Depression is a medical condition that leads to unrelenting sadness or interest deprivation. It is also referred to as mood disorder, depressive disorder to clinical depression. The disease affects the feeling, thinking pattern or behavioural pattern of the patient leading a several emotional or physical issues.
A lot of people relate depression with weakness and do not pay heed to the treatment of the disease, which results in several complications. Often, depression requires long-term treatment. Most depression patients can lead a healthy lifestyle with the help of proper medication or psychotherapy, and in some case the blend of both.
Types of Depression:
There are several types of depression. Some of the many types of depression are:
- Anxious Distress (Restlessness)
- Mixed Features (Concurrent depression and mania)
- Melancholic Features (Depression involving feelings of agitation or guilt)
- Atypical Features (Depression accompanied by hunger, or sleep disorder)
- Psychotic Features (Depression accompanied by hallucinations or delusions)
- Catatonia (Depression with persistent or uncontrollable movement)
- Peripartum/Postpartum Onset (Depression during or after pregnancy)
- Seasonal Pattern (Depression during change of seasons)
While these are the common types and variations, depression is not limited to these and it may occur in manifold ways and at manifold times in one’s life. It is imperative to stay vigilant, not only for the patient but for those who are around them, since unlike other diseases, often depression cannot be noticed by the person who is experiencing it, and those around them have to initiate inquiry.
Disorders that Lead to Depression:
In addition to the different types of depression disorders, some other disorders may also lead to depression. Some of these disorders are:
- Bipolar I and II Disorders (Extreme high or low mood)
- Cyclothymic Disorder
- Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (frequent extreme temper outbursts)
- Persistent Depressive Disorder
- Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
- Other Depression Disorders
While it is common to have disorders or other reasons that lead to depression, it is important to remember that sometimes the reasons or situations may not be clear. Processing emotions become incredibly difficult when one is depressed, which only makes it worse.
It is insensitive and downright uninformed to seek clear reasons and outlines from a depressed person as to why they feel the way they feel, as is to ask them to go out more or just focus on other things.
It is only when the basic activities like sports, music, hobbies, etc stop entertaining a person that they get depressed, so asking them to do those things reflects immaturity and lack of any knowledge about the subject.
Symptoms of Depression:
Often signs and symptoms of depression often go unnoticed. Some people ignore depression symptoms like weakness or temporary mood swings. But it is important to understand the symptoms of depression and get adequate treatment for the same.
Typically, symptoms of depression include:
- Extreme emotions of hopelessness or sadness
- Extreme angst, irritation or frustration
- Loss of interest/pleasure
- Sleep disorder (too much sleep or insomnia)
- Appetite loss
- Weight gain
- Restlessness or anxiety
- Slow reflexes
- Emotions of guilt
- Problems in concentrating, thinking, or remembering things
- Suicidal tendencies
- Back pains
Depression Symptoms in Children
Symptoms of depression in children are almost same as that of adults. However, there are some differences. In children of younger age, depression symptoms may involve body aches and pains and/or emotions of sadness, clinginess or irritability. In some cases, depression may cause loss of weight in younger children.
In teenagers, depression symptoms may include emotions of sadness, agitation, negativity or worthlessness. Teenagers suffering from depression are extremely sensitive and avoid social interactions. In some cases, such teenagers may also start using recreational drugs or alcohols. In some extreme cases, teenagers suffering from depression also form suicidal tendencies.
Depression Symptoms in Adults
Depression takes several years to be treated completely. In adults, the symptoms of depression may include:
- Memory loss
- Personality changes
- Body aches or pains
- Appetite loss
- Sleep disorder
- Loss of interest
- Loss of interest in socializing
- Suicidal tendencies
- Exhaustion, severe tiredness
- Suicidal thoughts
- Changes in appetite
- Sleep disturbances
- Panic attacks
- Headaches, aches and pains, bloating, digestive issues, cramps, breast tenderness, etc.
- Inability to concentrate
- Loss of interest
there can be many other symptoms of depression, and a person of any age group may experience the disease without even exhibiting all or any of these symptoms. To identify depression and its occurrence, sensitization and awareness are key.
What Causes Depression?
Medical fraternity has not yet been able to find out the exact cause of depression.
However, some of the most common factors of depression may involve:
- Neurological Disorders
- Brain Chemistry
- Hormonal Disorders
- Family History
- Social Causes
- Biological Causes
- Psychological causes
Depression Risk factors:
Often depression is found in the age group of 20 to 30 years. However, this disease can strike anyone at any age.
