What is salt and sodium?
Salt is made of sodium (40% by weight) and chloride (60% by weight). Sodium is a crucial electrolyte in the body. Sodium is an essential nutrient necessary for maintenance of plasma volume and blood pressure, acid-base balance, transmission of nerve impulses and normal cell function.
Different types of salt?
The primary advantages of various types of salts other than common salt is having trace minerals (in very small amounts) and lack of processing and additives.
How salt intake normally?
WHO recommends that adults consume less than 5 g (just under a teaspoon) of salt per day. This goes around 2300mg of sodium per day. But, most Indian people consume too much salt - on average 9-12 grams per day.
What are health hazards of high salt intake?
How high intake of sodium cause kidney disease?
High salt intake is associated with kidney disease by two mechanisms:
Causing hypertension, vascular injury and proteinuria.
FOOD containing high salts?
Fast foods, preserved and packaged foods like:
Many snack foods - chips, crackers, and pretzels - contain several hundred milligrams of sodium per serving.
Conditions where low salt is beneficial?
How to reduce sodium (salt) intake?
Allergy is a response of the immune system. It only occurs when a harmless substance attacks the body and it tries to attack it by creating antibodies as a triggering response. While there could be a lot of triggering agents, some of the basic ones include dust, food, and dander. Conventional allergies can be easily treated with medicines and environment changes whereas chronic allergies need medical attention. Either way there exists some great natural supplements which when applied can immediately deal with seasonal and occasional allergies:
This year's pledge on dietetics day is anemia mukt bharat. Spread this msg to all
Anemia happens when your body doesn't have enough red blood cells. The condition is mainly caused by blood loss, the destruction of red blood cells, or your body's inability to create enough red blood cells.
There are many types of anemia. The most common type is iron deficiency anemia. Red blood cells contain a protein called hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is full of iron. Without sufficient iron, your body can't make the hemoglobin it needs to create enough red blood cells to deliver oxygen-rich blood throughout your body.
A lack of folate and vitamin b-12 may also impact your body's ability to made red blood cells. If your body can't process b-12 properly, you may develop pernicious anemia. A diet that is rich in iron and b vitamins like the plan below is important if you are anemic. Be sure to talk to your doctor about supplements as well.
Anemia treatment plans often include dietary changes. The best diet plan for anemia includes foods rich in iron and other vitamins essential to hemoglobin and red blood cell production. It should also include foods that help your body absorb iron better.
There are two types of iron in foods: heme iron and nonheme iron. Heme iron is found in meat, poultry, and seafood. Nonheme iron is found in plant foods and foods fortified with iron. Your body can absorb both types, of iron.
Although anemia treatment plans are individualized, most require 150 to 200 milligrams of iron daily. It's hard to get these levels through diet alone. You may also need to take prescription iron or an over-the-counter iron supplement until your levels are replenished.
Add these foods to your diet to get more iron and help fight iron deficiency anemia:
1. Leafy greens
Leafy greens, especially dark ones, are among the best sources of nonheme iron. They include:
Some leafy greens such as Swiss chard and collard greens also contain folate. A diet low in folate may cause folate-deficiency anemia. Citrus fruits, beans, and whole grains are good sources of folate.
When eating dark, leafy greens for iron, there's a catch. Some greens that are high in iron, such as spinach and kale, are also high in oxalates. Oxalates are compounds that prevent the absorption of nonheme iron. So, while it's beneficial to eat your greens as part of an overall anemia diet, don't depend on them solely to treat the condition.
Vitamin c helps your stomach absorb iron. Eating leafy greens with foods that contain vitamin c such as oranges, red peppers, and strawberries may increase iron absorption. Some greens are good sources of both iron and vitamin c.
2. Meat and poultry
All meat and poultry contain heme iron. Red meat, lamb, and venison are the best sources. Poultry and chicken have lower amounts. Eating meat or poultry with nonheme iron foods, such as leafy greens, can increase iron absorption.
Many people shy away from organ meats, but they're a great source of iron. Liver is arguably the most popular organ meat. It's rich in iron and folate.
Some seafood provides heme iron. Shellfish such as oysters, clams, and shrimp are good sources. Most fish contain iron. Fish high in iron include:
Although both fresh and canned salmon are good sources of iron, canned salmon is high in calcium. Calcium binds with iron and reduces its absorption. Foods high in calcium shouldn't be eaten at the same time as iron-rich foods. Other examples of calcium-rich foods include:
5. Fortified foods
Many foods are fortified with iron. Add these foods to your diet if you're a vegetarian or struggle to eat other sources of iron:
Beans are good sources of iron for vegetarians and meat eaters alike. They're also inexpensive and versatile. Some iron-rich options are:
7. Nuts and seeds
Many types of nuts and seeds are good sources of iron. They taste great on their own or sprinkled on salads or yogurt. When choosing nuts and seeds, choose raw varieties whenever possible. Some nuts and seeds that contain iron are:
Almonds are also a good source of iron. They're great as part of a healthy eating plan, but since they're also high in calcium, they may not increase your iron levels that much.
