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Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency - Know Symptoms Of It!

Dr. Sanjoy Basu 86% (10 ratings)
MBBS, Post Graduate Diploma in Gastroenterology, FRCP
Gastroenterologist, Kolkata
Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency - Know Symptoms Of It!

Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency (EPI), also called pancreatic deficiency, is a disorder where the pancreas is unable to produce a sufficient amount of enzymes that are required to digest food. The pancreatic enzymes help to break down and absorb nutrients from the food in the small intestine. So, this disease causes nutritional deficiencies.

Causes of Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency

This condition is generally caused as a complication of other diseases because EPI develops only as a result of severe damage to the pancreas. The following reasons can cause EPI:

1. Inflammation of the pancreas
After surgery in the pancreas, stomach or the intestines, there may be inflammation in the pancreas as a post-surgical complication. A high content of triglyceride fat in the blood can also cause pancreatic inflammation and hinder the secretion of the enzymes.

2.  Chronic Pancreatitis
In this disease, the pancreatic ducts are swollen and blocked and so the digestive enzymes cannot be passed into the small intestine. This condition is often caused by heavy consumption of alcohol.

3.  Cystic Fibrosis
The digestive fluids and enzymes become thick and sticky and block the passageways of the pancreas and other organs like the lungs and the kidneys. This can obstruct secretion and passage of enzymes afterwards.

4.  Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome
This is an autosomal recessive genetic condition where enzyme-producing pancreatic cells are not formed properly. This rare disorder causes a number of associated disorders like bone marrow diseases, skeletal defects and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.

Symptoms of Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency

The symptoms appear in the middle stages of the disease when the process of absorption of nutrients has already been affected. The common warning signs are:

1.  Digestive problems like gas, diarrhea and indigestion because the food remains mostly undigested.
2.  Severe and frequent stomach pain in the lower abdominal region
3.  Greasy stools due to the excretion of undigested fat
4.  Rapid loss of weight and body mass due to mal-absorption of nutrients
5.  Constantly feeling bloated and full even if you have not eaten anything
6.   A general sense of fatigue and exhaustion
7.   Excessive bleeding from small wounds because protein deficiencies hamper blood clotting
8.   Pain in the muscles and bones
9.   Increased susceptibility to infections of the body systems
10. Anemia
11. Joint pains
12. Abnormal swelling of the limbs or edema

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Hi, Mere pedu me har time pain rehta hai or period ke time bahut zada dard hota hai. please tell me kya problem h mujhe.

Dr. G.R. Agrawal 94% (26136 ratings)
DHMS (Hons.)
Homeopathy Doctor, Patna
Hi, Mere pedu me har time pain rehta hai or period ke time bahut zada dard hota hai. please tell me kya problem h mujhe.
Hi, lybrate user , Pani jyada matra me pina chahiye. Bhojan supachya hona chaiye. Apples, carrots, cheese, milk lijiye. Homoeo medicines: @ Pulsatilla 30c -5 drops, thrice. Junk food, alcohol and Nicotine nahi lene chaiye.. Tk, care.
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I'm 20 years old, I broke my virginity 4 days ago and I have been bleeding since. I feel dizzle sometimes with mild pains in my abdomen. What is the issue please?

Dr. Col V C Goyal 97% (11549 ratings)
CCEBDM, PG Diploma In Clinical Cardiology, MBBS, certificate course in rheumatology and joint disorders.
General Physician, Ghaziabad
I'm 20 years old, I broke my virginity 4 days ago and I have been bleeding since.
I feel dizzle sometimes with mild p...
Bleeding after 1 st sex is common due to breaking of hymen. Do not worry it should be ok with in 1/2 days u.can apply hot fomentation on abdomen to relieve pain. Relax take rest. Take good diet and more liquids for medicine contact on private consults good luck.
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Cautious Signs You Should Never Ignore During Pregnancy!