Listed below are just some of the many risk factors associated with depression, due to which a person may be susceptible to the disease:
- Personality traits (low self-esteem, self-critical or pessimism)
- Traumatic events (physical abuse, sexual abuse, death of loved one, difficult relationship, or financial problems)
- Family history (blood relatives with depression, bipolar disorder, alcoholism or suicidal tendencies)
- Mental health disorder history (anxiety disorder, eating disorders or post-traumatic stress disorder)
- Alcohol abuse
- Recreational drug abuse
- Chronic illness (Cancer, stroke, chronic pain or heart disease)
- Side effects of some medicines (some high blood pressure medicines, or sleeping pills)
Depression is a serious medical condition that may lead to several complications if untreated. Some of the most common complications of untreated depression include:
- Body ache or pain
- Tendency to consume alcohol
- Tendency to drug misuse
- Extreme anxiety
- Panic disorders
- Social phobia
- Personality disorders
- Social isolation
- Suicidal tendencies
- Premature death
Other than these as well, there are several complications that may be case specific. as the complications of the disease are physiological and psychological at the same time, it is very important to handle a case effectively and be extremely careful with a patient of depression.
Prevention from Depression:
There are no scientifically proven ways to prevent depression. However, there are few things that may help prevent depression:
- Controlling stress
- Taking help from family and friends
- Starting treatment early
- Ensuring long-term treatment and help
Diagnosis of Depression:
In order to diagnose depression, following tests may be conducted:
- Physical Examination
- Lab Tests
- Psychiatric Evaluation
Treatment of Depression:
Often psychotherapy and medications remain the preferred ways to treat patients suffering from depression. Treatment of depression involves several drugs and medicines in addition to psychiatric or psychological evaluation.
Those suffering from severe depression may also need to stay in hospital for treatment till their symptoms subside.
Patients suffering from depression may be prescribed several types of antidepressants. Be advised to consume antidepressants only after consulting a certified medical professional. Some of the most common antidepressants prescribed to depression patients include:
- Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) – [fluoxetine (Prozac), paroxetine (Paxil, Pexeva), citalopram (Celexa), escitalopram (Lexapro), vilazodone (Viibryd) and sertraline (Zoloft)]
- Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs) – [levomilnacipran (Fetzima), venlafaxine (Effexor XR), desvenlafaxine (Pristiq, Khedezla) and duloxetine (Cymbalta)]
- Atypical Antidepressants – [mirtazapine (Remeron), vortioxetine (Trintellix), nefazodone, trazodone and bupropion (Wellbutrin XL, Wellbutrin SR, Aplenzin, Forfivo XL)]
- Tricyclic Antidepressants – [amitriptyline, doxepin, trimipramine (Surmontil), desipramine (Norpramin), imipramine (Tofranil), nortriptyline (Pamelor) and protriptyline (Vivactil)]
Note: Tricyclic Antidepressant drugs have severe side effects.
- Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs) – [phenelzine (Nardil), tranylcypromine (Parnate) and isocarboxazid (Marplan)]
Doctors may add other medications along with antidepressants to fasten the effects of the drugs.
For some patients, the regular dosage of antidepressants may not be very effective, and doctors may not prescribe them straight away due to the associated complications and risks of extreme side effects.
Often the following alternative therapies are used to treat depression. they are not always successful and sometimes can be pointless in specific cases; but patients have been seen to benefit from them otherwise, especially when used alongside prescription medications.
- Herbal remedies
- Guided imagery and relaxation
Risk of Stopping/Missing Out Antidepressants Dose
It is recommended not to stop consuming antidepressants without confirming with your doctor. Antidepressants usually are not of addictive nature but may lead to some physical dependencies. Abruptly stopping antidepressants or missing out a dose may lead to withdrawal symptoms. It is important to consult doctor and gradually decrease the dose.
Consumption of Antidepressants in Pregnancy
Antidepressant consumption is not advised to pregnant women as it may pose a risk to the unborn child. Likewise, breast-feeding women are also not advised to take antidepressants as it may adversely affect the newly born. It is important to consult a doctor before starting antidepressants in the state of pregnancy.
Mostly antidepressants are safe to consume. However, consume of some antidepressants may increase suicidal tendency in kids, young adults and even senior citizens. The suicidal tendency starts showing in the very first week of consumption of antidepressants.