Remember these guidelines:
Cholesterol is a type of fat found in the body and is needed for vital body functions such as building new cells, producing hormones & insulation.
The liver makes all the cholesterol which is required by the body.
Cholesterol is of two types:
LDL means a high chance of cardiac disease, while HDL means less
or decreased risk
Cholesterol increases the inflammatory disease of the arterial walls called as atherosclerosis in which there is blocking of artery due to fat deposition, which ultimately leads to heart attack.
Normal levels: 200 mg|dl
|SIGN & SYMPTOMS:|
They are hard to find and high cholesterol is quite often detected in routine tests only
Pain in chest
Impotency may be due to arteries affected by excessive blood cholesterol.
An increase in the blood level of cholesterol does not have any obvious symptoms. But is a risk factor for other conditions such as angina (pain in chest), Atherosclerosis, Heart disease, Highblood pressure & Stroke
|DO & DONT'S:|
Check your diet. Not more than 30% of total calories should be from fat.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR LOW CHOLESTEROL DIETS.
1. Do not use any hydrogenated fats e.g. ghee, butter, margarine
(unless specified), vanaspati, coconut oil, and palm oil. Use instead safflower (karadi) oil, soya bean oil, sunflower oil, dietary, saffola, mazola or corn oil.
2. Avoid egg yolks and foods containing egg yolks e.g. mayonnaise, cakes, sauces, although egg white only is permitted.
3. Avoid all foods baked with fat (shortening lard etc.)e.g. cakes, pies, doughnuts etc.
4. Avoid whole milk, cream, cheese, whole milk curds and sweets made with concentrated milk e.g. gulab jamun, shrikhand, Mawa, chocolates et. Use only skimmed milk and its preparations, paneer made from skimmed milk can be used
5. All organ meats are to be avoided e.g. kidney, liver, brain,
sweetbreads etc. Fat should be trimmed of all meat before use.
Deskin chicken before cooking. Avoid pork, ham and bacon. Avoid shellfish, clams, prawns, lobsters, fish roe, and fish liver oil. Use, fish and deskinned chicken. Meat used should be lean and its use judicious. Stews and meat stock if made earlier can be chilled and the congealed fat should be scraped off and discarded.
6. Nuts all nuts are permitted except groundnut, cashew nuts which
must be avoided.
7. Decrease the use of refined foods in your diet, e.g. maida, cornflour, spaghetti, macaroni etc. Increase and include instead, high fiber foods e.g salads, greens, chapattis (made with atta), leafy vegetables etc.
8. Roast and boil foods on a rack so fat can drain off. Make use of non-stick vessels/pan and decrease consumption of fats and oils whilst cooking
1.Follow maintenance Diet-Controlled carbohydrate, controlled and modified fat, low cholesterol
Control the carbohydrate foods that you eat. Carbohydrate (sugar and starch) foods are limited. This means that sugar is not allowed, jaggery, honey and refined foods e.g. macaroni, spaghetti, bread, biscuits should be limited. Free Foods i.e. Foods Allowed.
Clear Soup Soda
Coffee Flavoring Essence
Suggestions for Meals away from Home.
When you eat out daily, it is wise to select one particular restaurant some of your food requires special preparation. A regular customer is more like to receive special attention.
Trim off all fat. The safest choice is a chop, steak, chicken (deskinned) or fish. Request that the meat be made without fat. e.g. Tandoori Chicken, grilled kababs, tikkas.
Most Vegetables are not limited. However, avoid those that are made in cream (malai) e.g. Vegetable Makhanwalla; cheese or whole milk. Ask that your serving of vegetables be made without fat.
Avoid salads with creamy dressings, mayonnaise, and cheese.
Instead, take Kachumber or mixed salads etc.
Limit the amount according to your diet plan.
Limit according to your diet plan. Avoid, rolls, biscuits, muffins, take instead phulka, chapattis, bhakri etc.
Skim Milk, Thin lassi (non-sweet) lie juice (non-sweet), fresh lime and soda, coconut water, tomato juice (not tinned, non-sweet) tea/coffee (non-sweet) these are allowed.
For dessert choose a fresh fruit (not tinned) e.g fresh papaya slice, watermelon slice, plums cherries, fresh orange etc.
|CONSULT YOUR DOCTOR:|
If you see soft, yellow skin growth on yourself or your children.
If you experience symptoms due to increase in cholesterol
contact For example
Pain in chest.
Pain in legs.
A thick speech.
