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Simple renal cysts are often found even in normal kidneys. In fact, they are so common that they are rarely considered as a disease. Certain lifestyle traits or genetics can be the cause of renal cysts occurring in adults as well as children, though no conclusive reasons have yet been confirmed for the occurrence of the same. Medical imaging technology such as ultrasound, X-ray, and CT scanning are being extensively used to discover these lesions.
In various surveys of people undergoing ultrasound for evaluation of non-kidney-related problems, generally 15% men and 7% women over the age of 50 were detected with renal cysts. Once the radiologic imaging of the cyst is obtained, the doctor can determine what further examination will be required.
There are basically two types of renal cysts, simple and complex.
- Simple cysts are usually round, have a thin outer wall, are filled with fluid and are rarely required to be treated.
- Complex cysts, however, can have thicker walls with solidified mass or can also be a collection of small cysts. These are definitely required to be examined further as they can be cancerous.
With the latest radiological approach to renal cysts, i.e. the Bosniak classification, observation of lesions is preferred to biopsy. Even though biopsies nowadays are largely non-intrusive, they are still recommended under very specific circumstances.
This classification uses a complicated algorithm of CT scan features like size, density and perfusion and places cystic renal masses into one of the five different categories. Categories I and II are generally simple cysts, not requiring further analysis. Still, an ultrasound is repeated at intervals of 6-12 months to ensure that the cyst is not growing. However, Bosniak category IIF cysts indicate complex cysts which are required to be observed. Lack of change with time indicates that the mass is benign, while any increase indicates the possibility of cancer. Through observation, one can prevent unnecessary surgeries.
It is mostly recommended that lesions falling under Bosniak III category should be immediately surgically removed as 40-50% have the possibility of becoming cancerous. However, close follow-up with magnetic resonance imaging can be used to avoid unnecessary surgeries as it is useful for characterizing the internal content of a cyst which may be is indeterminate even after the ultrasound and CT scan. Category IV lesions necessarily require surgical removal of the kidney, as nearly 85-100% of these are cancerous. More than 90% of those diagnosed with renal cancer which is confined to the kidney can hope to become disease-free within five years after diagnosis.
Thus, complex renal cysts have a higher possibility of developing into cancer if they are found to be malignant during the period of observation and steps should be taken for immediate removal.
Sir mere ear ke piche cancer ki ganth ho gae hai mujhe jo jo bhi dawai leni hai mujhe likhkar bhejen please please please mujhe likhkar bhejo?
Here are a few things you should know about Testicular Cancer (TC):
- Age: The commonest affected age group is 20-45 years with germ cell tumours. Half of all cases occur in men less than 35 years. Non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT) are more common at ages 20-35, while seminoma is more common at age 35-45 years. Rarely, infants and boys below 10 years develop yolk sac tumours and 50% men above 60 years with TC have lymphoma.
- Race: White Caucasian people living in Europe and the US have the highest risk. Whites are three times more likely to develop TC than blacks in the US. With the exception of the New Zealand Maoris, TC is rare in non-Caucasian races.
- Previous TC: Confers a 12-fold increased risk of metachronous TC. Bilateral TC occurs in 1-2% of cases.
- Cryptorchidism: 5-10% of TC patients have a history of cryptorchidism. Ultrastructural changes are present in these testes by age 3 years, although earlier orchidopexy does not completely eliminate the risk of developing TC. According to a large Swedish study, cryptorchidism is associated with a two-fold increased risk of TC in men who underwent orchiopexy less than 13 year, but risk is increased 5-fold in men who underwent orchiopexy aged above13 years. A meta-analysis showed risk of contralateral TC almost doubles while ipsilateral TC risk is increased 6-fold in men with unilateral cryptorchidism.
- Intratubular germ cell neoplasia (testicular intraepithelial neoplasia, TIN): Synonymous with carcinoma in situ, although the disease arises from malignant change in spermatogonia; 50% of cases develop invasive germ cell TC within 5 years. The population incidence is 0.8%. Risk factors include cryptorchidism, extragonadal germ cell tumour, atrophic contralateral testis, 45XO karyotype, Klinefelter's syndrome, previous or contralateral TC (5%), and infertility.
- Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): Patients develop seminoma 35% more frequently than expected. Genetic factors: appear to play a role, given that first-degree relatives are at higher risk by 4-9-fold, but a defined familial inheritance pattern is not apparent.
