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How and why of breast cancer?
Breasts have milk producing glands as well as connective tissue including fat, fibrous tissue, nerves, blood vessels, etc. Milk produced in the glands reaches the exterior through a network of ducts. Most cancers develop in milk producing glands and ducts and later continue to grow and spread to lymph nodes in armpit as well as distant organs.
Warning signs and symptoms:
Given the high incidence of breast cancer, knowing the symptoms helps in early identification. Read on to know more. Pay extra attention if there is a family history.
- Appearance of a lump in the breasts or the armpits
- Any change in the size, shape, or contour of the breasts
- Presence of a watery or bloody discharge from the nipple
- The breast or the nipple turning red
- Sudden thickening of breast tissue or skin that continues for a while
- Change in the feel or look of the skin (dimpling, puckering, scaliness, reddishness, warmth, etc.)
- Hardening of the tissue under the breast skin
- Difference in appearance or feel of one area in comparison with other areas
The presence of any of these or a combination of these symptoms should be an indication for a detailed check-up. As mentioned, early diagnosis helps in improving outcome. Treatment is also easier with early stage of disease. It is also good to know risk factors, which also indicate if you need to watch for symptoms.
- Family history: Breast cancer can run in families, and if you have close relative(s) with breast cancer, watch out for symptoms. Family member or self have a positive test for BRCA1 and BRCA2 Family history of other cancers Age Women over the age of 40 years are at an increased risk of developing breast cancer.
- Hormones: Increased use of estrogen increases the chances of developing breast cancer. Therefore, women who have used birth control pills for long time or are on hormone replacement therapy are at greater risk.
- Abnormal gynaecologic milestones: Women who have abnormal menstrual milestones are more predisposed to developing breast cancer. For instance, girls who have start of menstrual cycles before age of 12, get pregnant after 30, and reach menopause after 55. Women with menstrual irregularities including cycles earlier than 26 days and later than 29 days are also likely to have hormonal issues and are, therefore, at higher risk of breast cancer.
- Other factors: Smoking, alcohol consumption, and obesity also increase the chances of a woman developing breast cancer."
My left posterior_lateral disc herniation at c5_c6 level with spinal cord indentation. Please suggest.
I have hypertension n slip disc issue in L4 n L5. need to reduce weight badly. Restriction of exercise. Non veg food habits. Suggest diet.
Breast cancer begins when the cells that are present in the breast start to go out of control. These cells generally form a tumor which can be seen on mammogram or one can feel it as a lump. The tumor is threatening if the cells can grow into the tissues that surround it or spread to other areas of the body. Breast cancer happens mostly in ladies. Here are a few methods with which you can prevent breast cancer-
- Keep your weight in check: Maintaining a healthy weight is important for everyone although, it is easy to tune it out since it is said so often. Being overweight can expand the danger of a wide range of cancers, including breast cancer, particularly after menopause.
- Be physically active: Women who are physically active for almost or at least 30 minutes a day have a lower danger of breast cancer. Normal activity is additionally one of the ideal approaches to keep weight under control.
- Eat Your Fruits and Vegetables and Avoid Too Much Alcohol: A balanced and healthy diet can bring down the danger of breast cancer. Attempt to eat a considerable measure of fruits and vegetables and keep liquor at moderate levels or lower. While moderate drinking can be useful for the heart in most grown-ups, even low levels of intake can build the danger of breast cancer. If you do not drink, don't feel you have to begin. In case you drink modestly, there is less risk.
- Try not to Smoke: Smokers and non-smokers alike know how undesirable smoking is. It brings down a person’s quality of life and expands the danger of heart and lung diseases, stroke, and no less than 15 types of cancer, including breast cancer. It additionally causes bad breath, awful teeth, and wrinkles.
- Breastfeed, If Possible: Breastfeeding for almost one year or more brings down the danger of breast cancer. It additionally has extraordinary medical advantages for the baby as well, especially in terms of immunity.
- Keep away from Birth Control Pills: Contraceptive pills have both dangers and advantages. In many cases, the more young a lady is, the lower the danger is. While ladies are taking birth control pills, they have more chances of falling prey to breast cancer as per various medical studies. This danger leaves rapidly in the wake of stopping the pill. The danger of stroke and heart attack is increased while on the pill, especially if the woman smokes. Long term use can likewise have essential advantages, such as bringing down the danger of ovarian cancer, colon tumor and uterine cancer and undesirable pregnancy. In case you are exceptionally worried about breast cancer, staying away from birth control pills is also an alternative to lower the risk. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an oncologist and ask a free question.
Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT) is a highly effective and innovative treatment option in a variety of fields, from urology to cosmetology including orthopedics. This is a non-invasive method that employs high-energy shockwaves to bring about the healing of the affected tissues. It has been found to provide good results for recalcitrant orthopaedic problems like frozen shoulder to certain chronic degenerative or tendon conditions such as Achilles tendinitis (injury of the Achilles' tendon due to overuse) and plantar fasciitis in heel pain.
How does it work?
The procedure is basically an outpatient/ daycare job. It involves the application of a non-invasive probe to the affected tissue. This is followed by the external generation of shockwaves focused on the target area. The shockwaves cause a force to be created that brings about healing. Although it's still not clear as to why this kind of therapy works, the dominant understanding is that shockwaves render an improvement in the flow of blood so as to promote the body to fix and heal itself.