When you say weight loss, the first thing that comes to mind is the need to starve oneself and skip eating. This thought is very scary for people who are used to 4 regular meals a day. Feel good, because it is not just scary, it is false too. The idea is to eat healthy and low-calorie foods and not to stop eating completely. You should also learn to trick your body - eat something filling that will control and delay your hunger pangs. Your stomach is busy but not digesting something that adds a lot of calories into your system. Sounds great, isn't it?
Try these 5 low-fat, filling foods and see how different your body reacts.
If you are planning to lose some weight, eating these types of foods will definitely help you.
Bowel movement is one of the most important clues about an individual’s health, as it gives a real idea of the gastrointestinal condition as well as overall health. One shall have to get familiar with the regular appearance of stool to spot the issues beforehand; however, the day to day alterations in the appearance does not mean that there is a problem with your health as one may notice short-term abnormalities based on what he or she is eating every day.
But in case an unexplained change lasts for over a week or so, it is a sign of some strange happening in the gastrointestinal tract.
If the appearance of the stool remains abnormal for weeks together, it is important to talk to a doctor to find out if there is something serious underlying. Bowel movement is the truest sign of the intestinal health, and thus, should not be ignored.
Pregnancy is that period of time in a woman's life when she is excited about giving birth to her baby. She is not only responsible to keep herself healthy, but her baby is also her responsibility. What she eats, how she lives and her daily routine will affect the baby. Thus, to have a healthy pregnancy it is necessary that you exercise regularly and eat well. You should also avoid those things that may hurt your baby.
Take care of what you eat
During pregnancy it is important to get proper nutrition so that you and your baby are healthy. For slow and gradual weight gain, it is necessary to pay close attention to the folic acid, calcium and iron intake. However, if you are obese, then your weight gain regime will be different from others.
The diet during pregnancy should include
- Intake of fruit and vegetables is important as they are good sources of Vitamins, minerals and even fiber. They are good for digestion and also help in preventing constipation. Eat fresh fruits and vegetables daily.
- During pregnancy carbohydrates are also important as they act as an important source of energy. Different food items that are rich in carbohydrates are potatoes, bread, breakfast cereals, pasta, rice, noodles, millet, maize, oats, yams, sweet potatoes, and corn meal. It is better to eat whole grains and potato with the skin on as they are rich in fiber.
- Intake of protein is very important during pregnancy, and thus you should take lean meat, pulses, beans, nuts, fish, and eggs. All these items should be cooked well so that you do not face any problem in digestion during pregnancy.
- It is also necessary to eat dairy products like milk, cheese, butter and yoghurt during pregnancy. They are important because they contain the calcium and nutrients that are necessary for the growth of the baby.
Just as you should eat certain food items to be healthy, there are certain foods that must be avoided to be fit and healthy. Avoid the following during pregnancy
- Drugs and alcohol
- Medicines that are not prescribed by your physician
- Smoking tobacco
- Fried and oily food
- Fishes those are rich in mercury like shark, tilefish, swordfish and those fishes that are caught in local waters are not considered safe.
- Too much intake of caffeine is also hazardous for a pregnant lady.
Thus, by following the above-mentioned diet tips you can keep your baby and yourself healthy.
Always get advice from your physician for any decision that you take during pregnancy.
The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, adequate-protein, low-carbohydrate diet. The “keto” in a ketogenic diet comes from the fact that it allows the body to produce small fuel molecules called “ketones”.
This is an alternative fuel source for the body, used when blood sugar (glucose) is in short supply.
It's a diet, which can help you burn fat more effectively.
On a ketogenic diet, your entire body switches its fuel supply to run mostly on fat, burning fat 24-7. When insulin levels become very low, fat burning can increase dramatically. It becomes easier to access your fat stores to burn them off.
This is great if you’re trying to lose weight, but there are also other less obvious benefits, such as less hunger and a steady supply of energy.
Now if we discuss what type of food should we eat when on a keto diet then there are lots of options for non vegetarians but question arises can vegetarians do keto diet?
So the answer is definitely yes. The only thing that has to be taken care of is the carbs content of diet. When following a vegan keto diet, you must significantly reduce your carb intake and replace carbs with healthy fats and vegan sources of protein.
So what can we eat in a vegan keto diet?
Do Not Eat
Now let's discuss what are the benefits of doing keto diet.
The main aim of the keto diet is to put, and keep, your body in a metabolic state called ketosis. Our bodies normally burn carbohydrates for energy. When you restrict the amount of carbs, the body will break down stored fat, creating molecules called ketones to use as fuel.
1. Low-Carb Diets Reduce Your Appetite.
2. Low-Carb Diets Lead to More Weight Loss at First
3. A Greater Proportion of Fat Loss Comes From Your Abdominal Cavity
4. Triglycerides Tend to Drop Drastically
5. Reduced Blood Sugar and Insulin Levels
6. Effective Against Metabolic Syndrome-
Metabolic syndrome is a condition highly associated with your risk of diabetes and heart disease.
