Common Specialities
{{speciality.keyWord}}
Common Issues
{{issue.keyWord}}
Common Treatments
{{treatment.keyWord}}

Acute Myocardial Infarction Tips

Early Diagnosis Of Myocardial Infarction And Emergency Management!

Dr. Manish Mittal 89% (10 ratings)
DNB Cardiology, DNB MEDICINE, MBBS
Cardiologist, Ghaziabad

Myocardial Infarction, commonly known as a heart attack, is a disorder in which there is a serious blockage of blood flow to the heart and its muscles.  The complete blockage of a coronary artery caused by a rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque is usually the underlying mechanism of an MI. So you can understand that it's a really critical problem and the person suffering from it, needs to be diagnosed immediately.

Symptoms: 

Here are some symptoms which will help to you to understand whether a person is suffering from it or not:

  • The most common symptom is chest pain or discomfort which may travel into the shoulder, arm, back, neck, or jaw. Often it occurs in the center or left side of the chest and lasts for more than a few minutes. The discomfort may occasionally feel like heartburn.
  • Unexplained shortage of breath or trouble in breathing is an important symptom.
  • Nausea or vomiting may follow after the patient feels lightheaded.
  • Women can face abdominal pain or discomfort in different parts of their body.Women more often have atypical symptoms than men.
  • Among those over 75 years old, about 5% have had an MI with little or no history of symptoms.
  • An MI may cause heart failure, an irregular heartbeat, cardiogenic shock, or cardiac arrest.
  • If you identify any of these symptoms, you must immediately call the medical emergency team and must not neglect the symptoms because these symptoms are really dangerous and can indicate a serious health issue.

Immediate response for myocardial infarction: 

  • After you have identified any of the symptoms described above that person may be suffering from Myocardial Infarction, the first thing which you must do is call the emergency response team or ambulance. Here are some tips for such a situation:
  • The most important thing you must do is to stay calm and stay with the person all the time. Make the patient lie down and keep interacting with him or her.
  •  If the person affected is not allergic to aspirin, then make him or her chew a baby aspirin. Do not let the person swallow it without chewing because it becomes more effective in that case.
  • If the person stops breathing then you must perform the CPR immediately or someone around you who is qualified to do so. If you are alone then the medical response team can help you perform it by guiding you via phone.
  • The patient should be immediately shifted to a nearby hospital for immediate medical attention.
  • ECG should be done immediately to diagnose the condition.

Treatment: 

A myocardial infarction requires immediate medical attention. Treatment aims to preserve as much heart muscle as possible and to prevent further complications. Treatment in general aims to unblock blood vessels, reduce blot clot enlargement, reduce ischemia. The main treatment for myocardial infarctions with ECG evidence of ST elevation (STEMI) inc.

2539 people found this helpful

Ways To Deal With Acute Coronary Syndrome

Dr. Pavankumar P Rasalkar 96% (40 ratings)
DM - Cardiology, MD - Medicine, MBBS
Cardiologist, Bangalore
Ways To Deal With Acute Coronary Syndrome

The word acute coronary syndrome refers to a group of symptoms that are caused by blockage of the blood flow to the heart muscles.  The most common result of this is myocardial infarction or heart attack as it is popularly called. Reduced blood flow leads to death of some portion of the heart muscle wall. While the word heart attack sounds almost fatal, it need not be the case. Knowing how to identify an attack and being aware of some simple measures can help save lives. 

Symptoms
The tell tale signs of a heart attack are as follows:

  • Chest pain and discomfort usually described as a tightness or burning in the chest region
  • Pain along the left side of the shoulder and neck, going up into the jaw, down to the arm
  • Nausea and vomiting 
  • Profuse sweating 
  • Difficulty breathing 
  • Dizzy or fuzzy feeling 
  • Tired, extreme fatigue
  • Anxious, apprehensive feeling 

However, be also aware that there are a lot of people who experience a silent heart attack. Women, obese, elderly, and diabetic patients can have silent attacks and depending on severity, either they go on with life as usual or can have a fatal attack.

Diagnosis
Once you are doubtful of a heart attack, the next step is to reach the closest medical facility for a diagnosis.  In addition to a detailed examination and history, the following two tests will be performed.

