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Anesthesia Tips

Earlobe Repair

Dr. Punit Dubey 91% (117 ratings)
MDS - Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon, Ghaziabad
Earlobe Repair

Ear lobes can become stretched or torn over a period from earrings or from trauma such as catching an earring with a hairbrush, wearing clothes, towels, etc.

Earlobe can be repaired easily and is performed in the clinic with a simple 15 minute procedure under local anesthesia.

 

1 person found this helpful

Adverse Respiratory Events - How They Can Be Controlled?

MBBS, MS - General Surgery, MCh - Cardio Thoracic Surgery
General Surgeon, Lucknow
Adverse Respiratory Events - How They Can Be Controlled?

Adverse respiratory events (AREs) are leading causes of post-operative morbidity and mortality. Anesthesia is the use of medicine to prevent or reduce the feeling of pain or sensation during surgery or other painful procedures (such as getting stitches). Giving as an injection or through inhaled gases or vapours, different types of anesthesia affect the nervous system in various ways by blocking nerve impulses and, therefore, pain.

Anesthesia can help control your breathing, blood pressure, blood flow, and heart rate. It may be used to:

  1. Relax you
  2. Block pain
  3. Make you sleepy or forgetful
  4. Make you unconscious for your surgery

Adverse Respiratory Events (ARE)
Adverse outcomes of such events are fatal and lead to death & brain damage. Three mechanisms of injury are reported to account for highest adverse respiratory events:

  1. Inadequate Ventilation: Insufficient Gas Exchange can produce the adverse outcome.
  2. Esophageal Intubation: Incubation between the two sides of the esophagus inadvertently.
  3. Difficult tracheal intubationTracheal Intubation is the placement of a flexible plastic tube into the trachea (windpipe) to maintain an open airway. It is performed facilitate ventilation of lungs in severely ill, anesthetized patients.

Other’s are as listed below:

  • Airway Obstruction
  • Inadequate inspired oxygen delivery
  • Aspiration
  • Endobronchial Intubation
  • Premature Extubation

Residual neuromuscular blockade is an important postoperative complication associated to the use of neuromuscular blocking drugs and is commonly observed in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) after non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are administered intra-operatively. Incomplete neuromuscular recovery can be minimized with acceleromyography monitoring. The risk of adverse respiratory events during early recovery from anesthesia can be reduced by intra-operative acceleromyography use.

Reintubation is a serious adverse respiratory event and the consequences include increased cardiac and respiratory complications, prolonged length of stay at the PACU, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital, prolonged mechanical ventilator support, higher costs, and increased mortality. Overweight and obesity have also been identified as risk factors for postoperative respiratory complications. Most adverse respiratory events are considered preventable with improved monitoring such as:

  • Pulse Oximetry
  • Capnometry
  • Combination of Both

Closed observation of the clinical factors and appropriate monitoring by well trained people are factors necessary to prevent adverse outcome.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2818 people found this helpful

What To Expect From Dilation & Curettage Process?

Dr. Hardik K Shah 91% (116 ratings)
MBBS, MS - Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Ahmedabad
What To Expect From Dilation & Curettage Process?

Dilation and curettage procedure which is commonly referred to as D&C is a minor surgical procedure where the cervix is dilated while a special instrument is used for scraping out the lining of the uterus. It is important to know what you can expect before, after and during the process so that you can stay ahead of unnecessary worries and help the process to be smooth and fruitful.

When do doctors recommend dilation and curettage process?
You may be required to undergo the dilation and curettage procedure for one of many reasons. It can be used for removal of tissues in the uterus during or after an abortion or miscarriage or to remove little pieces of placenta after delivery. This process aids in preventing infection as well as heavy bleeding. On the other hand, it can help in diagnosing and treating abnormal uterine bleeding including polyps, fibroids, hormonal imbalances and even uterine cancer. A sample of the tissues in the uterus is tested under a microscope to check if there is any abnormal cell present.

What can you expect during the dilation and curettage process?
The D&C procedure is a minor one and takes about 15 minutes even though you will have to spend about 4 to 5 hours in the healthcare facility. Before the procedure, your doctor would check complete history, and at this point, you should tell your doctor if you suspect that you are pregnant, you are sensitive to latex or any medicines or if you have a history of bleeding disorders. You will then be given anesthesia so that you don’t feel any pain or discomfort during the procedure. Before this procedure, you will have to empty your bladder.