It is imperative to keep an eye on the patients who are on antidepressant dosage for unusual behaviour pattern. In case the patient experiences suicidal tendencies when consuming antidepressants, it makes sense to consult a certified medical professional immediately.
Common Myths About Depression:
Myth #1: Depression is not real disease
Reality: A lot of people believe that depression is not a serious medical condition, but just some random personality trait or weakness. This is wrong. Depression is a serious medical condition that can affect anyone. It is one medical condition that may lead to several life-threatening complications right from physical disabilities to neurological disorders and even suicidal tendencies.
Myth #2: Depression is just an extreme form of sadness or grief.
Reality: This is yet another popular myth about depression. However, the fact is that depression is different from ordinary sadness or grief. Ordinary sadness or grief subsides with time; whereas in depression, sadness or grief doesn’t really subside. Successful treatment of depression takes months, in some cases years.
Myth #3: Depression patients are required to take medications lifelong
Reality: Depression requires longer treatment, but it doesn’t require lifelong treatment. Doctors decide the tenure of the treatment of depression. And once the treatment culminates, the patient doesn’t need to get the treatment again. The exact time period of depression treatment depends upon the severity of the disorder of the patient and widely varies from person to person. In fact, latest research and studies reveal that patients can successfully complete the treatment of depression with a combination of psychotherapy and medications in as little as 24 weeks.
Myth #4: Those with family history of depression are sure to have it
Reality: While it is true that depression can be passed on from parents to their children, it is not likely that everyone with family history of depression will have it. Genetic predisposition of depression is rare.
Myth #5: Depression patients need treatment lifelong.
Reality: This is entirely untrue. Depression patients are required to take medications for as long as their treatment continues. In addition, the duration of consuming medication for depression depends upon the time period prescribed by a certified medical professional after a careful analysis of symptoms, intensity and severity of the disease. Once a patient has substantially improved and integrated into a healthy lifestyle, there is no need to continue treatment. However, it is only a doctor who should decide when a patient is ready to go off of therapy.
Myth #6: Antidepressants always cure depression
Reality: Antidepressants have huge side effects and terrible withdrawal symptoms, which is why doctors only prescribe them after careful consideration in case results are not noticeable otherwise. Antidepressants sometimes fail to work on individuals with specific cases. Antidepressants work by altering the brain chemistry of the patient and thereby helping improve the situation. But when the cause of the patient’s depression does not coincide with the effect of the antidepressants at all, results may be few. In such cases, doctors prescribe other forms of treatment which may be beneficial on their own, or alongside medications and antidepressants.
Myth #7: Depressions only happens because of a sad situation in someone’s life.
Reality: This is sometimes the case indeed, but often times is false since a sad situation is not always even present in the patient’s timeline of disease. sometimes a tragic situation is a trigger which brings out the underlying disease to the surface after denial or pretending, or sometimes by worsening it. Medical experts have been trying to identify causes of depression for a long time but this task is not easy. some identified causes are brain chemistry, hormones, social factors, but very often the precise cause of a patient’s depression is not possible to be pointed out.
Myth #8: Talking about depression makes it worse.
Reality: nothing could be far from true on the list of myths associated with depression. very often, depression is a consequent or bottling up emotions and not expressing oneself. This tendency, over a prolonged period of time, may cause depression, and may be caused due to feelings of hopelessness, feeling unimportant or invalid, etc. Then, not talking about it is a solid cause for depression to worsen. Talking about one’s feelings, questions, and expressing opinions requires a lot of work when one is suffering from depression, as the various causes of these must be targeted and solved first. But once a patient is able to express themselves, their condition is seen to improve in most cases.
Myth #9: Depression is a result of lack of willpower.
Reality: This is terribly misinformed statement, since depression is not the result of lack of willpower, it is instead the cause for it. People of high stature who have made great contributions to the development and changes in the world have been patients of depression, and it would be stupid to say that these people lacked willpower and commitment. A lazy attitude, low self esteem, lack of self conviction are not direct causes of depression, rather they create lifestyle problems which together, with other factors, contribute to depression or its worsening.
Myth #10: Depression is a woman’s disease. Real men do not get depressed.
Reality: Few things could be as sexist as labeling a disease that affects the mind and body as a disease of women on the pretext that men are strong, physically and emotionally, and do not malfunction in any way. Depression affects men and women alike and both genders experience the disease the same way. Through history, this sexist assumption has lead to misdiagnosis and mistreatment of patients of depression. Women have often been diagnosis with depression due to forced domestication but that is only part of the issue, and there are endless reasons one may be suffering from depression.