Dr. Asha Gavade 85% (796 ratings)
DNB - Obstetrics & Gynecology, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Pune
Cautious Signs You Should Never Ignore During Pregnancy!

If you want to have a safe pregnancy by curtailing all sorts of complications, then you have to promptly respond to warning bells. There are certain warning symptoms that should not be neglected at all as that might put your pregnancy in danger. 


This kind of situation cannot be ignored as that often leads to serious issues like placental abruption or miscarriage. In this case, you are definitely in need of the assistance of any expert midwife.

Swollen face or hands 

Slightly swollen face or hands in pregnancy are normal, but if you observe excessive puffiness, especially on your feet and ankles, then it is a warning sign as it might lead to toxaemia or PIH. Therefore, consulting a doctor is very much needed in this regard.

Abdominal pain

Round-ligament pain is quite normal, and you do not have to worry about the same. But if the pain is accompanied by bleeding, then the danger of miscarriage might come into being, and thus you should be very much alert about the same.

Blurry vision

Both blurry vision and dizziness are the commonest pregnancy symptoms. But if they get increased suddenly, visit your doctor. 


Itching is common during pregnancy mostly due to stretching of the skin. Your skin also becomes dry. But if it continues for long, then you should check the same with your doctor for avoiding liver disorder. 


Exposure to flu and cold viruses increases during pregnancy, as a result of which fever occurs. But if the fever lasts for more than 48 hours, then viral conditions can be expected, which are pretty dangerous. 

Unwanted back-pain

Normal pain in pregnancy is alright, but excessive pain might indicate bladder or kidney infections, preterm labour, miscarriage or cyst. All these conditions should be essentially avoided to ensure a healthy 

Gushing of fluid

If you are not in labour, but are feeling wet constantly, then it is better to see a doctor. There might be a great possibility of breaking of water, and this is quite dangerous in the advanced stage of pregnancy. 

Less movement of baby 

Experiencing baby kicking is quite natural during pregnancy, and if stops suddenly, then there is something wrong. Kicking patterns should be followed and then only you will be able to realize whether the baby is normal or not. 

If you are facing any of the above symptoms, then immediately visit your doctor.

Stomach Ache in Kids - Reasons Behind It!

Dr. Harit Bansal 87% (54 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Paediatrics
Pediatrician, Sonipat
Stomach Ache in Kids - Reasons Behind It!

Stomach aches or abdominal pains are one of the most frequently reported health complaints faced by children. Children below the age of twelve are known to suffer from recurrent stomach pain. While pains such as these lead to momentary discomfiture, they also lay the path for graver worries if neglected for too long. Your child may feel sick and bunk school for two days; rest and home care can restore his or her health, but that in no way, is the best-suited way of dealing with the situation. If tummy aches resurface over a certain period of time, parents should be cautious enough to look for the root cause and should try to eliminate it accordingly.

Widely noticed causes of stomach aches in children:

  1. Unhygienic food can affect a child’s digestive system.
  2. Intolerance to a certain food item should not be overlooked.
  3. Perpetual anxiety can make the tummy twist and turn.
  4. Urinary Tract Infections can also lead to acute abdominal pain.
  5. Serious factors such as gallstones or appendicitis could also be present. Immediate expert consultation is advised in such a case.
  6. Caffeine and packaged soft drinks can be harmful.
  7. Butter, ghee and other greasy products can trigger tummy aches.

Ways to treat tummy aches in children:

  1. Keep children away from gas producing food items: Food that is hard to digest should be avoided. Lentil soup or dal should only be consumed in limited amounts to prevent the formation of gas. Don’t let your child have too many nuts regularly.
  2. Keep them hydrated: Fluid intake should be monitored. A child should drink at least six to seven glasses of water per day. Fruit juices or soups can also be given to them alongside main meals. This helps digestion.
  3. Do not stack up food in one go: Eating a lot in one meal is a bad way of satisfying hunger. Have smaller meals in more numbers. Six to eight meals will keep your child full and will also eliminate chances of acid reflux which happens either due to an empty stomach or too much piling up of greasy food.
  4. Timely check - up with the doctor: If tummy aches refuse to go away, take your child to a doctor for a thorough check-up. Administer medicines as prescribed by the physician.

