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Anemia in Newborns Tips

Vaccination for Newborns and Adults

Diploma in Child Health (DCH), MBBS
General Physician, Bangalore
Vaccination for Newborns and Adults

The immune system is extremely important in an individual's system. A strong immune system helps to combat the invasion of foreign particles and consequently resists the diseases.  Vaccination in such a context becomes imperative as it strengthens an individual's immunity. In vaccination, antigens or germs are given in very small doses. They stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies to fight against that particular infection. Vaccinations are provided to both children and adults to protect them from a number of diseases.  However, different vaccinations are provided in different ages according to the susceptibility to diseases.

Some of the vaccinations that are provided to newborns are:

1. Hepatitis B vaccine: This vaccination is given in order to prevent the child from having Hepatitis B. Hepatitis B is a liver disease that if persists can lead to liver failure or even liver cancer. This vaccine must be injected immediately after the birth of the baby. The first dose must be followed by administering a second dose within a span of a month or two. 

2. Rotavirus Vaccine (RV): This vaccine, taken orally, prevents the infant from Rotavirus. This virus causes vomiting and diarrhea in children that often leads to severe dehydration. This vaccine is administered within two to four months of the baby's birth. Sometimes, on doctor's prescription a second dose may be necessary in the sixth month. 

3. Acellular Pertussis Vaccine and Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids: This is a combination of various vaccines that protects the child from tetanus and diphtheria. Newborns are extremely prone to diphtheria that causes fatal illness and sometimes even deaths in children. This vaccination thereby, is extremely important and must be administered within two or four months and must be followed up with secondary doses later under the doctor's supervision. Vaccinations do not end with childhood. In many cases adults too need to be vaccinated against certain diseases. Some of them are:

  • Hepatitis A Vaccine: You can get this vaccination if there is any risk of you suffering from Hepatitis A. Much like Hepatitis B, Hepatitis A too is an acute liver disease. This is extremely fatal and is seldom accompanied by any symptoms. 
  • Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: This is a sexually transmitted virus that causes cervical dysplasia in women and men.  The apt age for both men and women for this vaccination differs. Women who are twenty six years of age or younger and men below or at the age of twenty one are most suitable for this vaccination. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
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General Physician, Shimla
Anemia is a common problem in developing countries.
Anemia is characterized by tiredness, fatigue, lack of concentration, fast and labored breathing.
Anyone experiencing these symptoms should get a complete hemogram at the nearest health facility.


General Physician, Gurgaon
Anaemia is very common but very lightly taken by the patients in general. Remember that anaemia per se can cause and invite many diseases in the body hence regular check of hemoglobin is as important as regular check of blood pressure and sugar level.
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Gynaecologist, Faridabad
During pregnancy, try to maintaine haemoglobin above 11. O gm/dl.
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Iron deficiency anaemia is the commonest form and results from a shortage of iron from a poor diet, blood loss, illness or infection. Pregnant women are particularly at risk. Pernicious anaemia develops due to lack of intrinsic factor, which is secreted by the stomach which prevents absorption of vitamin B12 required for red blood cell production. It affects vegetarians and group a particularly.

Megaloblastic anaemia results from shortage of folic acid, which is found in fresh vegetables, fruits and liver. This is more seen in elderly people and pregnant women.

Improper formation of red blood cells.

Continuous blood loss as in trauma and heavy menstruation.

Prolonged illness.

It can sometimes be a hereditary tendency.
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Anemia During Pregnancy

General Physician, Bangalore
Anemia During Pregnancy

Anemia during pregnancy is a common condition and a worrisome one. Therefore, understanding the details of anemia, its causes, symptoms and potential treatments is important.

What is anemia during pregnancy?

Anemia is a condition that can affect anyone and is defined as a deficiency in iron, an essential mineral in our body. Anemia during pregnancy is a common affliction of pregnant women, due to many physical and hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy.

Any deficiency in nutrients can be fatal and leaves your body without the key resources it needs, but this can be a dangerous concern during pregnancy. Iron is an essential mineral in the production of red blood cells and hemoglobin, which is necessary to carry oxygen and other nutrients to different areas of the body. Expecting mothers contribute a large amount of their nutrient intake to their growing fetus ;which makes it even more important for them to ensure that their nutrient levels are adequate.

Unlike traditional anemia, which can affect anyone during pregnancy, it is risky, especially during the first and the third trimester.