  1. Electrocardiogram (ECG): A 12-lead ECG will measure electrical activity of the heart and identify irregular electrical activity, which is indicative of a myocardial infarction.
  2. Blood tests:  Presence of certain enzymes in the blood, CK-MB and troponin are indicative of a heart attack.  A complete electrolyte profile also will be done, and increase or decrease of some electrolytes is helpful in diagnosing a heart attack.
  3. In addition to these two, chest radiography, cardiac angiography, echocardiogram, stress test, and computed coronary tomography may also be required to confirm the diagnosis.

Management
Once diagnosed, the first step would be to relieve the symptoms, negate the effects of reduced blood flow, and restore cardiac function. 

  1. Dissolve the clot: Using thrombolytics like clopidogrel 
  2. Nitroglycerin: To dilate the blood vessels and improve blood flow, especially to the heart muscles
  3. Anticoagulant therapy: Blood thinners are usually used to avoid blood clot formation; aspirin and heparin are the most commonly used agents.
  4. Drug therapy: Blood pressure maintaining drugs like beta blockers and/or angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are also used
  5. Use of Statins: Statins are used to reduce the amount of cholesterol in the blood and stabilize plaque deposits.

In very severe cases, angioplasty and stenting or coronary bypass surgery may be required. Educating people on how to identify a heart attack and manage it is very useful and can help save lives.

5 people found this helpful

How to Diagnose and Manage Acute Coronary Syndrome

Dr. Nishith Chandra 91% (695 ratings)
DM Cardiology
Cardiologist, Delhi
How to Diagnose and Manage Acute Coronary Syndrome

The word acute coronary syndrome refers to a group of symptoms that are caused by blockage of the blood flow to the heart muscles.  The most common result of this is myocardial infarction or heart attack as it is popularly called. Reduced blood flow leads to death of some portion of the heart muscle wall. While the word heart attack sounds almost fatal, it need not be the case. Knowing how to identify an attack and being aware of some simple measures can help save lives. 

Symptoms
The tell tale signs of a heart attack are as follows:

  • Chest pain and discomfort usually described as a tightness or burning in the chest region
  • Pain along the left side of the shoulder and neck, going up into the jaw, down to the arm
  • Nausea and vomiting 
  • Profuse sweating 
  • Difficulty breathing 
  • Dizzy or fuzzy feeling 
  • Tired, extreme fatigue
  • Anxious, apprehensive feeling 

However, be also aware that there are a lot of people who experience a silent heart attack. Women, obese, elderly, and diabetic patients can have silent attacks and depending on severity, either they go on with life as usual or can have a fatal attack.

Diagnosis
Once you are doubtful of a heart attack, the next step is to reach the closest medical facility for a diagnosis.  In addition to a detailed examination and history, the following two tests will be performed.

  1. Electrocardiogram (ECG): A 12-lead ECG will measure electrical activity of the heart and identify irregular electrical activity, which is indicative of a myocardial infarction.
  2. Blood tests:  Presence of certain enzymes in the blood, CK-MB and troponin are indicative of a heart attack.  A complete electrolyte profile also will be done, and increase or decrease of some electrolytes is helpful in diagnosing a heart attack.
  3. In addition to these two, chest radiography, cardiac angiography, echocardiogram, stress test, and computed coronary tomography may also be required to confirm the diagnosis.

Management
Once diagnosed, the first step would be to relieve the symptoms, negate the effects of reduced blood flow, and restore cardiac function. 

  1. Dissolve the clot: Using thrombolytics like clopidogrel 
  2. Nitroglycerin: To dilate the blood vessels and improve blood flow, especially to the heart muscles
  3. Anticoagulant therapy: Blood thinners are usually used to avoid blood clot formation; aspirin and heparin are the most commonly used agents.
  4. Drug therapy: Blood pressure maintaining drugs like beta blockers and/or angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are also used
  5. Use of Statins: Statins are used to reduce the amount of cholesterol in the blood and stabilize plaque deposits.

