Diagnostic X- Ray
Bone Densitometry Procedure
Uterine Artery Embolization
Interventional Diagnostic Procedures
Angiography Radial Approach
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Please suggest. What does desiccated disc (L5-S1 ) mean? Is it serious? And what supplements should I take?
Uterine cancer, also known as endometrial cancer, occurs mostly to middle aged women. The uterus of a woman is a muscular organ. The cancer can affect any part of the uterus and is more common in women having obesity, diabetes and hypertension. In most cases, the cancer starts in the endometrium, hence called endometrial cancer. Uterine cancer can be cured using any of the following methods:
1. Surgical removal of the uterus along with ovaries, lymph nodes and fallopian tubes
2. Radiation therapy
Although uterine cancer is curable, it's always a better option to prevent it. You cannot control all the causes for uterine cancer like those related to heredity. But other than that, here are a few ways in which you can prevent suffering from uterine cancer:
1. Control body weight: Keep your body weight in control. Obesity can pose a huge risk of getting affected with uterine cancer. The fat in the body produces estrogen, which promotes the growth of uterine lining that is the Endometrium and may lead to Endometrium cancer.
2. Breast feed: If you are lactating, then the risk of the cancer decreases, as breast feeding decreases ovulation as well as estrogen activities.
3. Treat abnormal bleeding: If you are suffering from any type of abnormal bleeding, be that heavy periods, bleeding even after you reached menopause or if you start bleeding between two period cycles, consult your doctor immediately. Abnormal bleeding is the symptom of endometrial hyperplasia, which might eventually turn cancerous.
4. Exercise: As already said earlier, keep your weight under control to avoid uterine cancer. Exercise to avoid increase in weight leading to obesity. It also reduces the estrogen level in your body.
5. Healthy food: Healthy food is the key to avoid any disease, be that a common cold or uterine cancer. Eat a healthy and balanced diet everyday to be fit and bouncing.
6. Birth control pills: It is believed that the intake of birth control pills helps to keep uterine cancer at bay.
So eat healthy, exercise and adopt healthy habits. Then nothing can stop you from enjoying life to the fullest. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
Rubbery cushions (discs) between the bones (vertebrae) stack up to form the spine. When a nerve between the disc and vertebrae is pressed and inflamed, that condition is called herniated disc. The herniated disc is also referred to as the ruptured disc or the slipped disc. This is caused when the soft jelly is pushed out due to a tear in the exterior. Herniated discs can lead to an irritation of the nerves and result in tremendous pain. It may also cause the arms and legs to become numb and weak. However, some people suffering from this condition may not display any symptoms at all.
Herniated disc generally occur in the lower part of the vertebral column. The herniated disc may also be seen in the thoracic spine or cervical spine. The symptoms of a herniated disc include pain in the legs, feet, or the buttocks, pain in the shoulder blade, tingling of the feet, numbness of the feet and hands, muscle weakness, neck pain or muscle spasm in the neck. Most common causes of herniated discs are aging, excessive weight or lifting of heavy weight.
Prevention of herniated disc
- Herniated discs are very commonly found in people who are aged between 35 or 55 years. They are seen more commonly in the men in comparison to the women.
- A herniated disc cannot be prevented easily, but there certain things that you can do to reduce the risks. Maintaining the proper techniques of lifting is important. You should not be bending at your waist. You should always bend the knees and keep the back straight. This helps you to use your leg muscles which are very strong to support the weight.
- As the saying goes, precaution is better than cure, so here are few precautions that can be taken to avoid herniated discs. Practicing a proper posture can help in reducing the risk of a herniated disc. It is extremely important for an individual to maintain a healthy posture while standing, sitting, walking, and even sleeping. It is imperative that you stretch your muscles when you are sitting in one position for a long time.
- Another important thing to avoid is high-heeled shoes, as they are few of the most common causes of a herniated disc. It would be a good idea to go for flat and well cushioned comfortable footwear as they can go a long way in reducing the risk of the herniated disc.
- Exercising regularly can go a long way in keeping the muscles of the legs, stomach, and back very strong. You should try to balance your flexibility and strength by exercising regularly. The best form of exercise to avoid herniated disc or ruptured disc is aerobic exercise.
