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Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
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Treatment of Childhood Infections
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Growth And Development Including General Paediatri
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Fever remains the most common concern prompting parents to present their child to the emergency department. Fever has traditionally been defined as a rectal temperature over 100.4 F or 38 C. Temperatures measured at other body sites are usually lower. The threshold for defining a fever does vary significantly among different individuals, since body temperatures can vary by as much as 1 F. Low-grade fevers are usually considered less than 102.2 F (39 C).
Fever itself is not life-threatening unless it is extremely and persistently high, such as greater than 107 F (41.6 C) when measured rectally. Risk factors for worrisome fevers include age under 2 years (infants and toddlers) or recurrent fevers lasting more than one week. Fever may indicate the presence of a serious illness, but usually a fever is caused by a common infection, most of which are not serious. The part of the brain called the hypothalamus controls body temperature. The hypothalamus increases the body's temperature as a way to fight the infection. However, many conditions other than infections may cause a fever.
Fever in Children - Causes:
Causes of fever include:
- Bacterial infections
- Viral infections, like influenza (the "flu")
- Illicit drugs
- illnesses related to heat exposure
- Rarely, inflammatory diseases
When to seek medical care:
- The child is younger than 6 months of age (regardless of prematurity).
- One is unable to control the fever.
- One suspects a child may become dehydrated from vomiting, diarrhea, or not drinking (for example, the child has sunken eyes, dry diapers, tented skin, cannot be roused, etc.).
- The child has been to a doctor but is now getting worse or new symptoms or signs have developed.
Although you may have done your best to care for your child, sometimes it is smart to take your child to the emergency department. The child's doctor may meet you there, or the child may be evaluated and treated by the emergency doctor.
Take a child to an emergency clinic when any of the following happen:
- One has serious concerns and is unable to contact the child's doctor.
- One suspects the child is dehydrated.
- A seizure occurs.
- The child has a purple or red rash.
- A change in consciousness occurs.
- The child's breathing is shallow, rapid, or difficult.
- The child is younger than 2 months of age.
- The child has a headache that will not go away.
- The child continues to vomit.
- The child has complex medical problems or takes prescription medications on a chronic basis (for example, medications prescribed for more than two weeks' duration)
Home Remedies for Fever in Children:
The three goals of home care for a child with fever are to control the temperature, prevent dehydration, and monitor for serious or life-threatening illness.
- The first goal is to make the child comfortable by reducing the fever below 102 F (38.9 C) with medications and appropriately dressing the child. A warm water bath can also be helpful .
- To check a child's temperature, one will need a thermometer. Different types of thermometers are available, including glass, mercury, digital, and tympanic (used in the ear).
- Glass thermometers work well but may break, and they take several minutes to get a reading.
- Digital thermometers are inexpensive and obtain a reading in seconds.
- Oral temperatures may be obtained in older children who are not mouth breathing or have not recently consumed a hot or cold beverage.
- Monitoring and documenting the fever pattern is achieved using a thermometer and a handmade chart.
- Acetaminophen and ibuprofen are used to reduce fever.
- Follow the dosage and frequency instructions printed on the label.
- Remember to continue to give the medication over at least 24 hours or the fever will usually return.
- Children should not be overdressed indoors, even in the winter.
- Overdressing keeps the body from cooling by evaporation, radiation, conduction, or convection.
- The most practical solution is to dress the child in a single layer of clothing, then cover the child with a sheet or light blanket.
- A sponge bath in warm water will help reduce a fever.
- Such a bath is usually not needed but may more quickly reduce the fever.
- Put the child in a few inches of warm water, and use a sponge or washcloth to wet the skin of the body and arms and legs.
- The water itself does not cool the child. The evaporation of the water off the skin cools the child. So, do not cover the child with wet towels, which would prevent evaporation.
- Contrary to the popular folk remedy, never apply alcohol in a bath or on the skin to reduce fever. Alcohol is usually dangerous to children.
- The second goal is to keep the child from becoming dehydrated. Humans lose extra water from the skin and lungs during a fever.
- Encourage the child to drink clear fluids but without caffeine (and not water). Water does not contain the necessary electrolytes and glucose. Other clear fluids are chicken soup, other rehydrating drinks available at the grocery or drugstore.