In very severe cases, angioplasty and stenting or coronary bypass surgery may be required. Educating people on how to identify a heart attack and manage it is very useful and can help save lives.

4569 people found this helpful

Acute Coronary Syndrome - How To Diagnose It?

Dr. Avadhesh Khare 89% (49 ratings)
MBBS, DM - Cardiology, MD - Medicine
Cardiologist, Bhopal
Acute Coronary Syndrome - How To Diagnose It?

The word acute coronary syndrome refers to a group of symptoms that are caused by blockage of the blood flow to the heart muscles.  The most common result of this is myocardial infarction or heart attack as it is popularly called. Reduced blood flow leads to death of some portion of the heart muscle wall. While the word heart attack sounds almost fatal, it need not be the case. Knowing how to identify an attack and being aware of some simple measures can help save lives. 

Symptoms:  The tell-tale signs of a heart attack are as follows:

- Chest pain and discomfort usually described as a tightness or burning in the chest region
- Pain along the left side of the shoulder and neck, going up into the jaw, down to the arm
- Nausea and vomiting 
- Profuse sweating 
- Difficulty breathing 
- Dizzy or fuzzy feeling 
- Tired, extreme fatigue
- Anxious, apprehensive feeling 

However, be also aware that there are a lot of people who experience a silent heart attack. Women, obese, elderly, and diabetic patients can have silent attacks, and depending on severity, either they go on with life as usual or can have a fatal attack.


Diagnosis: Once you are doubtful of a heart attack, the next step is to reach the closest medical facility for a diagnosis.  In addition to a detailed examination and history, the following two tests will be performed.

- Electrocardiogram (ECG): A 12-lead ECG will measure electrical activity of the heart and identify irregular electrical activity which is indicative of a myocardial infarction.

- Blood tests:  Presence of certain enzymes in the blood, CK-MB and troponin, are indicative of a heart attack.  A complete electrolyte profile also will be done, and increase or decrease of some electrolytes is helpful in diagnosing a heart attack.

- In addition to these two, chest radiography, cardiac angiography, echocardiogram, stress test, and computed coronary tomography may also be required to confirm the diagnosis.


Management:  Once diagnosed, the first step would be to relieve the symptoms, negate the effects of reduced blood flow, and restore cardiac function. 

- Dissolve the clot - Using thrombolytics like clopedigrol 

- Nitroglycerin - To dilate the blood vessels and improve blood flow, especially to the heart muscles

- Anticoagulant therapy - Blood thinners are usually used to avoid blood clot formation; aspirin and heparin are the most commonly used agents.

- Blood pressure maintaining drugs like beta blockers and/or angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are also used

- Statins are used to reduce the amount of cholesterol in the blood and stabilize plaque deposits.
In very severe cases, angioplasty and stenting or coronary bypass surgery may be required.

Educating people on how to identify a heart attack and manage it is very useful and can help save lives.
 

4 people found this helpful

Don't Ignore the Acute Abdominal Pain

Dr. Tarun Jhamb 90% (18 ratings)
MD - Internal Medicine, MBBS
General Physician, Gurgaon
Don't Ignore the Acute Abdominal Pain

Everyone can suffer from pain in the stomach, at one time or the other and we usually ignore it. But when the pain is sudden and severe abdominal pain then it is termed as acute pain and this should not be ignored.

Often the following can be expected with acute pain:

  1. Acute abdomen pain is usually synonymous with rapid onset of the symptoms which might indicate life threatening intra-abdominal pathology.
  2. Pain is just a feature and not necessary that it is present at all times. An acute abdomen which is pain free usually occurs in children and women who are in their third trimester of pregnancy.
  3. The differential diagnosis is difficult and wide especially in primary care. This is because the different organs within their peritoneal cavity might have different areas of referred pains.
  4. Abdominal pain usually happens to be in the top three symptoms when patients present their state in the emergency and accident departments. But only few of these have acute abdominal pain.
  5. Management of the abdominal pain should be the primary focus and an assessment should be done to reach the differential diagnosis so that care can be given accordingly.
  6. The clinical evaluation regarding abdomen pain can change quickly. Any diagnosis which had been made can change and both doctor and patient should not be hesitant and seek other treatment.