During third trimester

In the third trimester, the final three months of a pregnancy term, there is a particular risk of anemia. Even if you aren’t anemic at the start of your pregnancy, the chances of being anemic get high by the end of your term. Approximately 15-20% of women experience anemia during pregnancy. Having anemia during the third trimester can increase the risk of a pre-term baby or a low birth weight of the baby.

Having anemia during your late pregnancy term will also increase the risk of fetal anemia, which is rare, but extremely dangerous, and can even lead to heart failure or death of the fetus.


  • The causes of anemia during pregnancy include loss of blood, natural fetal development, poor diet and pre-existing chronic disease.
  • Loss of blood: if you suffer from heavy menstruation or have a bleeding disorder, you are at a much higher risk of anemia during pregnancy. This basic loss of blood will require the body to produce more hemoglobin and red blood cells, putting a strain on your iron reserves.
  • Fetal development: as the fetus grows within the womb, it will require its own supply of blood, independent of the mother. This is a large sink for iron intake, and is the primary reason for anemia during pregnancy, albeit an unavoidable one.
  • Unique pregnancy: for women who have recently had a pregnancy, or if you are carrying multiples (twins, triplets etc.), the risk of anemia during pregnancy is considerably high.
  • Poor diet: the main source of iron in your body comes from dietary choices. A diet that is low in protein or high in sugars and fats can unbalance your nutrient levels, leading to anemia.
  • Chronic disease: certain chronic diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis and other inflammatory conditions can decrease your body’s ability to produce hemoglobin, leading to anemia.


Contrary to popular belief, anemia is not exclusively caused by a deficiency in iron. While a lack of iron causes 80-95% of anemia cases, deficiencies in other essential compounds can also result in anemic symptoms.

1. Iron-deficiency anemia

This is the most common form of anemia caused by a lack of iron in the body. It limits your body’s ability to produce hemoglobin and deliver oxygen to the necessary organ systems and tissues.

2. Folate-deficiency anemia

Folic acid is a part of the b family of vitamins and is closely linked to metabolic processes and the risk of neural tube defects in a fetus. While rarer than iron-deficiency anemia, it still requires specialized treatment to bring folate concentration back to a healthy level.

3. Vitamin b12 deficiency anemia

Pernicious anemia is a rare form of anemia in which your body attacks the cells in the stomach that are required to absorb vitamin b12. Without this essential vitamin, similar to a lack of iron, your body is unable to produce red blood cells.


Some of the most common symptoms of anemia during pregnancy are fatigue, shortness of breath, irritability, dizziness, muscle weakness, preeclampsia and irregular heartbeat, among others.

1. Fatigue:

Exhaustion is one of the first and most notable symptoms of anemia, making you feel physically sluggish and cognitively slow.

2. Muscle weakness:

Without proper oxygenation, muscles are unable to function properly, leading to muscle aches, soreness, and general weakness.

3. High blood pressure:

Preeclampsia, high blood pressure duringpregnancy, can be a very serious symptom of anemia during pregnancy, and will often require additional treatment to keep under control.

4. Breathing problems:

The physical exhaustion caused by anemia and the lack of oxygen to organ systems can make normal respiration a struggle. This can also cause dizziness in some pregnancies.

5. Irregular heartbeat:

Tachycardia is a potentially life-threatening symptom of anemia during pregnancy, in which your heart “skips” beats. This can lead to more complicated cardiovascular issues during pregnancy.


If you suspect that you are experiencing anemia during pregnancy, a visit to the doctor is highly recommended. They can perform a simple blood test to determine your levels of hemoglobin. This is the most reliable and rapid means of determining whether you are experiencing anemia during pregnancy.


Given, how common it is for women to experience anemia during pregnancy, there are a number of formal treatments, as well as home remedies and natural therapies that can prevent or effectively treat this condition.

1. Iron supplements

This is the easiest and most common recommendation for addressing anemia during pregnancy. Though iron supplements may increase the concentration of iron in the body, the greater issue may be an inability to absorb iron, which can be mitigated by vitamin c intake.

2. Prenatal vitamins

Considered a preventative measure, more than a treatment option, prenatal vitamins can ensure that your iron levels remain adequate throughout pregnancy.