- Maternal oestrogen exposure: At higher than usual levels during pregnancy appears to increase risk of cryptorchidism, urethral anomalies, and TC in male offspring.
Trauma and viral-induced atrophy have not been convincingly implicated as risk factors for TC.
Sir, my fiancee is having breast cancer and she was getting treated with chemotherapy. Now she will treated with radiation. She has been diagnosed with ER/PR positive. So doctor has stopped her periods & told that it will be stopped for 5 years. So I want to know that can she try for pregnancy after marriage in between those 5 years? & What are the effects, merits or demerits.
I have a 2 year old baby I have stopped breast feeding her, but my nipples irritate me while we have sex or baby plays with it.
Amongst the different types of gynecological cancers prevalent today, ovarian cancer is associated with the highest rate of fatality. This type of cancer refers to tumours that grow in the ovaries. In most cases, these develop on the outer lining or epithelium of the ovary. Though this type of cancer is difficult to treat in its later stages, if diagnosed early enough it can be easily managed.
In the early stages of ovarian cancer, very few symptoms may be present. Many women do not experience any symptoms at all. The symptoms that may be experienced can be associated with other conditions and hence often go unrecognized. However, in the case of ovarian cancer, these symptoms will gradually increase and worsen with time. Some of the early symptoms of ovarian cancer could include:
- Pain in the lower stomach or pelvic area
- Back aches
- Frequent urge to urinate
- Painful intercourse
- Change in bowel habits
- Weight loss
- Loss of appetite or feeling full without eating too much
Ovarian cancer usually affects women over the age of 65. Women with a family history of breast cancer or ovarian cancer have a higher risk of developing these tumours. Endometriosis and hormone replacement therapy could also increase one’s risk of ovarian cancer.
As with other types of cancer, treatment for ovarian cancer depends largely on how far it has advanced. The main forms of treatment include surgery, chemotherapy and radiation. Surgery is usually the first step of treating ovarian cancer. This involves a partial or complete hysterectomy. In the former, only one ovary and the adjoining fallopian tube is removed while in the latter both ovaries, fallopian tubes and the uterus are removed. The lymph nodes around the reproductive system and the fatty tissue in the abdomen may also be removed. A woman can conceive a child after a partial hysterectomy. In cases of advanced ovarian cancer, surgery may also include removing cancerous cells from the urinary system, intestines and spleen.
Surgery is usually followed by chemotherapy, medication for targeted therapy or hormone therapy. Radiation is rarely used to treat ovarian cancer. In addition, many patients also require counselling to cope with body change issues and the loss of sexual desire. Ovarian cancer can recur and hence it is also important to get regularly screened for any signs of recurrent tumours. In cases of recurrent cancer, chemotherapy is the most preferred form of treatment. Consult an Expert & get answers to your questions!
Hello mere friend ne last year neck k 2 ct scan karaya the or ab dental x ray krya h kya isse cancer ka risk increase hota h kya.
Screening for cancer of the colon or large intestine and rectum is a proven way of saving a person from the impacts of colorectal diseases. This is partly because colon cancer is something that can be prevented if detected at an early stage and the polyps which may advance to cancer are removed properly. Thus if you are turning 50 soon, be prepared to present yourself for a screening colonoscopy that will help you ensure good health and well-being. It may sound uncanny, but do you know that 50,000 people across the world die from colorectal cancer every year, and it is ranked second in terms of cancer-centric deaths.
Understanding the importance of having colonoscopy: You may wonder how a painful, invasive, embarrassing, uncomfortable and time-consuming health test may be called a present. There are reasons enough. A screening colonoscopy is able to expose a cancerous tumour that's presently under way and cast light on the chances and risk factors that may precede it. When you choose to intervene early, you have the power to nip those risks at their budding stage, much before those malicious cells become malignant.
Spreading of the colorectal cancer: Your large intestine is really a big and last organ of the gastrointestinal system where the small intestine discontinues. Its primary function is to remove the water out of the leftover solids of digestion and get rid of them in the form of stool. Cancer may start to develop anywhere within the tube that expands 5 feet long and squares the vacant area of the abdomen. The large intestine expands up towards the right side, i.e. the ascending colon and then turns left through the liver, i.e., the transverse colon, bending down right at the spleen on its left, i.e. descending colon and loops to the middle, i.e., the sigmoid colon before it runs across the rectum and ends at the anus.