Conditions which might cause acute abdomen pain are:

  1. Meckel's diverticulitis or Acute appendicitis
  2. Acute cholecystitis
  3. Ectopic pregnancy
  4. Acute pancreatitis.
  5. Peptic ulcer disease
  6. Diverticulitis.
  7. Intestinal obstruction, including paralytic ileus (adynamic obstruction)
  8. Pelvic inflammatory disease.
  9. Gastrointestinal (GI) haemorrhage
  10. Gastroenteritis.
  11. Acute intestinal ischaemia/infarction or vasculitis.
  12. Acute urinary retention
  13. Renal colic or renal tract pain
  14. Testicular torsion
  15. Abdominal aortic aneurysm
  16. Non surgical diseases like pericarditis, sickle cell crisis, acute intermittent porphyria, HIV-associated lymphadenopathy, bowel disease, typhoid, opiate withdrawal, enteritis, pneumonia, myocardial infarction and hepatitis.
  17. Rare causes might include thromboemboli, phytobezoar, and phytobezoar

Diagnosis of abdominal pains:

  1. Patients can be ordered to get their blood tests done. Also if need be then imaging can also be referred to them.
  2. Following tests can be done to rule out the condition causing the abdominal pain:
  3. Blood Tests: these include FBC, LFTs, glucose, amylase, clotting, calcium and arterial blood gas for pancreatitis
  4. Crossmatch or group and save
  5. Pregnancy test in women of childbearing age
  6. Blood cultures
  7. Peritoneal lavage in case of an abdominal trauma
  8. Urine analysis
  9. X ray of the abdomen, ultrasound, CT scan
  10. ECG and cardiac enzymes
  11. Laparoscopy should be a routine procedure
3031 people found this helpful

Acute Coronary Syndrome - What Is The Best Way To Diagnose It?

Dr. Nitin Kumar 90% (22 ratings)
CCT - Cardiology (UK), MRCP (UK), FHEA (UK), MBBS
Cardiologist, Gurgaon
Acute Coronary Syndrome - What Is The Best Way To Diagnose It?

The word acute coronary syndrome refers to a group of symptoms that are caused by blockage of the blood flow to the heart muscles.  The most common result of this is myocardial infarction or heart attack as it is popularly called. Reduced blood flow leads to death of some portion of the heart muscle wall. While the word heart attack sounds almost fatal, it need not be the case. Knowing how to identify an attack and being aware of some simple measures can help save lives. 

Symptoms
The tell tale signs of a heart attack are as follows:

  • Chest pain and discomfort usually described as a tightness or burning in the chest region
  • Pain along the left side of the shoulder and neck, going up into the jaw, down to the arm
  • Nausea and vomiting 
  • Profuse sweating 
  • Difficulty breathing 
  • Dizzy or fuzzy feeling 
  • Tired, extreme fatigue
  • Anxious, apprehensive feeling 

However, be also aware that there are a lot of people who experience a silent heart attack. Women, obese, elderly, and diabetic patients can have silent attacks and depending on severity, either they go on with life as usual or can have a fatal attack.

Diagnosis
Once you are doubtful of a heart attack, the next step is to reach the closest medical facility for a diagnosis.  In addition to a detailed examination and history, the following two tests will be performed.

  1. Electrocardiogram (ECG): A 12-lead ECG will measure electrical activity of the heart and identify irregular electrical activity, which is indicative of a myocardial infarction.
  2. Blood tests:  Presence of certain enzymes in the blood, CK-MB and troponin are indicative of a heart attack.  A complete electrolyte profile also will be done, and increase or decrease of some electrolytes is helpful in diagnosing a heart attack.
  3. In addition to these two, chest radiography, cardiac angiography, echocardiogram, stress test, and computed coronary tomography may also be required to confirm the diagnosis.

Management
Once diagnosed, the first step would be to relieve the symptoms, negate the effects of reduced blood flow, and restore cardiac function. 