3. Iron-rich diet

Your dietary choices will have the largest impact on the amount of iron in your body. Within the boundaries of your pregnancy diet, add foods like spinach, red meat, legumes, high-starch foods and dried fruit.

4. Vitamin c intake

Ascorbic acid is critical to iron absorption in the gut. By ensuring that you have proper levels of vitamin c, you can effectively avoid anemia during pregnancy. Include foods like citrus fruits, leafy green vegetables and bell peppers in your diet for better results.

Vitamin b1 deficiency

How Can Anaemia Be Diagnosed?

Hematologist, Ludhiana
How Can Anaemia Be Diagnosed?

What do we mean by the term Anemia?

It is described as a decrease in the total number of red blood cells, or hemoglobin in the blood, or a decreased oxygen-carrying capacity of blood.

How to know if an individual has Anemia?

  1. An individual with anemia may show one or more of the following signs or symptoms:
  2. Shortness of breath, chest pain, and headache are especially seen with exercise as the oxygen supply decreases
  3. Difficulty in concentration which is mostly seen in children
  4. Easy tiredness, fatigue, and loss of energy
  5. Dizziness because of low blood volume leading to hypotension
  6. Hair loss especially while combing, washing hair. Also, hair becomes brittle and dry due to anemiaInsomnia (lack of sleep)
  7. Cramps in legs especially calf muscle
  8. Rapid heartbeat with exercise as the demand for oxygen increases during exercise, so your heart beats faster than usual
  9. Craving for indigestible substances, such as pica, paper, mud, ice, dirt, etc.
  10. Koilonychia (spoon-shaped nails or upward curvature of the nails)
  11. Soreness and cracks at the corners of the mouth
  12. Very heavy menstrual periods or irregular bleeding because of low hemoglobin count
  13. Pale skin is especially seen over the palms of your hands and under your nail beds. Also, the conjunctiva looks pale
  14. Anemia due to Deficiency of Vitamin B12 Dementia (loss of memory)
  15. Tingling sensation in the hands or feet
  16. Loss of the sense of touch
  17. Difficulty in walking
  18. Stiffness in the arms and legs
  19. Delayed growth and development in children
  20. Swelling of the hands and feet
  21. Episodes of severe pain in the joints, abdomen, and limbs as the red blood cells obstruct capillaries

Anemia by Chronic Red Blood Cell Destruction/Hemolytic anemia

  • Jaundice (yellowish or greenish pigmentation of skin and sclera of the eyes)
  • Brown or red colored urine due to the destruction of red blood cells
  • Fever due to the destruction of red blood cells
  • Small bruises under the skin
  • Abdominal pain because of enlargement of the spleen and liver
  • Black stools due to the destruction of the red blood cells
  • Anemia Caused by Chronic Lead Poisoning
  • Level of lead in blood is higher than 50 μg/dLA blue-black line is seen on the gums. It is also known as a lead line
  • Abdominal pain
  • Constipation
  • Vomiting


  1. Complete blood count: This test will help an individual know the percentage of hemoglobin in blood as well as red blood cell count. Also, mean cell volume (MCV) is used to categorize anemia.
  2. Serum Ferritin Test: Ferritin levels below 15–20 micrograms/L in a person confirms iron-deficiency anemia.
  3. Total Iron-Binding Capacity: It measures the blood's capacity to bind iron with transferrin

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

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Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemia

MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemia

Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemia

What is vitamin B12 deficiency anemia?

Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is a condition in which your body does not have enough healthy red blood cells, due to a lack (deficiency) of vitamin B12. This vitamin is needed to make red blood cells, which carry oxygen to all parts of your body. Without enough red blood cells, your tissues and organs don’t get enough oxygen. Without enough oxygen, your body can’t work as well.

Folic acid, also called folate, is another B vitamin. Anemias caused by a lack of vitamin B12 or a lack of folate are 2 types of megaloblastic anemia. With these types of anemia, the red blood cells don’t develop normally. They are very large. And they are shaped like an oval, not round like healthy red blood cells. This causes the bone marrow to make fewer red blood cells. In some cases the red blood cells die sooner than normal.

What causes vitamin B12 deficiency anemia?

Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is more common in people whose families come from northern Europe. It is caused by one of the following:

  • Lack of intrinsic factor. Intrinsic factor is a protein made in the stomach. It is needed to absorb vitamin B12. This type of B12 deficiency anemia is called pernicious anemia.
  • Surgery that removes or bypasses the end of the small intestine. This part of the small intestine is where vitamin B12 is absorbed.

