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Kidney Stones Treatment
Removal Of Stitches Procedure
Corn Removal Procedure
Dressings Of Wounds Procedure
Varicose Vein Laser Treatment
Hernia Repair Surgery
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
Stitching Of Wounds Procedure
Treatment Of Deep Vein Thrombosis - Dvt
Male Breast Reduction Treatment
Prostate Laser Surgery
Gastric Bypass Surgery
Treatment of Bone Marrow Transplantation
Vascular Surgery Treatment
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How to get fair. My face was somewhat white but my forehead was black in colour what should I do to make my face and forehead even and fair in colour and I also have dark circles.
My skin it's too oily, blackheads on my face. And day by day my skin it's dark. What should I do? For my fair look.
My Brother is having cough with breathing problem and high Fever. On XRay it was shown that the left side of lung is totally covered with fluid. Sir, can you tell me what is the problem? His age is 17.
I have white spots on my back. I have applied many creams for treatment. Please provide me some treatment.
Sir please help me maine steroid cream use ki thi but maine ab use karna chod di 1 month ho gya h skin black ho gyi h koi solution batao sir jis se skin fair ho jaye.
There are eruptions all over my face. This has never happened before. Red rashes. Nothing is suiting my skin. My age is 37. Kindly help.
How get body lighten permanently because my skin become dull and dark and in school I get bad reaction from everyone. Because I am dark so no one is my friend so give me some suggestion to get lighten body permanently. Please.
Bladder cancer can be caused by a variety of factors, which include genetic factors, inheritance, drugs, chemicals, environment related factors and smoking. In fact, smoking tobacco is one of the major causes of bladder cancer around the world. The chemicals present in tobacco can irritate the bladder lining which ultimately leads to bladder cancer. Besides smoking other important environmental factors might be chemotherapy, exposure to chemicals from newspaper, dye, leather, paints industries.
Symptoms of bladder cancer are as follows:
Most often it occurs in people more than 50 years of age. It can present in different ways, but common symptoms being :
- Painless hematuria - reddish or brownish colored urine with or without clots Increased frequency of urination Pain while passing urine .
- Difficulty in passing urine
The diagnosis requires a proper imaging workup including ultrasound, CT scan and urine examinations. Following the initial imaging, a biopsy is required to confirm the diagnosis and stage the disease. This is done by cystoscopy (inserting a tube to see the inside of the urinary passage) under anesthesia.
Treatments for bladder cancer depend on the stage of cancer. Broadly bladder cancers can be categorised into Non-invasive and Invasive cancers.
- For non-invasive cancers: It requires recurrent cystoscopic surveillance and resection. For those with high risk of tumor recurrence or progression, intravesical chemotherapy or immunotherapy might be required.
- For invasive cancers the various treatment choices are:
- Surgery: For localised tumor which are amenable to resection perhaps surgery is the best possible treatment. This is a major undertaking where in whole of bladder along with accessory organs is removed. The surgeon may offer choices for reconstruction between neobladder (refashioning bladder with patient's gut) or ileal conduit (fashioning a stoma over which bag can be worn to collect urine). Following surgery a regular follow up is required and the prognosis is good.
- Chemotherapy: This modality is reserved for patient's where surgery is not possible or they have metastatic disease (disease spread to other body parts).In this method, medications are used to target and destroy cancer cells.
- Radiation Therapy: This might be and option for patient's that are not suitable for surgery. Radiation therapy uses gamma rays to destroy cancer cells in the body The key to good prognosis in bladder cancers is early detection timely intervention and good follow up. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Urologist.