Now there are also some side effects that can arise while following keto diet such as:
2. Ketoacidosis- A serious diabetes complication where the body produces excess blood acids (ketones).
3. Weight regain- Because the keto diet is so restrictive, it’s not an appropriate diet to follow long-term. The problem is that most people will regain a lot of the weight they lost as soon as they go back on carbs.
So one should follow keto diet only under some dietician or expert to make it as useful as possible without any side effects.
What is Chronic Kidney Disease?
Chronic Kidney Disease (also known as Chronic Renal Failure) is the progressive loss of kidney function occurring over a span of several months to several years and is characterised by the replacement of kidney architecture with interstitial fibrosis.
Chronic kidney disease is classified into five stages on the basis or proteinuria (presence of protein in large amounts in the urine) or Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) - 1 being the mildest with no distinct symptoms and 5 being end stage renal failure.
Causes and Risk Factors of Chronic Kidney Disease-
The various reasons (called risk factors) that can increase chances of Chronic Kidney Diseases are:
Family history heritable renal disease
Older age, smoking
Past episodes of acute renal disease
The direct causes of Chronic Kidney Diseases are-
Diabetic nephropathy (leading cause)
Glomerulonephritis (swelling of the glomerulus in the kidneys)
Reno-vascular disease (ischemic nephropathy)
Transplant allograft failure
Exposure to drugs and toxins
Diet that you must maintain in Chronic Kidney Disease-
It is essential to make dietary as well as lifestyle amends once you are diagnosed with CKD. The main purpose of this diet is to maintain the levels of carbohydrates, fluids and minerals. This is done to prevent the buildup of waste products in the body as the kidneys are unable to fulfil its function properly.
It is recommended to refer a dietician who can make you a diet chart that helps you adhere to your diet.
Carbohydrates : Carbohydrates are a good source of energy. If the intake of protein has been restricted, then it is recommended to replace that with carbohydrates as a source of energy. Fruits, vegetables, grains and bread can be consumed as they are rich source of fibres, minerals and various types of vitamins. You can indulge in some hard candies or sweets as well.
Fats: Fats can provide a good amount of calories as well. Ensure that you only stick to healthy fats such as the monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats that are good for your cardiac health.
Reduce your phosphorus intake: A diet with no more than 800 mg of phosphorus can help reduce the risk of too much phosphorus building up in your blood. Limit intake of foods with high levels of phosphate or phosphate additives such as organ meats, whole grain breads, processed foods, cola beverages, cheese, dried beans, liver, peanut butter, dairy products and chocolate. Many beverages and processed foods have these additives. Other high-phosphorus foods to limit include:
Fluids: In the early stages of CKD, your fluid intake is not monitored. But as the disease progresses, you need to check your intake of fluids as too much fluids may accumulate in your body and create pressure on your kidneys.
The build-up of gases in the stomach can be uncomfortable and very embarrassing when it leads to flatulence. Flatulence can be defined as the release of intestinal gas from the anus. This may or may not be accompanied by sound and odour. Both men and women can be affected by flatulence at any age.
Food that is difficult to digest often triggers the formation of gas such as hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane and sulphur in the digestive system as a result of the microbial breakdown of this food. Sulphur is largely responsible for the odor that accompanies the release of these gases. Beans, chickpeas, cauliflower and cabbage are some such foods that can trigger flatulence.
Flatulence on its own is not a serious condition and usually resolves itself without medication. However if it triggers severe abdominal cramps, diarrhea, persistent constipation, blood in the stools, nausea and pain in the right side of the abdomen, medical care should be immediately sought.
If flatulence is a problem you suffer from often, take a look at your diet and modify your eating habits. Keep a food diary to determine what food triggers this condition and avoid it. If you are lactose intolerant switch your dairy products for soya substitutes and avoid dairy. Anti-gas compounds that are available over the counter can also provide relief. Chew your food slowly, thoroughly and ensure that your mouth is closed while chewing to prevent swallowing air. For this reason, also avoid chewing gums and fizzy drinks. If you must eat beans, soak them overnight before cooking.
Flatulence can be easily treated with home remedies. Following home remedies can be used
1. Ginger: Ginger aids the digestion process, eases bloating and reduces gas. It also helps stool pass smoothly and helps keep the intestines clear. This does not give stomach gases a chance to build up. Ginger can be consumed in the form of capsules or a tea made by steeping ginger in hot water for a few minutes.
2. Papaya: Along with being rich in antioxidants and flavonoids, papaya contains an enzyme known as papain that helps digest proteins and reduce gas. To benefit from papain, you could eat the papaya fruit or drink a tea made with papaya leaves. Papaya enzymes are also available as supplements.