People who need a colonoscopy: To simplify matters, it can be said that all adults are at a potential risk of the colorectal cancer, including those people who lead a healthy life. But some people are at a higher risk. Those individuals have a specific gene mutation that predisposes them to develop into numerous polyps. The risk is also high with people who are first-degree relatives of a person diagnosed with cancer before the age of 50. People with Ulcerative colitis, various types of inflammatory bowel diseases and Crohn's disease are also at a higher risk.
Colorectal cancer is a serious ailment and screening colonoscopy is a feasible means of detecting any polyps that may be cancerous in the future. Speak with a reputed gastroenterologist today to stay ahead of the disease. Consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Cancer is not just a physical problem but an emotional one, not just for the patient but for the caretakers as well. While treating cancer per se is a task, managing the complications that arise out of it is another major issue. With environmental pollution and smoking on the rise, lung cancer incidences have also increased significantly.
Read on to know how to manage lung cancer, including some symptoms.
Emotionally, once the diagnosis is confirmed, there could be a mixed bag of feelings including fear, confusion, anxiety and uncertainty. Having a close family member or friend accompany you on medical visits certainly helps, as they can guide in asking the right questions and interpreting things the right way.
Being a part of social groups helps in coping with emotional stress that comes with the disease, as it reduces the feeling of loneliness and puts you in touch with others who are on the same journey.
Physically, some of the symptoms along with ways to manage are listed below.
- Pain: One of the major symptoms of any cancer, pain can be severe and needs to be handled for the overall quality of life. Long-acting pain medications would be required to control pain, and if the still persists, one might have to go for short-acting pain killers for immediate pain control. In addition, warm massages, oil therapies, meditation, and Ayurvedic therapies can do wonders in managing the pain.
- Smoke exposure: One of the main causes of lung cancer, exposure to smoke should be avoided at all costs. While quitting smoking is a must, exposure to secondhand smoke should also be avoided. Any other form of tobacco is a strict no too.
- Shortness of breath: With lung cancer, the lungs’ ability to supply oxygen to the various organs is reduced. This puts additional pressure on the lungs, and so can cause shortness of breath. Try to not exert the body, and with any physical strain, it is advisable to rest. Listen to your body’s signs and rest accordingly.
- Weakened immunity: Chemotherapy weakens the immune system and puts you at risk for infections of all the organs. Therefore, eat healthy, drink lots of water including non-caffeinated beverages, exercise within limits that your body allows, and sleep well. This helps in improving the immune system. Reduce exposure to pollutants and to people who are not well. This can control chances of developing infections.
- Cough and sore throat: Lung cancer puts one at risk of developing a chronic sore throat and cough. Drink warm liquids, avoid cold beverages, and keep your flu shots up to date.
While cancer definitely is a scary proposition, some simple things can help you cope better. Consult an Expert & get answers to your questions!
My father has cancer of 3 stage in eating pipe but we can't do operation any other solution do you all.
Hi I am 25 years old girl and I have a big lump in my right breast. It pain once in 10-15 days for 2-3 min automatically and than get painless also. Please suggest is this causing cancer? What are the chances and what should I need to do? It is in breast from last 3 years.
Summary report. FINAL DIAGNOSIS: GAIN CELL TUMOUR LEFT LITTLE finger Surgery: Ray Amputation left little finger done on18-11-2004 c/o swelling over little finger since 1 month 2 weeks History and finding :c/o swelling over little finger since 1 month 2 weeks MNH biopsy done on 25.10.2004. His biopsy report (8.11.2004)-gain cell tumour. To rule of out brown. Tumour of hyperparathyroid. U/s of thyroid - normal study PTH Essay -32, 71has been admitted for ray amputation of left little finger. Investigations: hb 16. 2gms. Discussion and treatment: Ray amputation left little finger done on 18.11.2004. under g/a. Patient was on injection epoecelin 1gm IV BD. Injection dumafol 50 gm im. Dressing changed on 2nd POD wound cleaned. Advice at discharge :cap proxyvon 1 SOS for pain. Ambulation / rehabilitation :plan :Review on 10th POD for suture removal. Advised to review in the out patient on 28.11.2004. Now I am 29 years male, If it will be repeat in future?
Hello. I want to know that there's a lump in my left breast. Can it become cancer? Sometimes I find it little painful n' it irritates me while sleeping on my bellies! :(. Should I operate it out? (*operations se dar lagta hai mujhe*)I went for an ultrasound check up. Doctors said it's just a fibroadenoma. Kindly suggest me something.