The inability to make intrinsic factor may be caused by several things, such as:

  • Chronic gastritis
  • Surgery to remove all or part of the stomach (gastrectomy)
  • An autoimmune condition, where the body attacks its own tissues

Other types of megaloblastic anemia may be linked with type 1 diabetes, thyroid disease, and a family history of the disease.

The inability to make intrinsic factor may be the result of several factors, such as chronic gastritis, gastrectomy (removal of all or part of the stomach), or an autoimmune condition (the body attacks its own tissues). Other types of megaloblastic anemia may be associated with type 1 diabetes, thyroid disease, and a family history of the disease.

Who is at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency anemia?

Risk factors for vitamin B12 deficiency anemia include:

  • A family history of the disease
  • Having part or all of your stomach or intestine removed
  • Autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes
  • Crohn's disease
  • HIV
  • Some medicines
  • Strict vegetarian diets
  • Being an older adult

What are the symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency anemia?

Each person’s symptoms may vary. Symptoms may include:

The symptoms of megaloblastic anemia may look like other blood conditions or health problems. Always see your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

How is vitamin B12 deficiency anemia diagnosed?

This type of anemia is usually found during a medical exam through a routine blood test. Your healthcare provider will take your medical history and give you a physical exam.

Your provider may give you additional blood tests. You may also have other evaluation procedures, such as a bone marrow biopsy.

How is vitamin B12 deficiency anemia treated?

Your healthcare provider will figure out the best treatment for you based on:

  • How old you are
  • Your overall health and medical history
  • How sick you are
  • How well you handle certain medicines, treatments, or therapies
  • If your condition is expected to get worse
  • Your opinion or preference

Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia and folate deficiency anemia often occur together and can be hard to tell apart. Treatment may include vitamin B12 shots (injections) and folic acid pills.

Foods that are rich in folic acid include the following:

Foods that are rich in both folic acid and vitamin B12 include the following:

  • Eggs
  • Meat
  • Poultry
  • Milk
  • Shellfish
  • Fortified cereals

Taking folic acid by mouth is more effective than eating foods rich in folic acid. Vitamin B12 is not as well absorbed by mouth as per injection.

Living with vitamin B12 deficiency anemia

Depending on the cause of your vitamin B12 deficiency, you may need to take vitamin B12supplements for the rest of your life. These may be pills or shots. This may seem difficult. But it will let you live a normal life without symptoms.

If your deficiency is due to a restrictive diet, you may want to work with a nutritionist. He or she can help ensure that you get enough vitamin B12 and other vitamins. Tell your healthcare provider about any symptoms and follow your treatment plan.

Key points about vitamin B12 deficiency anemia

  • With this condition, your body does not have enough healthy red blood cells, due to a lack (deficiency) of vitamin B

  • It is one of several types of megaloblastic anemia.
  • Without enough red blood cells, your tissues and organs don’t get enough oxygen. Without enough oxygen, your body can’t work as well.
  • Symptoms include weak muscles, numbness, trouble walking, nausea, weight loss, irritability, fatigue, and increased heart rate.
  • Treatment may include vitamin B12 supplements. It is also important to eat a well-balanced diet.
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Symptoms Of Anemia!

MD - Bio-Chemistry, MF Homeo (London), DHMS (Diploma in Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery), BHMS
Homeopath, Kolkata
Symptoms Of Anemia!

Symptoms Of Anemia!

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What Is Anemia?

BHMS, Diploma in Dermatology
Homeopath, Hyderabad
What Is Anemia?

What Is Anemia?

Anemia is a condition in which you don't have enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen to the body's tissues. Having anemia may make you feel tired and weak.
There are many forms of anemia, each with its own cause. Anemia can be temporary or long term, and it can range from mild to severe. See your doctor if you suspect you have anemia because it can be a warning sign of serious illness.