The D&C procedure comprises two main steps, dilation, and curettage.
Dilation involves opening of the lower part of the uterus or the cervix for allowing insertion of a slender rod. This is done to soften the cervix so that it opens and allows curettage to be performed. Curettage involves scraping of the lining and removal of the uterine contents with the help of a spoon-like instrument known as a curette. This may cause some amount of cramping, and a tissue sample would be taken out for examination in the laboratory.

After the completion of the procedure, you may experience slight bleeding and cramping. In some rare cases, adhesions or scar tissues may start forming inside the uterus, and this condition is termed as Asherman’s syndrome which can cause changes in the menstrual cycle along with infertility. This problem, if arises, can be solved with the help of surgery and therefore, you should report any abnormality in your menstrual cycle to your doctor. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4481 people found this helpful

Know The Procedure Of Epidurals!

Dr. Gautam Das 92% (2257 ratings)
MD, FIPP
Pain Management Specialist, Kolkata
Know The Procedure Of Epidurals!

Are you worried about the labour pain? It is perhaps the most difficult phase of a woman's life. But today, there is no reason to worry for. Thanks to epidurals, you can give birth to your baby without experiencing the pain involved.

Epidural is the new age anaesthesia. It is used to block pain in a specific region of the body. A patient is not made unconscious fully at the time of any surgery. He or she is given epidural for regional anaesthesia. Its use has become popular during childbirth. A pregnant woman is given epidural at the time of labour or c-section. It provides relief from the pain rather than cutting off the patient's feelings or senses.

Although it has become a widely accepted technique, women worry about the safety of epidurals. They are concerned about the safety of the baby and their health. But it is absolutely safe.

  • How do these work?: There are nerves in our body, which carry the pain signals to the brain. These nerves pass through epidural spaces. Therefore, anaesthesia is injected into these spaces to stop the pain signal from reaching the brain. This blocks the pain. If you are pregnant and thinking whether to go for epidural or not, you will have a lot of questions in mind. Here's all that you need to know about epidurals:
  • Effect on baby's and mother's health: Use of epidurals tends to increase the time of labour by 20 minutes approximately. The mother may develop fever. However, it blocks the pain. This is some relief to the mother. As there is no pain, stress hormones are not released. Thus, blood will not be diverted from uterus and placenta. Baby's supply of nutrients and oxygen will remain intact.
  • How painful it is?: Women mostly worry about the painful insertion of the epidural needle. However, this will not hurt you. A small needle is first inserted to make the area numb. Thereafter the bigger needle is inserted. You may feel the discomfort for five seconds. The epidural medicine starts functioning just after 5 minutes of insertion.
  • Procedure: First the patient is made to take the suitable position. While some may be asked to lie sideways, others may be asked to sit straight. The area is cleaned with a solution. The small needle is first inserted to create numbness in the area. Once the area is numb, the bigger needle is inserted. You might feel a pinching sensation. Thereafter, a catheter is threaded to the epidural space, where the nerve carrying signal of pain passes through. Epidural medicines are pushed into the region via the catheter. Epidurals don't affect your nerve endings or spinal cord. They are pushed into the epidural space.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

6515 people found this helpful

Botox for Men - How It Works!!

Dr. Akhilendra Singh 88% (116 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Dermatology
Dermatologist, Gurgaon
Botox for Men - How It Works!!

Caring for their look is no longer only restricted to women, men care about their looks just as much as women. In fact, it would be more suitable to say that majority of today's population cares about their looks and appearance. In an effort to look younger many men now-a-days are turning to Botox injections in order to get a more youthful appearance. There is no significant difference between Botox effects on men and women.

Here are nine things that men can expect with Botox treatment:

  1. A Ten Minute Procedure: The actually process of getting a Botox injection does not take longer than 10 to 15 minutes. There is no need for anesthesia and it can easily be performed as an outpatient procedure. A Botox injection is relatively pain-free.
  2. Get Back to Work: Botox is a procedure that you can get done even on your lunch break. Since it does not involve anesthesia of any kind, you can get straight back to the office within an hour of having the procedure. However, it is best to avoid strenuous activities and exercising for a week after the procedure.
  3. Quick Results: Botox results are not immediate but can be seen within 3 to 5 days of the injection being given. Optimal results can be noted 2 weeks after the process.
  4. Swelling and Bruising: Mild swelling is observed at the injection site, which resolves in max 1-2 hours, bruising is very rare, but if happens resolves on its own in 2-3 days maximum and can be easily concealed with light make up.
  5. Effects that Last 4 to 6 Months: Botox injections do make you look younger, but its effects do not last forever. The effect of Botox injections usually lasts for 4 to 6 months. After this, you will need to go through the procedure again to maintain the youthful appearance.
  6. Slowed Pace of Aging: Botox can also be used as a preventive measure when it comes to aging. Many men find that Botox can help prevent the formation of wrinkles and soften fine lines.
  7. Headaches: Though Botox injections are also a form of treatment for chronic migraines, one of the side effects of Botox is a mild headache. This should resolve itself within a few hours and is not something to worry about.
  8. A Few Side-Effects: Generally no untoward side effects are noted if done with the right technique, some rare side effects are drooping of eyelids which resolves on its own in 2 months.
  9. Compliments: 'Rested, refreshed, good'; These are some of the words you should get used to hearing when people talk about the way you look. As long as you use Botox in moderation and get the procedure done by an experienced doctor, you should be ready to look fabulous.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4123 people found this helpful

Epidurals: What You Need To Know About It?

Dr. Tariq Tramboo 89% (75 ratings)
Pain Management, MD - Pain Medicine & Anesthesiology
Pain Management Specialist, Srinagar
Epidurals: What You Need To Know About It?

Are you worried about the labour pain? It is perhaps the most difficult phase of a woman's life. But today, there is no reason to worry for. Thanks to epidurals, you can give birth to your baby without experiencing the pain involved.

Epidural is the new age anaesthesia. It is used to block pain in a specific region of the body. A patient is not made unconscious fully at the time of any surgery. He or she is given epidural for regional anaesthesia. Its use has become popular during childbirth. A pregnant woman is given epidural at the time of labour or c-section. It provides relief from the pain rather than cutting off the patient's feelings or senses.

Although it has become a widely accepted technique, women worry about the safety of epidurals. They are concerned about the safety of the baby and their health. But it is absolutely safe.

  • How do these work?: There are nerves in our body, which carry the pain signals to the brain. These nerves pass through epidural spaces. Therefore, anaesthesia is injected into these spaces to stop the pain signal from reaching the brain. This blocks the pain. If you are pregnant and thinking whether to go for epidural or not, you will have a lot of questions in mind. Here's all that you need to know about epidurals:
  • Effect on baby's and mother's health: Use of epidurals tends to increase the time of labour by 20 minutes approximately. The mother may develop fever. However, it blocks the pain. This is some relief to the mother. As there is no pain, stress hormones are not released. Thus, blood will not be diverted from uterus and placenta. Baby's supply of nutrients and oxygen will remain intact.
  • How painful it is?: Women mostly worry about the painful insertion of the epidural needle. However, this will not hurt you. A small needle is first inserted to make the area numb. Thereafter the bigger needle is inserted. You may feel the discomfort for five seconds. The epidural medicine starts functioning just after 5 minutes of insertion.
  • Procedure: First the patient is made to take the suitable position. While some may be asked to lie sideways, others may be asked to sit straight. The area is cleaned with a solution. The small needle is first inserted to create numbness in the area. Once the area is numb, the bigger needle is inserted. You might feel a pinching sensation. Thereafter, a catheter is threaded to the epidural space, where the nerve carrying signal of pain passes through. Epidural medicines are pushed into the region via the catheter. Epidurals don't affect your nerve endings or spinal cord. They are pushed into the epidural space. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Pain Management Specialist.
4989 people found this helpful

Laser Vaginal Rejuvenation

Dr. Rushabh Mehta 90% (94 ratings)
MBBS, M.S( Gynaecology)
Gynaecologist, Surat
Laser Vaginal Rejuvenation

With Laser Vaginal rejuvenation, there will be no pain, no downtime and no anesthesia.

1 person found this helpful

Vulval Rejuvenation!

Dr. Rushabh Mehta 90% (94 ratings)
MBBS, M.S( Gynaecology)
Gynaecologist, Surat
Vulval Rejuvenation!

If you go with Vulval Rejuvenation, there will be no pain, no downtime and no anesthesia.

Liver Transplant Surgery - Know The Procedure And Aftercare!

Dr. Aastha Midha Likhyani 92% (724 ratings)
MBBS, M S General Surgery ,
General Surgeon, Chandigarh
Liver Transplant Surgery - Know The Procedure And Aftercare!