Radiation therapy is used for destroying the brain tumor cells, and relieves the symptoms of discomfort and pain caused by the tumor. Radiation is usually used after biopsy or resection of the tumor. This is done to destroy the microscopic cells of the tumor which have been left behind. Sometimes this is also an option for unresectable brain tumors or the metastatic tumors which spread to the brain from other parts of the body.
The radiation therapy is planned on several factors like the size and type of the tumor and the extent to which it has spread. Usually external beam radiation is used for the brain cancer and the area radiated involves the tumor and the surrounding area. In case of a metastatic brain cancer the radiation is given to the entire brain. People who have lung cancer receive radiation in the brain as a preventive therapy in order to stop the metastatic cancer from developing.
Side effects of brain cancer radiation
Depending on the site, dose, and other factors the radiation therapy when given to the brain might cause side effects. Hair loss, fatigue, edema, skin irritations are a few common side effects of brain tumor radiation. In some cases some people might develop swelling of the ankle, foot, calf and blood clots in the leg.
What is radiation therapy?
Radiation therapy is basically the use of targeted energy like X-ray and radioactive substances to kill the cancer cells, or shrink them or change the symptoms related to cancer. This therapy might be used as:
- Primary treatment for the destruction of the cancer cells
- In combination with other ongoing treatments to inhibit the growth of the cancer cells
- Prior to another treatment to shrink the cancer cells
- Post some treatment to stop the growth of any cancer cells that have been left behind
- To relieve cancer symptoms
Types of radiation
Some of the radiation methods commonly used are:
- External beam radiation therapy: In this the radiation is directed from outside the body on the cancerous cells in the body. Some examples of this are IMRT, TomoTherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, 3D conformal radiation therapy and IGRT.
- Internal radiation therapy: In this the radioactive substance is placed close to the tumor with the help of a catheter or some carrier. Examples of this are high-dose rate brachytherapy.
- Systemic radiation therapy: In this a radioactive substance is injected or swallowed, which further locates and destroys the cancerous cells. Example of this is radioactive iodine therapy.
- Managing radiation side effects: Radiation therapy in some cases can cause unpleasant side effects like fatigue and nausea. Thus it should be kept in mind that maximum radiation doses should be given with less or little impact on the healthy tissues. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Oncologist.
The cancer of the ovaries is known as ovarian cancer. In women there are two ovaries present on each side of the uterus. These ovaries are as big as an almond in size and produce egg also known as ova. They also secrete the hormones progesterone and estrogen.
Ovarian cancer goes undetected until it spreads to the abdomen and pelvis. When detected at this stage then it might be fatal and the treatment gets difficult. An early stage ovarian cancer where the cancer is restricted in the ovaries is much easier to treat with high success rates.
Risk Factors of Ovarian Cancer
1. Age - With increasing age the risk of ovarian cancer is higher and is more common in women who are 60 and above. It is less common in women below 40 years of age and develops often after menopause.
Obesity Women who have a body mass index of 30 are at a risk of developing ovarian cancer.
2. History of Reproduction - It is believed that women who conceive before 26 and carry the full term have a lower risk of ovarian cancer. However, the risk is higher in those women who get pregnant after 35 or who do not have a full term pregnancy. Also, breastfeeding the baby lowers the risk.
3. Gene Mutation - Inherited gene mutation causes some percentage of ovarian cancer. These genes are called breast cancer genes 1 and 2 (BRCA1 and BRCA2). These were initially found in cases with breast cancer but also pose great risk for ovarian cancer. Also, gene mutation leading to Lynch syndrome plays an important role in increasing the risk of ovarian cancer.
4. Family History - If a woman's mother, sister or daughter is suffering from ovarian cancer then she is at a higher risk of developing the same. The risk also increases if someone from the father side also has ovarian cancer.
5. Fertility Drugs - Drugs like clomiphene citrate, if used for more than a year can increase the risk of the cancer. The risk is even higher if a woman taking the drug does not get pregnant.
6. Hormone Therapy and Estrogen Therapy - Long term use and large doses of estrogen can cause an increased risk. However, if estrogen is used in combination with progesterone then the risk is less.
7. Age of Menstruation and Menopause - If menstruation starts before 12 and menopause occurs before 52 then there is a higher risk of getting the cancer.
