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Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
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I had unprotected sex on the day I was fertile. But we took emergency contraceptive pill within two hours of it. It was 29th September. I usually bleed a week after taking the pill but this time I am late. I was supposed to have my periods two days back. I have been taking one pill a month on average. I checked with pregnancy test that I am not pregnant on the date I was supposed to get my periods. Am I pregnant?
I had my last periods on 22nd july. I had protected sex on 30th july. I took an ipill also on 1st august. My periods are due on 20th august. But on 9th august I started bleeding with mild cramps. Today I cannot see much bleeding but yesterday there was moderate flow. Can you please suggest the issue.?Is this period or what?
Can I eat ripe papaya in early pregnancy? And please tell what are the food items to be avoided in pregnancy.
Hello doctor from past few days I m.facing pain between my breast and stomach. Sometimes it become too high. It may be related to bones between breast And stomach. Please help.
Sir we have two daughters, one of 6 years and other of 3 months. After delivery my wife is complaining that some part is appears coming out from her vagina. During pregnancy, sometimes she also complaint about this. During intercourse in last week some blood also came. She is having piles also. Pls guide me to take necessary steps. Thanks.
Bariatric surgery (weight loss surgery) includes a variety of procedures performed on people who have obesity. Metabolic surgery is defined as “a set of gastrointestinal operations performed with the intent to treat diabetes (diabetes surgery) and metabolic dysfunctions (which includes obesity). Over the past 5 years, the term “metabolic surgery” has become increasingly popular. In 2002, it was suggested that gastrointestinal surgery could be used with the primary intent to treat type 2 diabetes. The idea derived from the factor that the gastrointestinal tract is a major player in the regulation of glucose homeostasis.
In patients with a BMI above 35, surgical treatment of diabetes is now recommended by virtually all professional organizations.
Weight loss is achieved by:
- Reducing the size of the stomach with a gastric band or through the removal of a portion of the stomach
- By resecting and rerouting the small intestine to a small stomach pouch.
Long-term studies show that the procedures cause significant long-term loss of weight, recovery from diabetes, improvement in cardiovascular risk factors, and a mortality reduction from 40% to 23%.
Indications for Bariatric Surgery
- Excess body weight affecting the quality of life and restricting routine activities
- Patients with a BMI of 40 kg/m2 or greater who instituted but failed an adequate exercise and diet program (with or without adjunctive drug therapy
- Patients who present with obesity-related comorbid conditions, such as hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and obstructive sleep apnea
Types of Bariatric Surgery
- Vertical sleeve surgery
- Gastric bypass surgery
- Intragastric balloon surgery
- Duodenal switch surgery
- Lap band surgery
Eating Schedule After Bariatric Surgery
Immediately after bariatric surgery, the patient is restricted to a clear liquid diet until the gastrointestinal tract recovers from the surgery. This is followed by a blended diet for at least 2 weeks, consisting of a high protein diet and dairy products. Foods high in carbohydrates are usually avoided when possible during the initial weight-loss period. Many patients need to take a daily multivitamin pill to compensate for reduced absorption of essential nutrients.
Effectiveness of Surgery
- Weight loss
- Reduced mortality and morbidity
- Psychiatric/psychological health can improve after bariatric surgery
Adverse Effects of Surgery
- Metabolic bone disease manifesting as osteopenia and secondary hyperparathyroidism
- Rapid weight loss after obesity surgery contributing to the development of gallstones
- Hyperoxaluria that can potentially lead to oxalate nephropathy and irreversible renal failure
- Rhabdomyolysis leading to acute kidney injury and impaired renal handling of acid and base balance has been reported after bypass surgery
- Nutritional derangements due to deficiencies of micronutrients
Complications of Bariatric Surgery
- Osteoporosis and bone degeneration
- Dumping syndrome
- Spleen injury
- Suture-line disruption
- Long-term nausea and inability to tolerate food
- Migration of the band
- Narrowing of the stomach outlet (stenosis)
- Nutritional deficiencies
- Weight Regain