  1. Dissolve the clot: Using thrombolytics like clopidogrel 
  2. Nitroglycerin: To dilate the blood vessels and improve blood flow, especially to the heart muscles
  3. Anticoagulant therapy: Blood thinners are usually used to avoid blood clot formation; aspirin and heparin are the most commonly used agents.
  4. Drug therapy: Blood pressure maintaining drugs like beta blockers and/or angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are also used
  5. Use of Statins: Statins are used to reduce the amount of cholesterol in the blood and stabilize plaque deposits.

In very severe cases, angioplasty and stenting or coronary bypass surgery may be required. Educating people on how to identify a heart attack and manage it is very useful and can help save lives.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2488 people found this helpful

Acute Coronary Syndrome - Symptoms, Diagnosis And Management

Dr. Debasis Das Adhikari 91% (654 ratings)
MBBS, PG Diploma In Clinical Cosmetology (PGDCC)
Cardiologist, Purba
Acute Coronary Syndrome - Symptoms, Diagnosis And Management

The word Acute coronary syndrome refers to a group of symptoms that are caused by blockage of the blood flow to the heart muscles.  The most common result of this is myocardial infarction or heart attack as it is popularly called. Reduced blood flow leads to death of some portion of the heart muscle wall. While the word heart attack sounds almost fatal, it need not be the case. Knowing how to identify an attack and being aware of some simple measures can help save lives. 

Symptoms
The tell tale signs of a heart attack are as follows:

  • Chest pain and discomfort usually described as a tightness or burning in the chest region
  • Pain along the left side of the shoulder and neck, going up into the jaw, down to the arm
  • Nausea and vomiting 
  • Profuse sweating 
  • Difficulty breathing 
  • Dizzy or fuzzy feeling 
  • Tired, extreme fatigue
  • Anxious, apprehensive feeling 

However, be also aware that there are a lot of people who experience a silent heart attack. Women, obese, elderly, and diabetic patients can have silent attacks and depending on severity, either they go on with life as usual or can have a fatal attack.

Diagnosis
Once you are doubtful of a heart attack, the next step is to reach the closest medical facility for a diagnosis.  In addition to a detailed examination and history, the following two tests will be performed.

  1. Electrocardiogram (ECG): A 12-lead ECG will measure electrical activity of the heart and identify irregular electrical activity, which is indicative of a myocardial infarction.
  2. Blood tests:  Presence of certain enzymes in the blood, CK-MB and troponin are indicative of a heart attack.  A complete electrolyte profile also will be done, and increase or decrease of some electrolytes is helpful in diagnosing a heart attack.
  3. In addition to these two, chest radiography, cardiac angiography, echocardiogram, stress test, and computed coronary tomography may also be required to confirm the diagnosis.

Management
Once diagnosed, the first step would be to relieve the symptoms, negate the effects of reduced blood flow, and restore cardiac function. 

  1. Dissolve the clot: Using thrombolytics like clopidogrel 
  2. Nitroglycerin: To dilate the blood vessels and improve blood flow, especially to the heart muscles
  3. Anticoagulant therapy: Blood thinners are usually used to avoid blood clot formation; aspirin and heparin are the most commonly used agents.
  4. Drug therapy: Blood pressure maintaining drugs like beta blockers and/or angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are also used
  5. Use of statins: Statins are used to reduce the amount of cholesterol in the blood and stabilize plaque deposits.

In very severe cases, angioplasty and stenting or coronary bypass surgery may be required. Educating people on how to identify a heart attack and manage it is very useful and can help save lives. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a cardiologist.

1904 people found this helpful

Acute Liver Failure in Pregnancy - How Can It Be Managed?

Dr. Usha Subrahmanyam 92% (786 ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, DGO
Gynaecologist, Pune
Acute Liver Failure in Pregnancy - How Can It Be Managed?

Pregnancy is a time when your body undergoes a plethora of changes, both emotionally and physically. In such a situation, an acute liver failure only triggers further complications, threatening to affect both the mother and the fetus. The ambit of liver diseases range from mild complications to those that can be life threatening. Acute liver failure or ALF, as it is commonly known as in medical parlance is a condition which is caused when then there is a sudden impairment of the ability of the blood to clot. In spite of the erratic nature of the ailment and its ability to affect anybody with a complete disregard of the individual's pre-existing history of liver problems, there are certain causes that are said to propel it.