- It is true that as you start to age, the chances of getting a herniated disc increase significantly. However, if proper precautions are taken, the stress put on the spine can be effectively reduced, thereby eliminating the risk of a herniated disc. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Doctor my 13 year old daughter has developed slip disc in her L4 and L5 vertebrae. What should be her treatment?
Fractures are simply a break in a bone. They can be caused due to injury, (traumatic fractures) or a pre-existing condition like osteoporosis that causes weakening of bones (pathologic fractures). There are many ways to classify fractures. All fractures fall into the major categories of simple and compound fractures. Simple fractures are fractures where bones remain inside the skin and don’t jut out. They are also called closed fractures.
Compound fractures, also called open fractures, are broken bones that penetrate through the skin. These types expose the bone and deep tissues to the environment. Compound fractures are more serious of the two. The healing here may be affected due to deep infections for which antibiotics need to be used. There are many different sub types of fractures and we’re only going to skim through them here.
- Comminuted fractures: Severe fractures in which a bone breaks into several smaller pieces.
- Avulsion fractures: A small piece of bone is completely torn off from the main bone due to fierce pulling off a part of the body.
Other types of fractures are characterised by the many different angles the bone breaks into like transverse, oblique and spiral fractures.
When a bone is broken there are symptoms like swelling that doesn’t subside on its own and pain. In such a case it’s imperative that one goes to a doctor for a diagnosis. Doctors can usually recognise most fractures by examining the injury and taking an X-ray. The X-ray also provides a clear idea about the type of fracture and the degree of displacement of the bone. And, it’s important that the patient doesn’t wait too long before approaching a doctor. This is because bones begin to heal very quickly after a fracture and the bone tissue will heal using any tissue available. This can lead to a misalignment of broken pieces of bone and cause disability and loss of function.
There are cases when X-ray may not show a fracture. This is especially common in fractures in the hip and wrist in older people. For diagnosing these, doctors will get some other tests done such as a computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or a bone scan.
Fractures have to be treated by doctors. The doctors set the fractured bones in their proper place and hold them there so that they can heal. Setting a bone is called "reduction." Reduction without surgery is called "closed reduction." But if the fracture is serious, it’s going to require surgery with bone repositioning, called open reduction.
In extreme cases, pins, plates, screws, rods, or glue are used to hold the fractured bones in place, inside the body. Once the bone abutment has been treated, the bone is immobilised to allow the broken pieces to heal. In most cases, the fractured part is set in a rigid cast. The fractured ends of the bone can be fixed into place using metal pins connected to an external frame. This is removed after the bone has healed. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an orthopedist.
A is a screening test done to to test for occurrence of uterine cancer. Carried out in a quick and simple way to extract a sample, the sample is collected from the cervix area of a woman during a pelvic exam. The examination of the sample takes place under a microscope thereafter to find abnormalities that can point towards cancer and pre cancer changes.
There are many reasons why women should get a pap smear screening done:
1. Women who are HIV positive should get this test done regularly so as to detect any anomalies in the cervix. This condition usually comes with higher risk of infections and cancer, which is why regular screening is required.
2. Age is also another factor and women over the age of 30 should go through an annual screening on a compulsory basis. This is also true for women who have been through pregnancy and child birth.
Preparing for a Pap Smear: To prepare for a pap smear test, you need to ensure that you are not menstruating at the time. Also, you may want to avoid sexual activity just before the test so as to get the most accurate readings. During the process, remember to stay calm and relax your body physically.
Procedure: The pap smear procedure is a quick one that might be only slightly uncomfortable. This test is usually carried out on the examination table at the gynecologist's clinic. The legs will need to be spread and placed in stirrups. The doctor will insert a speculum to hold open the vaginal opening so that the spatula can be inserted easily to take a sample from the area. This sample of the cells will be tested in a lab after due preservation.
Test Results: The test results can either be normal or abnormal. An abnormal result does not point at the presence of cancer. Rather it can simply mean that abnormal cells exist in the cervix. The doctor may ask you to go through these tests and screening more frequently so as to study the anomalies in a more detailed manner.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!