Myth #11: Antidepressants alter one’s personality.
Reality: a common misconception is that those taking antidepressants are unable to experience emotions in an attempt to not feel the sadness that comes associated with a disease. Some patients do experience a ‘flatness’ where they do not experience much feelings, but this is not the desired effect of antidepressants. If one experiences this, it should be reported to the doctor immediately because it is highly likely that the dose of antidepressants prescribed to the patient is higher than what is needed. A change in the dosage will ensure this does not happen and the unnecessary changes in one’s personality are reverted. One must always remember that the point of antidepressants is to provide better adjustment and not change one’s personality.
Myth #12: Depression is a sign of mental weakness.
Reality: This myth is shaped by the stigma that is associated with depression. Depression is observed in patients who are extremely intelligent, have performed high-pressure jobs very well, perform great under stress and duress, have high mental capacity as exhibited by past actions. This shows that mentally strong people are just as likely to be depressed as anyone else. Research has also shown that people who are smarter often experience more stress and pressure to perform well, have positions of responsibility assigned to them, along with a stronger ability to feel what they are going through. This together can make them more susceptible to depression.
Myth #13: Teenagers also develop depression have to live with its consequence forever.
Reality: Lifelong depression is a reality, however gruesome; but is mostly not the case. Teenagers are prone to many negative feelings due to a lot of reasons, internal and external. In such a situation where the pressure is high on them, they may experience depression. But this does not mean that this disease will plague them for the rest of their life. As they grow older and get better accommodate to their environment and adjust better, they are certainly going to be well-coped adults and be healthy.
Myth #14: All LGBTQ persons are depressed, being gay means being depressed.
Reality: Being gay, trans, bi, or queer means being a unique and colourful individual, and does not mean being gay at all. However, studies have indicated that people of the LGBTQ community are often plagued with the deadly disease of depression. This is not because of a link between the two- depression is a disease caused due to several reasons, free of gender identities. This, instead, is because how the society has failed its LGBTQ community and mistreated them, denying them the respect and freedom that they deserve. When any individual is mistreated like so, denied the freedom to express themselves, and forced to fit into monochromatic heteronormative roles, they are going to go through an emotional turmoil. This is the cause for the multifold mental health issues that the LGBTQ persons have to go through. But it is clear that depression is not a disease which selectively attacks a specific group, community, or gender.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about Depression:
1) Who is at risk of developing depression?
Ans: Here is a list of those who are at a greater risk of developing depression:
- Those with family history of depression
- Those who have experienced traumatic or abusive experiences in childhood
- Those with history of suicide/suicide attempt in the family
- Those experiencing stress or tensions
- Those who are often socially isolated
- Pregnant women experiencing postpartum
- Those with serious illness
- Those who consume alcohol
- Those who partake in drug abuse
- Patients taking certain prescribed medications
2) Why is depression more common in women than men?
Ans: It is believed that depression is twice more common in women as compared to men. There are many potential reasons and causes why more women experience depression than men. Unique hormonal and psychosocial factors contribute to depression in women, alongside the heaving weight of social oppression, and gender roles and expectations.
3) What is Postpartum Depression (PPD)?
Ans: After pregnancy, women become particularly vulnerable to depression. This is because of physical and hormonal changes and the overwhelming responsibility of the newborn. A large number of new mothers experience ‘baby blues’, a brief period of mild mood changes. Postpartum Depression is serious medical condition that not only requires apt medical attention and treatment but also requires emotional support for new mothers.
4) What is treatment resistant Depression?
Ans: Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is medical condition of major depressive disorder. This type of dispersion disorder doesn’t respond to standard treatment. This type of depression may range from mild to acute and may require a number of treatment methods.
5) Are there any exercises that can help in treatment of depression?
Ans: Aerobics is known to offer relief from mild depression. This is because it stimulates the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, which is related to mood. In addition, it also increases the endorphin level.
6) What is Brain Stimulation Therapy?
Ans: Brain Stimulation therapy is a therapy used to treat depression. In this therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation repeatedly sends magnetic pulses to the brain. This therapy has been found to be effective in the treatment of some major depressive disorder.
7) What is Electroconvulsive therapy?
Ans: Electroconvulsive therapy is mostly used as treatment to cure acute depression and treatment resistant depression cases. This therapy is particularly helpful in treating psychotic depression.
