in ending a pregnancy. This is quite inaccurate as the main intention of an emergency contraceptive is not to end a pregnancy, but to prevent it from happening in the first place. This is exactly why it is so essential to have an emergency contraceptive pill after sex as soon as possible. The longer a woman delays, the higher the risk of fertilisation taking place and pregnancy then being left to be a foregone conclusion.
It is important to keep in mind that emergency contraception is not a substitute for taking precautions when it comes to sex. As a matter of fact, it can be said that there is no substitute for being responsible and making use of condoms or birth-control pills in a prudent way. After all, who wants to have the stress and the repercussions of a potential unwanted pregnancy? It makes quite a bit of sense to take some extra care so that there is no need for anxiety, as it isn’t really required and sex remains as much fun as intended!