A liver transplant surgery involves surgically substituting a problematic liver with a healthy liver from a different person. Usually, the healthy liver is taken from a person who has recently passed away. In some cases, a living person may also give away part of the liver. Usually, living donors are members of the family or someone who has a good blood type match. The liver regenerates lost tissues after a surgery; hence, the donor’s liver becomes normal within a few weeks of surgery.

You may require a liver transplant if your liver does not function optimally, owing to the below mentioned conditions:

  1. CirrhosisThis is a chronic disease of the liver wherein, scar tissues replace healthy tissues in the liver, thus, not allowing the liver to function optimally.
  2. Metabolic disease: Disorders that modify the activity of the chemicals in the body
  3. Acute hepatic necrosis: This is a disorder that causes the healthy tissues in the liver to die
  4. Autoimmune disorders or liver cancerAutoimmune disorders can cause healthy tissues in the liver to die as the immune system in the body starts attacking healthy tissues. Formation of malignant tumors in the liver can impair liver functioning.

Procedure
You have to undergo certain procedures before the surgery is conducted; a general health exam, imaging tests, blood tests and a psychological exam are conducted before the surgery. Based on the functioning of the liver and some other factors, your suitability for the transplant will be determined.
The procedure begins with general anesthesia, following which an incision is made in the abdomen. The liver is then removed and replaced with a healthy one. Once the procedure is completed, the surgeon closes the incision with stitches.

Aftercare
Once the procedure is done with, you are kept in the intensive care unit for a few days. The doctor will monitor your progress and put you on medications. After the recovery, you will have to undergo check-ups at regular intervals. You may also have to take medications such as immuno suppressant to prevent your immune system from attacking the liver. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.

1915 people found this helpful

Fistula-in-Ano or Anal Fistula - How It Can Be Treated?

Dr. D U Pathak 86% (115 ratings)
MS, FACRSI
General Surgeon, Jabalpur
Fistula-in-Ano or Anal Fistula - How It Can Be Treated?

An anal fistula, is also called as fistula- in -ano, it is a small channel that develops between the end of the large intestine called the anal canal and the skin near the anus. This is a painful condition, especially when the patient is passing stools. It can also cause bleeding and discharge during defecation.

Genesis of fistula-in-ano
Almost all anal fistulae occur due to an anorectal abscess that begins as an infection in one of the anal glands. This infection spreads down to the skin around the anus causing fistula-in -ano. The anorectal abscess usually leads to pain and swelling around the anus, along with fever. Treatment for anorectal abscess involves incising the skin over the abscess to drain the pus. This is done usually under local anesthesia. A fistula-in-ano happens when there is failure of the anorectal abscess wound to heal completely. Almost 50% of patients with an abscess go on to develop a chronic fistula-in-ano.

Symptoms

  1. Pain- Constant pain which gets worse when sitting down
  2. Irritation around the anus, like swelling, redness and tenderness
  3. Discharge of blood or pus
  4. Constipation or pain while evacuation
  5. Fever

Diagnosis
A clinical evaluation, including a digital rectal examination under anesthesia, is carried out to diagnose anal fistula. However, few patients may be advised screening for rectal cancer, sexually transmitted diseases and diverticular disease.

 

Treatment
The only cure for an anal fistula is surgery. The type of surgery will depend on the position of the anal fistula. Most patients are treated by simply laying open the fistula tract to flush out pus, called Fistulotomy. This type is used in 85-95% of cases and the fistula tract heals after one to two months.

  1. Seton techniques: A seton is a piece of thread (silk, plastic) which is left in the fistula tract to treat anal fissures. This is used if a patient is at high risk of developing incontinence after fistulotomy.
  2. Advancement flap procedures: When the fistula is considered complex, carrying a high risk of incontinence, then this advanced technique is used.

Other techniques like Fibrin glue and Bioprosthetic plug are also used to surgically treat anal fistulas. In the Fibrin glue technique, glue is injected into the fistula to seal the tract, after which the opening is stitch closed. Bioprosthetic plug is a cone shaped plug made from human tissue, which is used to block the internal opening of the fistula. After this stitches are used to keep the plug in place. 

Whatever the surgical technique, one can experience minor changes in continence. Patients usually don’t require antibiotics after surgery but have to take pain medication. They may also have to use gauze to soak up drainage from anus. After surgery, patients should seek help if they have increased pain or swelling, heavy bleeding, difficulty in urination, high temperature, nausea or constipation. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a General surgeon.

1840 people found this helpful
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