8. Diet - A low fat vegetarian diet has less risk of the disease. Fresh fruit and vegetables should be included in diet along with pulses, rice, pasta, beans, cereals and breads. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
What are all the diet chart to prevent or to cure skin cancer? Expose the body to Sunlight is advantage or not?
Skin is a very vital organ of your body as it protects your body from external injuries and also helps in regulating your body temperature. The gradual development of cancer cells on your skin region is known as skin cancer. Skin cancer is a very common disease that is affecting people worldwide. Many causes are responsible for skin cancer.
Some of them are stated as follows:
- Overexposure to sun rays. The Ultraviolet rays can cause serious damage to your skin that can lead to cancer.
- Sun burns may also result in the development of cancer cells
- Frequent exposure to toxic chemical substance can also trigger skin cancer.
- A frail immune system may also contribute to skin cancer.
- Certain scars on your skin, if left untreated, may become cancerous and eventually lead to skin cancer.
- Consuming unhealthy foods and being unhygienic may also lead to skin cancers.
Skin cancer may develop all over your body or on any particular region of your skin. It can spread to other parts of your body rapidly. The symptoms of skin cancer depend on the type of your cancer.
Some of the common symptoms of skin cancer are as follows:
- A sore on your skin that cannot be healed
- Swelling of your skin
- You may also get an itching sensation frequently
- Appearance of bumps
- Bleeding of the affected areas
- Appearance of reddish spots
- A bleeding mole
Skin cancer is absolutely curable if treated at an early stage. Ayurveda offers effective remedies for treating skin cancer.
They are mentioned below:
- Panchakarma therapy is the most effective treatment for healing skin cancer. It involves purification and removal of harmful toxins from your body through its 5 constituent therapeutic treatments namely, Vamana, Virechana, Nasya, Basti and Raktamokshana.
- Drinking green tea can be very helpful. It is known to have anti cancerous properties which help prevent and combat this killer.
- Including more of citrus food in your diet such as lemons, oranges; excluding oily, fried foods and cutting down on higher quantities of sugar can prove to be beneficial.
- Applying turmeric paste on the affected areas may help you to guard against skin cancer.
You must not ignore skin cancer and seek advice from a doctor as early as possible since the process of metastasis (spreading of cancer cells to different spots of your body) is very rapid in this case.
One of the major causes of death worldwide is lung cancer and it has been continuously affecting men and women accounting for about 150,000 deaths every year. Astonishingly, this figure is more than the combined death rate of the next three kinds of cancer, namely, colon, breast, and pancreatic cancer.
As with any type of cancer, lung cancer to has increased life expectancy when diagnosed in the earlier stages. Thus, being informed about the causes and signs of this deadly disease becomes critical to treat the condition.
The prevalent causes
The major risk factor for lung cancer is smoking and second-hand or passive smoking. The risks are increased when the smokers are exposed to other potential risk factors such as getting exposed radon and asbestos.
Who should be screened?
- As said earlier, cancer when diagnosed early has an increased success rate for a cure.
- Most people do not admit that they are vulnerable to lung cancer and this mindset has to be changed first and foremost.
- There are many people who would benefit from an early diagnosis. This is because the modern medical procedures are highly beneficial in changing the lives of the affected, for better.
- People, who are avid smokers or have a history of smoking, should always opt for lung cancer screening.
- In this regard, it should be kept in mind that people, who have stopped smoking for the last 15 years, should also be tested.
- People belonging to the age group of 55-80 and who have smoked in the past should also come under the screening procedure.
Who should not be tested and why?
Lung cancer is a ghastly disease, but still, it is advised that everyone should not be screened. These tests involve a lot of risks, which are indeed severe.
- The first risk is the false-positive test result wherein the test confirms that the patient is suffering from the disease, but he is not.
- The second risk is over-diagnosis where the cancer is at a benign stage, but there are unnecessary treatments considering it to be dangerous.
Lastly, there is the risk of exposure to radiation.
So, who is the right candidate?
Now the question arises, who should be asked to screen themselves for lung cancer? Or, when is the ideal time to for screening? Because of the risks associated with CT scanning and the chances of doing more harm than good to people who are not prone to having lung cancer, the doctors recommend screening to only those people who are at high risk. Unfortunately, the symptoms of this disease are almost nil in number. To be an ideal candidate for screening, the patient should be in good health and should have a smoking habit as mentioned above.