8) Is there any remedy for prevention of depression?
Ans: Though there are no ways to prevent depression, it is easy to control the signs and symptoms of depression. One can easily make changes to their lifestyle and control their depression from getting complicated.
Here are just some of the many things that one may do:
- Setting a routine lifestyle
- Setting up personal and professional goals
- Regular exercise and healthy diet
- Taking sleep
- Regular screening
9) What are some of the best anti-depression supplements?
Ans: Some of the best anti-depression supplements are:
- Fish oil
- B-Complex vitamin
- Amino acid 5-hydroxytryptophan
- GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
- Vitamin D
Though these supplements are readily available in the market, it is important to consult a certified medical professional before taking these.
10) What is manic depression?
Ans: Bipolar disorder is also called manic depression. It is a serious medical condition. It is major mood disorder, where the patient experiences abnormal moods of highs (mania) and lows (depression). The state of high and low mood is referred to as manic and hypomanic disorder. Bipolar disorder or manic depression is a chronic recurring medical condition.
Paranoia is a state characterized by a chronic sense of anxiety and mistrust. Some forms of paranoia affect only one particular aspect of a person’s life, whereas, other might be generalized and may interfere with decision-making and relationships. It is due to deep-rooted insecurity, or feelings of doubt about the partner’s commitment and faithfulness in the relationship.
Individuals with paranoia are generally found to be mistrusting others, feel on the verge of harm, very much reluctant to confide in others, bearing grudges, or even find demeaning or threatening subtext in even the most innocent comments or events. They are socially isolated, have difficulty in forgiving, argumentative and possess a defensive attitude in response to imagined criticism.
Even though Paranoia in a relationship is very common and can happen to anyone, it doesn’t mean that one should put up with it. It is essential to understand the reasons for its manifestation because a relationship cannot withstand the negativity that comes with these feelings and will often come to an end, causing much pain to the individuals involved.
One of the major reasons for being paranoid is the inability to let go off a past relationship. Thus, having a bad experience, such as being deceived or taken advantage of, could lead to the paranoid thought of history repeating itself. It causes the individual to be alert at all times and unable to relax, as certain similar incidents may trigger again reminding of the past event and its consequences, especially when you are thinking about them. It is also important to note that at times anxiety and paranoia get suppressed when you have gone through a breakup, but they can rear back in the head when you have patched up or started afresh.
At times past experiences shape us in a way that we believe the world is a bad place and therefore good things don’t last. It is a type of a self-fulfilling prophecy where you feel everything is going good, but at the same time, you are on the alert of negative things that are bound to happen. This perception can itself arouse suspicion with the partner’s whereabouts, mistrust and even jealousy by comparing yourself with your spouse’s friends.
We are aware that depression and anxiety have a toll on our minds as well as emotional functioning, such that it affects our reasoning and judgments on what is real and what is perceived. At this time, we are more likely to rush up with paranoid thoughts and feelings, where our imagination runs wild and creates creative, vivid imaginations, which cause the envisioned scenarios to feel real. Often such thoughts are related to events and relationship in a person’s life, thereby increasing isolation and difficulty with getting help.
Having a history of schizophrenia, delusional disorder, early childhood trauma, also result in paranoid thoughts and feelings such that the individual behaves in a hostile or stubborn manner, excessively uses sarcasm, elicits hostile responses from others. These reactions tend to confirm their manifested suspicions and result in the same consequences to which they were afraid would occur.
Various other reasons such as looking for perfection, fear of loss, assuming what the other is thinking or seeking of constant reassurance of their well being, being possessive about the partner, easily jealous, being overprotective, or even having repressed, denied and projected feelings also result in paranoid thoughts and feelings, that can have a drastic impact on the relationship.
When a person is unable to deal with such negative and paranoid thoughts then there is a need to approach professional psychologist or counsellor. A psychologist will help a person to understand the reason behind it and also how to overcome such thoughts. In extreme cases, a person may require medication and for that person need to go to a psychiatrist too.
What is Hormonal Disorder?
Hormone diseases also occur if your body does not respond to hormones the way it is supposed to. You may have a hormone disorder when your hormone levels are too high or too low.
Symptoms of Hormonal Disorders-
Causes of Hormonal Disorders-
Risk factors of Hormonal Disorders-
Complications of Hormonal Disorders-
Diagnosis of Hormonal Disorders-
Diagnosis of hormonal disorders is done through the observation of the noticeable signs and symptoms, or through blood and tissue testing.