Some of them are

  1. Eclampsia with liver infarction: This is an extremely rare condition. Generally, eclampsia refers to the occurrence of convulsions in pregnant women, mostly in those who suffer from high blood pressure. Those women who suffer from eclampsia along with liver infarction are more susceptible to have a liver failure.
  2. Hepatic rupture: Much like eclampsia, hepatic rupture is also caused in women who have high blood pressure. This heightens the risk of an impending liver failure in pregnant women.
  3. Fatty liverSometimes excess of fat develops in the liver deterring its functioning. This is not only detrimental to your health but also poses a great danger in triggering a liver failure.

In spite of these, there have been multiple treatments which have developed to manage and curb it. Some of them are-

  1. Remedial measure for coagulationThe inability of blood to clot blood is known as coagulation failure which is extremely fatal and one of the primary causes that leads to liver failure. Therefore timely and potent intervention of medicine is important to prevent that and in turn diminish the possibility of liver failure.
  2. Volume replacement: Volume replacement refers to the condition where fluids are replenished into the body, those that were lost but at the same time are mandatory for the proper functioning of the body.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2590 people found this helpful

Dr. Mool Chand Gupta 91% (35709 ratings)
MD - Pulmonary, DTCD
Pulmonologist, Faridabad
Longer chest pain equals bigger heart attack risk.

Patient with acute myocardial infarction have longer duration chest pain than those without myocardial infaction.Patient with chest pain of short duration ,lessthan 5 minutes,are unlikly to have myocardial infarction and have good prognosis at 30 days.If the clinical impression and ECG are benign then patient can be discharged from emergency department itself.
9 people found this helpful

Managing the Acute Red Eye

Dr. Chaitanya Shukla 92% (806 ratings)
FICO, DNB Ophtalmology
Ophthalmologist, Gandhinagar
Managing the Acute Red Eye

A red eye is one of the first and most common symptoms of conjunctivitis. Conjunctivitis is the inflammation of the tissue that lies over the white part of the eye and lines the inner side of the eyelid. It is usually the result of a viral infection and can easily spread from one person to another. Conjunctivitis can also be a symptom of STDs like Gonorrhea or Chlamydia. In newborns, conjunctivitis can be vision threatening, while in grownups it is not considered a serious health risk. The symptoms of conjunctivitis differ according to the cause of the infection

Some common symptoms of conjunctivitis are:

  1. Green or white discharge from the eye
  2. Redness of the white part of the eye
  3. Inflammation of the eyelid
  4. Waking up to crusted yellow discharge
  5. Itchiness and burning in the eyes
  6. Increased sensitivity to light
  7. Blurred vision

An eye examination and testing a sample of the fluid secreted by the eye can be used to diagnose conjunctivitis.  It can easily be treated at home and does not require hospitalization. Antibiotics are often given in the form of eye drops and ointments to treat conjunctivitis. These usually need to be applied 3 to 4 times a day for a period of 5 to 6 days. Wash your eyes before putting the eye drops. Once applied, close your eyes and roll the eyeball around to distribute the medicine and keep it from overflowing out of the eye. Wash your hands immediately after applying the eye drops.

Viral conjunctivitis is highly contagious. If you are suffering from it, you should take a few days off work and restrict your social interactions. Wash your hands frequently as you may unconsciously rub your eyes. This is especially important with regards to meals and finger foods. Also, avoid sharing towels, pillowcases, etc. to minimize the transmission of the disease from one person to another.  

Avoid using makeup while being treated for conjunctivitis. With conjunctivitis, the eye is more sensitive to irritants and thus, a speck of makeup can worsen the situation. Also avoid contacts. If you wear contacts regularly, dispose the current set and start using a fresh set after your doctor gives you a clean chit. 
Artificial tears or non prescription eye drops can also be used to relieve the itchiness and burning in the infected eye. If only one eye had been affected by conjunctivitis, do not use the same eye drop bottle for both eyes.

3428 people found this helpful
Icon

Book appointment with top doctors for Acute Myocardial Infarction treatment

View fees, clinic timings and reviews