- A child should urinate light-colored urine at least every four hours if well hydrated.
- If diarrhea or vomiting prevents one from assessing hydration, seek medical attention.
- The third goal is to monitor the child for signs of serious or life-threatening illness.
- A good strategy is to reduce the child's temperature below 102 F (39 C).
- Also, make sure the child is drinking enough clear fluids .
- If both these conditions are met and the child still appears ill, a more serious problem may exist.
- If a child refuses to drink or has a concerning change in appearance or behavior, seek medical attention.
My 7 months old baby suffering with runny nose and cough having high mucus. Can I use ascoril flu drops and dosage please.
Sir/madam, I have a daughter who is 11 years suffering from SLE disease, how to control/prevention and treatment? please tell me doctor. Grateful sir.
For children with normal separation anxiety, there are steps you can take to make the process of separation anxiety easier.
1. Practice separation. Leave your child with a caregiver for brief periods and short distances at first.
2. Schedule separations after naps or feedings. Babies are more susceptible to separation anxiety when they’re tired or hungry.
3. Develop a “goodbye” ritual. Rituals are reassuring and can be as simple as a special wave through the window or a goodbye kiss.
4. Keep familiar surroundings when possible and make new surroundings familiar. Have the sitter come to your house. When your child is away from home, let him or her bring a familiar object.
5. Have a consistent primary caregiver. If you hire a caregiver, try to keep him or her on the job.
6. Leave without fanfare. Tell your child you are leaving and that you will return, then go—don’t stall.
7. Minimize scary television. Your child is less likely to be fearful if the shows you watch are not frightening.
8. Try not to give in. Reassure your child that he or she will be just fine—setting limits will help the adjustment to separation.
Abnormal separation anxiety needs expert assistance. Consult a psychologist for advise and intervention.
My 50 days boy has getting pain while passing the urine. Maily morning timing morning 10 am to 11 am and 6pm to 9pm. Once releses the urine he can sleep and play well. PlEASE advise me what can I do for him. Thanks
My 3 year old is sick with a temperature of 100 degrees she can't keep anything down including liquids. What should I do?
Hello Doctors Our baby is 115 days old today, she had her third vaccination yesterday at 11 am, after vaccination she had fever and we gave her CALPOL two times till now, she is having mild fever now and passing stool eight times per day which is more than usual she used to do. Also she is not taking feeding and sometimes she vomits. Please advice if it is matter of any concern as mild fever is also not going away. Thanking you Regards
My daughter is 15 years old, when swallowing solid food a pain is felt in the right side of the chest 2 inches below the collar bone. What this could be please inform. Thanks.
Problems with the skin during the teenage years are very common. Although skin issues can be really stressful, the right skin care treatment can help in controlling the problems you may face during this time. Here are some of the skin issues that you may face at this stage of life and ways to prevent them:
Oily Skin: Oily skin is a very common occurrence during teenage years. To a certain extent, oily skin may be due to genetics but for some, it may be due to hormonal changes that cause excess oil to be produced on the skin surface. In order to not inflame the skin further, individuals with oily skin shouldn't overly scrub their skin as well as not use harsh cleansers to clean the face. More importantly, when you do use a cleanser on your face, you should only do so two times a day. If you go overboard, it would only do more harm than good.
Acne: Whether it is blackheads, whiteheads or spots filled with pus, acne affects about 80% of teenagers at some point in their lives. Teenagers are more prone to this problem because the hormone levels during this time are especially high, resulting in an increase in the magnitude of sebaceous glands and the oil that is produced. When too much oil is produced, this, along with dead skin cells block, the follicles, giving rise to acne. There are certain ways in which you can prevent it from occurring, such as always having a bath after any strenuous activity, not picking or touching the problem areas and washing acne-prone spots only two times a day.
Excessive Sweating: Excessive sweating is another major cause of concern for teenagers. The problem can be due to two different conditions - stress or hyperhidrosis (a condition wherein you sweat excessively on a daily basis). Wearing clothes made from cotton, using antiperspirants as well as avoiding drinks and foods that may cause episodes of excessive sweating are some of the ways in which you can keep the problem in control.