Precautions & Prevention of Hormonal Disorders-
Treatment of Hormonal Disorders
Homeopathic Treatment of Hormonal Disorders-
Homeopathy is safe, natural and effective treatment of hormonal disorders. Homeopathic medicines are very effective in treating hormonal imbalances like hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, cushing syndrome, prolactinemia etc. It relieves complaints and helps to correct the constitution of a person. Following are some homeopathic medicines for treatment of hormonal disorders.
Acupuncture and Acupressure Treatment of Hormonal Disorders-
Acupuncture therapy is effective in correcting many hormonal disorders which can lead to obesity, reduced fertility or infertility, breast tenderness, acne, digestive disturbances and problems of sexual function.
Psychotherapy and Hypnotherapy Treatment of Hormonal Disorders-
Psychotherapy and hypnotherapy treatment of hormonal disorders include sessions that teach individuals how to manage their time, stress, and anger.
Conventional / Allopathic Treatment of Hormonal Disorders-
Conventional or allopathic medicine aims to reduce the hormonal disorders symptoms. Allopathic medicines depend upon the type of hormonal imbalance.
Surgical Treatment of Hormonal Disorders-
There are different types of surgeries for different types of hormonal disorders. Each surgery depends upon the type of hormonal disorder. After surgery hormone levels return to normal.
Dietary & Herbal Treatment of Hormonal Disorders-
Other Treatment of Hormonal Disorders-
Psychiatric disorders like bipolar disorder or schizophrenia do not appear all of a sudden. There are small changes that happen to an individual over a long period of time until the disease fully develops. These signs and symptoms might be too subtle in the early stage for other people to notice until they become obvious. But an early detection of any irregularity proves to be more beneficial for the patient in the long run.
It is important to know the telltale symptoms of mental disorder to distinguish between what is regular and what is not.
Everyone needs some quiet time to cool off and relax but if a person continuously withdraws him/herself from social occasions and avoids meeting or speaking to friends, it could be a sign that something is wrong. Losing interest in life, work and people are symptoms of depression and psychotic disorder.
2. Thinking problems
Having trouble concentrating, remembering, understanding and explaining oneself in a coherent manner are some common signs of mental disorder.
Excessive stress and anxious behavior for a prolonged period are not normal. Frequent heart palpitations, headache, shortness of breath, racing mind and restlessness are cries of help that need to be heard.
4. Emotional outbursts
Sudden dramatic outbursts for no apparent reason, frequent mood swings and feeling distressed are potent signs of mental illnesses. These kinds of behavior are seen as part of a person's nature and so they are often unnoticed.
5. Changes in appetite and sleeping patterns
Oversleeping may be a sign of depression and insomnia could be a sign of anxiety. Changes in appetite and not caring about oneself or the world are indicators of a mental problem.
Having higher-than-normal androgen levels can affect your fertility and other aspects of your health.
To get pregnant, you have to ovulate. Women who don’t ovulate regularly don’t release as many eggs to be fertilized. PCOS is one of the leading causes of infertility in women.
2. Metabolic syndrome
Up to 80 percent of women with PCOS are overweight or obese. Both obesity and PCOS increase your risk for high blood sugar, high blood pressure, low HDL (“good”) cholesterol, and high LDL(“bad”) cholesterol. Together, these factors are called metabolic syndrome, and they increase the risk of heart disease, diabetes, and stroke.
3. Sleep apnea
This condition causes repeated pauses in breathing during the night, which interrupt sleep. Sleep apnea is more common in women who are overweight — especially if they also have PCOS. The risk for sleep apnea is 5 to 10 times higher in obese women with PCOS than in those without PCOS.
During ovulation, the uterine lining sheds. If you don’t ovulate every month, the lining can build up. A thickened uterine lining can increase your risk for endometrial cancer.
What is General Anxiety Disorder?
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common anxiety disorder that involves chronic worrying, nervousness, and tension. It’s possible to develop generalized anxiety disorder as a child or as an adult.
Symptoms of General Anxiety Disorder-
Causes of General Anxiety Disorder-
Risk factors of General Anxiety Disorder-
Complications of General Anxiety Disorder-
Diagnosis of General Anxiety Disorder-
Diagnosis of general anxiety disorder consists of detailed questions about your symptoms and medical history. Your doctor may also do a physical examination to look for signs that your anxiety might be linked to an underlying medical condition. In some cases, mental health providers use psychological questionnaires to help identify what’s going on.