Abdominal Pain - What Causes It While You Are Pregnant?

Dr. Neena Agrawal 88% (65 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Patna
Abdominal Pain - What Causes It While You Are Pregnant?

The problem of abdominal pain is very common in pregnant women. Almost every woman faces this problem at some point during pregnancy. It mostly occurs due to changes in the body for having to accommodate the new baby. While some pains are harmless and go away without much bother, some pains can be a real threat. As an expectant mother, it is important to recognize the symptoms and visit your doctor if you experience persistent discomfort during pregnancy.

Some common causes of abdominal pain:

  1. Round Ligament Pain- This pain is harmless and is commonly witnessed during the sixth to the ninth month of pregnancy. This pain occurs due to the stretch of the two large ligaments running from the uterus to groin. This pain is sharp and stabbing. It is often felt while changing sides during sleep.

  2. Constipation and Gas- Gas is a common problem during pregnancy. This is a result of increased production of progesterone. The latter is responsible for slowing down the gastrointestinal tract resulting in the slow movement of food inside the body. Few best ways to refrain from this problem are drinking plenty of water, eating food rich in fiber content and exercising.

  3. Braxton Hicks- Such type of pain feels like contractions but in reality, it is nothing more than mild discomfort. This is a condition where the stomach muscle tightens and gives a hard and firm feeling. Doctors are of the view that Braxton Hicks result from dehydration and hence drinking lots of water is necessary to prevent this kind of pain.

Some serious pain that needs medical attention:

  1. Placental Abruption- It is a condition where the uterus gets detached from the placenta. Common symptoms include abdominal pain and breakage of water. It is a life-threatening condition and needs immediate medical care.

  2. Urinary Tract Infection- UTI is easily treatable. If ignored, it can lead to serious complications. One common symptom is a lower abdomen pain accompanied by fever, sweats, and nausea.

  3. Ectopic Pregnancy- This is a condition in which the egg does fail to get implanted in the uterus. This condition causes intense pain in the abdomen. This pain often surfaces during 6th to 10th week of pregnancy.

  4. Preeclampsia- A Preeclampsia is characterized by the more than normal protein in the urine and abnormal blood pressure. This is experienced from the 20th week of pregnancy. Common symptoms are; pain in the abdomen, nausea and throwing up.

When to visit a Doctor?

If abdominal pain is accompanied by symptoms such as fever, burning sensation while urinating, bleeding from the uterus, vomiting and light-headedness, one should immediately contact a doctor to mitigate the risk of pregnancy complications.

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I did vaginismus botox last week. Nurse did very hard dilation due to which something broke inside my pelvis and since then I have a little bump on my left buttocks and pain in left side below my abdomen. Please suggest what it is.

Dr. Jayvirsinh Chauhan 92% (29384 ratings)
MD - Homeopathy, BHMS
Homeopathy Doctor, Vadodara
I did vaginismus botox last week. Nurse did very hard dilation due to which something broke inside my pelvis and sinc...
Hello lybrate-user. Without proper examination it is not possible to suggest. Better consult a gynecologist. Till then take arnica montana 200 homoeopathic medicine.
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Abdomen Pain After Surgery - How To Resolve It In Children?

Dr. Rishavdeb Patra 89% (97 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery, MCh - Paediatric Surgery
Pediatric Surgeon, Kolkata
Abdomen Pain After Surgery - How To Resolve It In Children?

Abdominal pain after surgery is common. It is only a part of the healing process. But extreme pain or prolonged pain is a sign of infection, surgical complications or some other underlying health condition. It is difficult to detect whether the pain is normal or abnormal when the person concerned is a child.


A child complaining about abdominal pain after surgery should not be ignored no matter how common it may be; especially if the pain does not start reducing after 3 days from surgery. Children who are too young to verbally communicate the pain or feel discomfort show symptoms like:

  • Excessive crying.