Types Of Anemia :

Iron deficiency anemia
Aplastic anemia
Haemolytic anemia
Sickle cell anemia
Pernicious anemia
Fanconi anemia

Symptoms :

Anemia signs and symptoms vary depending on the cause of your anemia. They may include:
Pale or yellowish skin
Irregular heartbeats
Shortness of breath
Dizziness or lightheadedness
Chest pain
Cold hands and feet
At first anemia can be so mild that it goes unnoticed. But symptoms worsen as anemia worsens.
Causes :
Anemia occurs when your blood doesn't have enough red blood cells. This can happen if:
Your body doesn't make enough red blood cells
Bleeding causes you to lose red blood cells more quickly than they can be replaced
Your body destroys red blood cells

Diagnosis :

To diagnose anemia, your doctor may ask you about your medical and family history, perform a physical exam, and run the following tests:
Complete blood count (CBC). A CBC is used to count the number of blood cells in a sample of your blood. For anemia your doctor will be interested in the levels of the red blood cells contained in the blood (hematocrit) and the hemoglobin in your blood.
Normal adult hematocrit values vary from one medical practice to another but are generally between 40 and 52 percent for men and 35 and 47 percent for women. Normal adult hemoglobin values are generally 14 to 18 grams per deciliter for men and 12 to 16 grams per deciliter for women.
A test to determine the size and shape of your red blood cells. Some of your red blood cells may also be examined for unusual size, shape and color.
Additional diagnostic tests
If you receive a diagnosis of anemia, your doctor may order additional tests to determine the underlying cause. For example, iron deficiency anemia can result from chronic bleeding of ulcers, benign polyps in the colon, colon cancer, tumors or kidney problems.
Occasionally, it may be necessary to study a sample of your bone marrow to diagnose anemia.

Eating the right foods :

1. Increase Iron Rich Food:
It is seen that those who suffer from iron deficiency usually exhibit the symptoms of anemia. You could take up:
Food that is rich in iron content
Vitamin supplements 

These steps will ensure that you step up the iron content in the body which is the main element needed to produce hemoglobin

2. Fruits:
Apples are rich in micro nutrients including iron. Thus, if you are anemic you need to intake:
Fruits of different kinds
Consume more than one apple a day
Consume Citrus Fruits. It is necessary to have citrus fruits which increase the iron content in the body and the absorption of the micro nutrient.
Have at least more than one citrus fruit a day
Choose between limes, lemons and other fruits
Try Figs
Figs are seen to be excellent remedy for anemia
One should consume three to four figs daily in order to combat anemia
Try Bananas It is important to incorporate bananas in one’s diet.
It is known to be a good source of magnesium
Banana combined with honey will surely help one to step up the necessary salt content for increasing hemoglobin in the blood.

3. Honey:
Honey is known to be an excellent source of cure for anemia.A concoction of honey, lemon juice and apple cider vinegar will prove to be ideal to combat the anemic conditions.Such a mixture is known to be a powerful antioxidant and will help to address general health issues as well. It is necessary to increase honey intake as it is beneficial for an anemic person. It is rich in iron, manganese and copper. These micro nutrients are known for their necessity to step up the hemoglobin content in the bloodstream

4. Beetroot Juice:
It is imperative that one know the vegetables that are rich in iron content.• Beetroot is one such vegetable which is beneficial for those who have low iron content and suffer from anemia• Beetroot can be had as a cooked vegetable or in the form of beetroot juice which is more effective

5. Currants In The Morning:
One could soak currant and consume them to feel the benefits. About ten currants should be soaked overnight. The seeds should be removed. They should be eaten first thing in the morning. 
This should be done for a period of three to four weeks

6. Increase Red Colored Fruits And Veggies In Your Diet:
The red colored fruits as well as vegetables contain the necessary vitamins which will enrich the blood of hemoglobin and reduce anemia.
Have apples
Use tomatoes in your diet
Consume beetroot as vegetable or in juice form

7. Consume Green And Leafy Vegetables:
One should consume green and leafy vegetables as that helps to step up the level of micro nutrients in the body. 
Increase iron content
Increase salt content

8. Vitamin B12:
It is seen that anemic patients are usually low on their vitamin B12 content. This can be increased by:
Consuming fruits and food items rich in such a micro nutrient
Taking up supplements rich in this complex micro nutrient

9. Avoid Caffeinated Drinks:
It is best to avoid coffee as the caffeine increases the heart rate and might not be ideal for anemic patients. Try and consume decaf version. Limit the number of cups of coffee consumed.

10. Stay Active:
The more active one stays the more the capability of the blood to circulate and keep one healthy. Regular exercises should be done. Strength training will increase muscle mass and help keep up strength and keep away fatigue.


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