Precautions & Prevention of General Anxiety Disorder-
Treatment of General Anxiety Disorder-
Homeopathic Treatment of General Anxiety Disorder=
Homeopathy is excellent safe natural and effective treatment of anxiety. Homeopathic remedies are helpful in both physical and psychological complaints of anxiety. It reduces the feeling of nervousness, restlessness, weakness, trembling, and mental dullness. There are several homeopathic remedies for anxiety disorder.
Acupuncture & Acupressure Treatment of General Anxiety Disorder-
Acupuncture uses sterile, disposable, single-use, and hair thin needles which are inserted into points on the body that have scientifically and empirically validated therapeutic effects on the brain, nervous system, blood circulation, internal organs, and hormones. The acupuncture session would target those areas and balance Qi, thereby resulting in stress relief.
Psychotherapy and Hypnotherapy Treatment of General Anxiety Disorder-
Two common forms of psychotherapy utilized for treatment of anxiety disorders are behavioral and cognitive therapy. The therapist will help the patient to combat undesirable behaviors which often come hand in hand with anxiety. in cognitive therapy, the therapist helps the patient to adapt his or her problematic thought patterns into those which are healthier. Hypnotherapy has excellent record in curing anxiety. It calms mind and works on deep subconscious mind to effectively cure anxieties.
Conventional / Allopathic Treatment of General Anxiety Disorder-
Different types of medications that are used to treat generalized anxiety disorder are Antidepressants such as Paroxetine (Paxil), sertraline (Zoloft) and venlafaxine (Effexor). These medications influence the activity of brain chemicals (neurotransmitters) thought to play a role in anxiety disorders.
Celebrities all around the world have a huge fan base on their social media accounts such as Instagram, Facebook, YouTube and Twitter. But recently, it has been reported that numerous celebrities are quitting social media and taking a break from it to focus on their mental health.
Such celebrities include Selena Gomez, Justin Bieber, Kim Kardashian and many other world-famous icons. Ariana Grande and Ed Sheeran are also on this list alongside one of the biggest YouTube icon Lily Singh aka Superwoman.
But why is it so?
Different people have their own opinions. But most of them are of the belief that such world-class celebrities are quitting social media because they want to bring a balance to their mental health. The world of the internet and social media can at times become very suffocating, pressurizing and overwhelming as well. So, to stay away from such negative attributes, these celebrities are avoiding social media platforms. Let us find out how this trend of quitting social media is related to mental health.
How social media can have a negative impact on mental health?
Social media undoubtedly has brought the world closer and now people can connect with each other very easily without any hassles. But, we cannot miss out on the negative impact it has on the people also. Here are some very negative ways by which people including the celebrities can be a victim of it.
Cyberbullying - Cyberbullying is one of the most dangerous sides of social media. Teenage boys and especially girls can be a victim of cyberbullying. As a result of such bullying an individual can be affected with depression, anxiety and even develop suicidal tendencies.
Negative Memories - Social media can be a great platform to cherish memories with your close ones. But the same platform can also be used to trigger memories which are disturbing, embarrassing or depressing to remember. Many people, thus tend to get depressed or suffer from anxiety when they see such memories.
Hamper Reputation - Social media can be used to hamper the reputation and good name of a person very easily. A viral photo or video of any individual or individuals can be used to damage the reputation one has built. Many a time fake news, pictures and other media can be used to target a person and bring their name down. It is very much common nowadays and even with celebrities as well.
So, as you can see that social media can seriously affect the mental health of a person whether he or she is a common individual or a celebrity. Social media can bring anxiety, depression, embarrassing situations and many other negative aspects to a person's life.
As a result, they tend to suffer from a disturbed mental health which can also take a toll on their physical fitness or health. So, if you are facing such a situation or want to avoid any of these to affect your life, it is better that you stay away from social media for the time being and focus on a positive development of yourself.
The medical model is a particular way of viewing human suffering, decay, dysfunction and, ultimately, death. It is a paradigm, a lens through which physicians and others perceive certain abnormal or aberrant phenomena like leukemia, diabetes, and now, depression and many other mental disorders. But despite the immense contribution of the medical model in diagnosing and treating disease, its literal application to archetypal human experiences such as depression, psychosis, and anxiety is problematical.
There is no denying that those who suffer from severe depression are ill.