  • Difficulty in sleeping.

  • Irritability.

  • Reduced activity.

  • Refusal to eat

After surgery, a child's behavior must be closely observed.


A common cause of abdominal pain after surgery on children is fear of the surgery itself. Children might associate the fear with the pain psychologically which can prevent them from realizing that the physical pain has actually already started to reduce.

In this case, the child needs attention and maybe placebo medication, if all possible causes of physical pain have been ruled out.

The obvious causes of pain after surgery include:

  • Surgical complications like collection (i.e. bile or blood or pus) below the wound or inside.

  • Infection at the site of surgery.

  • Not getting the right dose of pain-killers.


Apart from the symptoms already discussed, the diagnosis of complications after surgery includes:

  • Fever.

  • Swelling at the site of surgery.

  • Abdominal distension after abdominal surgery.

It is best to contact the Surgeon who performed the surgery. Diagnosis might involve:


Possible complications resulting in abdominal pain after surgery are:

  • Wound Dehiscence.

  • Wound infection.

  • Hematoma or collection which may be bile or pus.


Pain management involves pain killers in the right dose, according to their body weight. If the medication doesn't help, the Surgeon should be consulted.

Other treatment methods include:

  • Rest to ensure no further injury occurs and the wound gets time to heal.

  • Antibiotics for the infection.

  • The site of the surgery must be kept clean and dry to prevent further infection.

  • The recommended diet, if any, must be followed for quick healing.

Pain after surgery isn't difficult to manage, even in children, as long as a reliable doctor's instructions are followed well.

Stomach Problems - How Homeopathy Can Resolve It?

Dr. Kanchan Mittal 88% (47 ratings)
Homeopathy Doctor, Ghaziabad
Stomach Problems - How Homeopathy Can Resolve It?

Indigestion spares nobody. No matter how healthy you are, at some point or the other, everyone suffers from acidity, bloating and gas. On its own, these problems are rarely serious but they can leave you feeling quite uncomfortable and can be embarrassing as well.

Homeopathy can be very effective when fighting against indigestion of any kind. This form of treatment has negligible side effects and hence can be given to both children and adults. Homeopathy does not address only the symptoms but goes to the root of the problem. Thus it also stops the problem from recurring. Here are a few common homeopathic medicines that can help ease indigestion.

1. Nux Vomica
Nux vomica is known as the remedy for overindulgence. This homeopathic medicine can be used to treat stomach problems of all kinds. It is very effective against bloating and gas and is also often used to treat constipation. Nux vomica is also known as the best homeopathic remedy for heartburn associated with excessive alcohol or caffeine.

2. Pulsatilla
This is often used to treat gastric problems that follow eating heavy food like pastries, ice cream and food fried in ghee or butter. It can also be used to treat loose motions.

3. China
China is an effective form of treatment against bloating and build up of gas. Abdominal pain caused by gas can also be treated with China. This homeopathic remedy can also be used to treat diarrhea that is accompanied by extreme weakness.

4. Arsenic Album
Gastric troubles that are triggered by food poisoning can be effectively treated with Arsenic Album. Some of the symptoms it treats are nausea, loose motions, abdominal pain and vomiting. Acidity and a burning sensation in the stomach can also be eased with this medicine. Arsenic Album is also used in cases of chronic vomiting where the stomach does not retain any food.

5. Lycopodium
Sometimes even eating a light meal can leave you feeling bloated and with a heavy feeling in your abdomen. This bloating and excessive gaseousness accompanied by burning burps can be treated with Lycopodium. It also treats acidity triggered by starchy and flatulent food.

Along with taking homeopathic medicine, making a few changes to your eating habits can also help treat chronic gastric problems. Chew your food and eat slowly. Avoid eating anything that is too hot or too cold and drink plenty of water. Ideally, you should hydrate your stomach half n hour before eating a meal.

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