Depending on individual cases, high or low energy waves may be employed. While pain may occur during the transmission of high energy waves and would require short general anaesthesia, low-energy ESWT is carried out without anesthesia.
What problems can this form of therapy effectively tackle?
ESWT can be used to treat a number of musculoskeletal disorders. From plantar fasciitis (heel pain), tennis elbow, shoulder rotator cuff, degenerated tendons (Achilles' tendon) to hip and knee pain, the therapy has been found to reduce pain as well as accelerate healing in individuals.
Complications are very few and far between with this therapy. Individuals who suffer from hypersensitivity or poor sensation in the affected area are usually not recommended this procedure. Even individuals with heart conditions, seizures and open sores need to consult a doctor before going forward with the therapy.
The therapy has also been found to be very effective in bone healing as well as treatment of bone necrosis (a disease that occurs due to permanent or temporary loss of blood flow to the bones). Additionally in place of surgery, ESWT may also be a valuable option for non-healing fractures. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
A mastectomy is surgical removal of a breast. The surgery depends on various factors and choosing a type of mastectomy best suited for an individual suffering from breast cancer requires experience and expertise. With advancing technology, there are more options available for women to opt for surgeries, which are minimally invasive and conserving in nature. Following are the various types of mastectomies and the factors, which influence them:
Types of Mastectomy
1. Total or simple mastectomy
This is a surgical procedure which involves complete removal of the breast including the nipple. The lymph nodes, which are small glands, are an important part of your immune system and are kept intact during the surgery. This form of surgery is most suitable if the cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes.
2. Preventive mastectomy
Preventive mastectomy, also known as prophylactic mastectomy, is an option for women who have a high risk of developing breast cancer. Preventive mastectomy reduces the risk of breast cancer by a huge margin. In certain cases, removal of the entire breast along with the nipple is advisable. Women who develop cancer on one breast often opt for preventive mastectomy and remove the other unaffected breast as well.
3. Partial mastectomy
Women who are in stage I or stage ii of breast cancer can choose this procedure. It is a breast conserving technique where the tumor is removed along with the tissue that surrounds it. It is followed up by radiation therapy on the remaining breast tissue, which terminates the cancer cells and stops them from spreading. There are two types of partial mastectomy, namely, lumpectomy and quadrantectomy.
4. Radical mastectomy
Although this procedure is almost out of use, it is still considered in case the cancer has spread to certain areas like the chest muscle. In this form of surgery, the breast is removed entirety along with muscles beneath it and the lymph nodes.
5. Modified mastectomy
It is a more commonly used procedure characterized by complete removal of the breast including underarm lymph nodes. The chest muscles are untouched in the procedure, therefore allowing a breast reconstruction to follow.
Factors influencing the type of mastectomy:
• Age of the individual
• Health in general
• Size of the tumor
• The spread of the tumor
• The rate of progression of the tumor
• Whether lymph nodes are affected or not
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor.
I have disc bulge at c5-6 level and disc extrusion at c6-7 level. L3/4, L5 spondylodegenarativ change.
I have multiple benign fribodomema, one is upto 2.8 cm others 1.9 cm, painful, cryoablation method will be safe to remove it? I don't want surgery again, please suggest me, non surgical methods will be safe to remove it? Age 24, unmarried.
Even though brain aneurysms are becoming common these days, not all of them are required to be treated. In some cases, the physician may choose to observe an aneurysm closely before adopting any treatment measure. But in patients in whom an aneurysm has progressed to a severe level, there are two treatment options:
- Open surgical clipping
- Endovascular therapy or coiling
Open surgical clipping for brain aneurysms:
This procedure is typically performed by a neurosurgeon who makes an incision in the head. An opening in the bone is made, and then a clip is positioned by dissecting through the spaces of the brain. This aids in preventing the flow of blood into an aneurysm. In this procedure, the patient is required to stay in the hospital for two to three nights after which he or she is discharged.
Considerable modifications have been made in the open surgery techniques in the recent years. Neurosurgeons are now able to perform eye brow incisions or mini craniotomies for clipping an aneurysm. In these procedures, a small incision is cut out in the skin above the eyebrow for making a window. A tiny clip is placed across the mouth of an aneurysm to help it heal. But it is worthy of mention here that these are all invasive procedures and take relatively longer time to recover compared to the coiling process.
- This treatment is also performed by a neurosurgeon, and it has been proved that this process is exceptionally suitable for patients with a ruptured aneurysm. Endovascular coiling is often done in coalesce with an angiogram, where a catheter is inserted into the vessel over the hip, which is then gradually carried to the vessels of the brain and finally to an aneurysm.
- Then the coils are packed to the point where it rises from the blood vessel, which prevents the blood from flowing intothe blood vessel. Most patients undergoing this minimally invasive procedure can go home the day following the surgery. The success rate of this process is very high, and over 125,000 patients have been treated all across the globe with the help of detachable platinum coils.
- Over the last few years, a substantial amount of advancements have taken place in the endovascular techniques. Recent developments show the use of flow diverting embolization devices, which are similar to a stent and are placed in the primary vessel, adjacent to an aneurysm. It diverts the flow away from an aneurysm and therefore, allows the neurosurgeons to treat the brain aneurysms, which were previously considered inaccessible and untreatable.
Both the procedures are quite efficient in treating a brain aneurysm. The most suitable option is dependent on a host of factors such as size, shape, location and overall health condition of the patient. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Neurosurgeon.