In today’s times, depression has spread within the society like an epidemic. People with depression wake up feeling low, spend their day drowning in anxiety and end the day without any hopes for the future. Although the symptoms may be different, children are not safe from the clutches of depression either. It is more difficult for them to express their anxiety and helplessness due to their lack of understanding of the concept of depression.
Five percent of the children suffer from depression worldwide. If not taken care of, the depression can spiral out of control and potentially ruin the prospects of the child as adults. If you start noticing your child slowly retreating into their own world or unable to control their emotions, you must evaluate if your child is suffering from depression and take steps to help them.
Signs of depression in children:
The role of parents in helping a child overcome depression is of primary importance. While occasional bouts of feeling low and cranky is a part of growing up, extended periods of certain signs are cause for concern. They include:
• Being aggressive, sad or unhappy most of the time
• Saying negative things about themselves
• Lack of energy and interest in games
• Anxiety, irritability, and fear of social situations
• Disrupted dietary patterns
• Self-harming tendencies
Coping with depression
• It is important to notice unnatural behaviour in children and talking to them about it in a patient, non-judgemental and understanding manner. If the child is unwilling to talk, respect their space and broach the subject later.
• Depression doesn’t indicate the parents are failing in their roles. The cause of depression can be anything from genetic vulnerability to physical health and the immediate environment. The best course of action is addressing the cause and helping the child overcome depression.
• Often it is best to seek the professional help of a therapist or counsellor the child trusts. Forms of therapy including Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and Interpersonal Psychotherapy can help the child through play therapy, family therapy, and peer therapy.
• Giving the child a conducive atmosphere at home and in school is crucial. You might want to explore the possibilities of bullies or other factors in school, especially if your child is making excuses to not attend school and has deteriorating grades.
• Invest more time in their daily activities and engage them in activities of their choice to relieve their stress and channel their anxiety better.
The average age of appearance of depression in a child is progressively falling lower. In the face of such times, the child needs the parents more than ever to feel safe. It is easy for parents to deny depression in their children as the other alternative is heart-breaking. However, early diagnosis and intervention help the child to combat depression more effectively. A combination of medication, therapy, and support of the family is the best way of helping a child deal with depression and become a happier and successful adult.
What Is Adjustment Disorder?
Adjustment disorders are considered to be a group of conditions which usually occur when a person experiences difficulty in coping with the stressful life events. These usually include relationship issues, job issues or the demise of a loved one. The incapacity to adjust to stressful events leads to psychological and sometimes physical symptoms.
Symptoms of Adjustment Disorder
The psychological and physical symptoms linked with adjustment disorder occur either during or instantly after a stressful event. The disorder only lasts for 6 months but the symptoms might continue if the stressor has not been removed. The symptoms might vary from person to person.
The psychological symptoms are anxiety, crying, impulsive, lack of concentration, low or loss of self esteem, feeling hopeless, sad or trapped, and withdrawn attitude along with suicidal tendencies.
Adjustment disorder might display psychological and physical symptoms separately or together.
Types of Adjustment Disorder
There are 6 adjustment disorders and each one of them is associated with different symptoms:
1) Adjustment disorder with depressed mood: People diagnosed with this suffer from feelings of hopelessness and sadness and are often related with crying. Also, a person might not enjoy the activities which he earlier enjoyed.
2) Adjustment disorder with anxiety: Symptoms of this are anxiety along with being anxious, overwhelmed, and worried. People with this show less concentration and poor memory. When diagnosed in children, it is usually due to the separation anxiety from loved ones and parents.
3) Adjustment disorder with mixed anxiety and depressed mood: In this type of anxiety , one can experience both both anxiety and depression.
4) Adjustment disorder with disturbance of conduct: The symptoms of this disorder are more of the involvement of the behavioral issues like starting a quarrel, reckless driving, destructing property and stealing. Teens suffering from this might become absent from school.
5) Adjustment disorder with mixed disturbance of emotions and conduct: The symptoms of anxiety, depression, and behavioral issues are observed.
6) Adjustment disorder unspecified: The people who are diagnosed with this type of disorder usually display symptoms those are not associated with other disorders. They exhibit more of physical symptoms and problems with family and friends or at school and workplace.
Treatment of Adjustment Disorder:
If diagnosed with an adjustment disorder, a person can definitely benefit from treatment. This is usually treated with therapy or medicines or a combination of both.
- Medication like nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytic, SSRI or SNRI and benzodiazepines might be prescribed for reducing the symptoms of anxiety.