Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency (EPI), also called pancreatic deficiency, is a disorder where the pancreas is unable to produce a sufficient amount of enzymes that are required to digest food. The pancreatic enzymes help to break down and absorb nutrients from the food in the small intestine. So, this disease causes nutritional deficiencies.
Causes of Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency
This condition is generally caused as a complication of other diseases because EPI develops only as a result of severe damage to the pancreas. The following reasons can cause EPI:
1. Inflammation of the pancreas
After surgery in the pancreas, stomach or the intestines, there may be inflammation in the pancreas as a post-surgical complication. A high content of triglyceride fat in the blood can also cause pancreatic inflammation and hinder the secretion of the enzymes.
2. Chronic Pancreatitis
In this disease, the pancreatic ducts are swollen and blocked and so the digestive enzymes cannot be passed into the small intestine. This condition is often caused by heavy consumption of alcohol.
3. Cystic Fibrosis
The digestive fluids and enzymes become thick and sticky and block the passageways of the pancreas and other organs like the lungs and the kidneys. This can obstruct secretion and passage of enzymes afterwards.
4. Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome
This is an autosomal recessive genetic condition where enzyme-producing pancreatic cells are not formed properly. This rare disorder causes a number of associated disorders like bone marrow diseases, skeletal defects and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.
Symptoms of Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency
The symptoms appear in the middle stages of the disease when the process of absorption of nutrients has already been affected. The common warning signs are:
1. Digestive problems like gas, diarrhea and indigestion because the food remains mostly undigested.
2. Severe and frequent stomach pain in the lower abdominal region
3. Greasy stools due to the excretion of undigested fat
4. Rapid loss of weight and body mass due to mal-absorption of nutrients
5. Constantly feeling bloated and full even if you have not eaten anything
6. A general sense of fatigue and exhaustion
7. Excessive bleeding from small wounds because protein deficiencies hamper blood clotting
8. Pain in the muscles and bones
9. Increased susceptibility to infections of the body systems
11. Joint pains
12. Abnormal swelling of the limbs or edema
If you want to have a safe pregnancy by curtailing all sorts of complications, then you have to promptly respond to warning bells. There are certain warning symptoms that should not be neglected at all as that might put your pregnancy in danger.
This kind of situation cannot be ignored as that often leads to serious issues like placental abruption or miscarriage. In this case, you are definitely in need of the assistance of any expert midwife.
Swollen face or hands
Slightly swollen face or hands in pregnancy are normal, but if you observe excessive puffiness, especially on your feet and ankles, then it is a warning sign as it might lead to toxaemia or PIH. Therefore, consulting a doctor is very much needed in this regard.
Round-ligament pain is quite normal, and you do not have to worry about the same. But if the pain is accompanied by bleeding, then the danger of miscarriage might come into being, and thus you should be very much alert about the same.
Itching is common during pregnancy mostly due to stretching of the skin. Your skin also becomes dry. But if it continues for long, then you should check the same with your doctor for avoiding liver disorder.
Exposure to flu and cold viruses increases during pregnancy, as a result of which fever occurs. But if the fever lasts for more than 48 hours, then viral conditions can be expected, which are pretty dangerous.
Normal pain in pregnancy is alright, but excessive pain might indicate bladder or kidney infections, preterm labour, miscarriage or cyst. All these conditions should be essentially avoided to ensure a healthy
Gushing of fluid
If you are not in labour, but are feeling wet constantly, then it is better to see a doctor. There might be a great possibility of breaking of water, and this is quite dangerous in the advanced stage of pregnancy.
Less movement of baby
Experiencing baby kicking is quite natural during pregnancy, and if stops suddenly, then there is something wrong. Kicking patterns should be followed and then only you will be able to realize whether the baby is normal or not.
If you are facing any of the above symptoms, then immediately visit your doctor.
Stomach aches or abdominal pains are one of the most frequently reported health complaints faced by children. Children below the age of twelve are known to suffer from recurrent stomach pain. While pains such as these lead to momentary discomfiture, they also lay the path for graver worries if neglected for too long. Your child may feel sick and bunk school for two days; rest and home care can restore his or her health, but that in no way, is the best-suited way of dealing with the situation. If tummy aches resurface over a certain period of time, parents should be cautious enough to look for the root cause and should try to eliminate it accordingly.
Widely noticed causes of stomach aches in children:
Ways to treat tummy aches in children:
The problem of abdominal pain is very common in pregnant women. Almost every woman faces this problem at some point during pregnancy. It mostly occurs due to changes in the body for having to accommodate the new baby. While some pains are harmless and go away without much bother, some pains can be a real threat. As an expectant mother, it is important to recognize the symptoms and visit your doctor if you experience persistent discomfort during pregnancy.
Some common causes of abdominal pain:
Round Ligament Pain- This pain is harmless and is commonly witnessed during the sixth to the ninth month of pregnancy. This pain occurs due to the stretch of the two large ligaments running from the uterus to groin. This pain is sharp and stabbing. It is often felt while changing sides during sleep.
Constipation and Gas- Gas is a common problem during pregnancy. This is a result of increased production of progesterone. The latter is responsible for slowing down the gastrointestinal tract resulting in the slow movement of food inside the body. Few best ways to refrain from this problem are drinking plenty of water, eating food rich in fiber content and exercising.
Braxton Hicks- Such type of pain feels like contractions but in reality, it is nothing more than mild discomfort. This is a condition where the stomach muscle tightens and gives a hard and firm feeling. Doctors are of the view that Braxton Hicks result from dehydration and hence drinking lots of water is necessary to prevent this kind of pain.
Some serious pain that needs medical attention:
Placental Abruption- It is a condition where the uterus gets detached from the placenta. Common symptoms include abdominal pain and breakage of water. It is a life-threatening condition and needs immediate medical care.
Ectopic Pregnancy- This is a condition in which the egg does fail to get implanted in the uterus. This condition causes intense pain in the abdomen. This pain often surfaces during 6th to 10th week of pregnancy.
Preeclampsia- A Preeclampsia is characterized by the more than normal protein in the urine and abnormal blood pressure. This is experienced from the 20th week of pregnancy. Common symptoms are; pain in the abdomen, nausea and throwing up.
When to visit a Doctor?
If abdominal pain is accompanied by symptoms such as fever, burning sensation while urinating, bleeding from the uterus, vomiting and light-headedness, one should immediately contact a doctor to mitigate the risk of pregnancy complications.
Abdominal pain after surgery is common. It is only a part of the healing process. But extreme pain or prolonged pain is a sign of infection, surgical complications or some other underlying health condition. It is difficult to detect whether the pain is normal or abnormal when the person concerned is a child.
A child complaining about abdominal pain after surgery should not be ignored no matter how common it may be; especially if the pain does not start reducing after 3 days from surgery. Children who are too young to verbally communicate the pain or feel discomfort show symptoms like:
Difficulty in sleeping.
Refusal to eat
After surgery, a child's behavior must be closely observed.
A common cause of abdominal pain after surgery on children is fear of the surgery itself. Children might associate the fear with the pain psychologically which can prevent them from realizing that the physical pain has actually already started to reduce.
In this case, the child needs attention and maybe placebo medication, if all possible causes of physical pain have been ruled out.
The obvious causes of pain after surgery include:
Surgical complications like collection (i.e. bile or blood or pus) below the wound or inside.
Infection at the site of surgery.
Not getting the right dose of pain-killers.
Apart from the symptoms already discussed, the diagnosis of complications after surgery includes:
It is best to contact the Surgeon who performed the surgery. Diagnosis might involve:
Possible complications resulting in abdominal pain after surgery are:
Hematoma or collection which may be bile or pus.
Pain management involves pain killers in the right dose, according to their body weight. If the medication doesn't help, the Surgeon should be consulted.
Other treatment methods include:
Rest to ensure no further injury occurs and the wound gets time to heal.
Antibiotics for the infection.
The site of the surgery must be kept clean and dry to prevent further infection.
The recommended diet, if any, must be followed for quick healing.
Pain after surgery isn't difficult to manage, even in children, as long as a reliable doctor's instructions are followed well.
Indigestion spares nobody. No matter how healthy you are, at some point or the other, everyone suffers from acidity, bloating and gas. On its own, these problems are rarely serious but they can leave you feeling quite uncomfortable and can be embarrassing as well.
Homeopathy can be very effective when fighting against indigestion of any kind. This form of treatment has negligible side effects and hence can be given to both children and adults. Homeopathy does not address only the symptoms but goes to the root of the problem. Thus it also stops the problem from recurring. Here are a few common homeopathic medicines that can help ease indigestion.
1. Nux Vomica
Nux vomica is known as the remedy for overindulgence. This homeopathic medicine can be used to treat stomach problems of all kinds. It is very effective against bloating and gas and is also often used to treat constipation. Nux vomica is also known as the best homeopathic remedy for heartburn associated with excessive alcohol or caffeine.
This is often used to treat gastric problems that follow eating heavy food like pastries, ice cream and food fried in ghee or butter. It can also be used to treat loose motions.
China is an effective form of treatment against bloating and build up of gas. Abdominal pain caused by gas can also be treated with China. This homeopathic remedy can also be used to treat diarrhea that is accompanied by extreme weakness.
4. Arsenic Album
Gastric troubles that are triggered by food poisoning can be effectively treated with Arsenic Album. Some of the symptoms it treats are nausea, loose motions, abdominal pain and vomiting. Acidity and a burning sensation in the stomach can also be eased with this medicine. Arsenic Album is also used in cases of chronic vomiting where the stomach does not retain any food.
Sometimes even eating a light meal can leave you feeling bloated and with a heavy feeling in your abdomen. This bloating and excessive gaseousness accompanied by burning burps can be treated with Lycopodium. It also treats acidity triggered by starchy and flatulent food.
Along with taking homeopathic medicine, making a few changes to your eating habits can also help treat chronic gastric problems. Chew your food and eat slowly. Avoid eating anything that is too hot or too cold and drink plenty of water. Ideally, you should hydrate your stomach half n hour before eating a meal.