Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
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There are several medical conditions that can adversely impact the vulva in females. There can be infections ranging from mild to high as per the skin condition. The vulva is also at the risk of developing cancer in some cases. It is advisable to consult a doctor, whenever you find any bleeding, rash or lump in the vulva. Your doctor will be in a position to tell whether you need immediate treatment or not. Your symptoms will help him to determine the cause behind the changes.
What is the vulva?
Vulva forms the outer (external) sex organs of a woman. It is made up of two pairs of muscular 'lips'. The outer pair is called the labia majora. The outer pair is covered in pubic hair. The inner pair is called the labia minora. The inner pair is thinner and is very delicate and sensitive. You will find two openings in between these lips. These lips lead to uterus and urethra separately. There is a tiny organ called clitoris that lies just in front of the vulva.
What are the symptoms linked to vulva related diseases?
The symptoms will depend obviously on the underlying condition. Ranging from pain, itching, and finding a lump, you may notice several kinds of symptoms. All these changes are related to the appearance of the vulva. The symptoms decide the gravity of the situation. It is advisable to not wait and take prompt medical help in case of lumps in the vulva. A doctor will be able to tell what has happened to tell you by means of physical examination first. Later, you might have to take tests like internal swab test. A swab is nothing, but a small ball of cotton attached to a thin stick. It will be rubbed inside vulva to collect samples for testing. The doctor may also go for a biopsy to confirm the presence of carcinogenic cells in the vulva lump.
What infections can affect vulva?
Vulva can be affected by infections that are caused by germs such as bacteria, viruses and fungi. You may be affected due to the following infections:
1. Thrush: It is a common infection in women. It leads to a whitish discharge. It makes the vulva red and very itchy. It can be treated with anti fungal creams.
2. Genital herpes infection: It is a sexually transmitted infection and spreads by skin-to-skin contact. Many people who are infected might not have symptoms. But they are carriers and can pass on to a healthy person. There is an occurrence of mild soreness or blisters.
3. Genital warts: It is caused by viral infection due to close sexual contact.
4. Other infections: You vulva can be affected by scabies and pubic lice.
Pregnancy can put quite a strain on your body. As your body changes to accommodate the growing baby, you may find yourself suffering from a few common discomforts associated with the various stages of pregnancy. Most of these are nothing to worry about. Here are a few of the most common problems faced by pregnant women.
- Backaches: As the body’s ligaments stretch and become softer to prepare for labour, you may feel a strain on your lower back and pelvis. This can cause a chronic backache. The growing weight of the fetus within your body can also add to this discomfort.
- Morning sickness: Despite its name, morning sickness can affect you at any time of the day. Most women begin to experience nausea and an urge to vomit from the 4th or 6th week of pregnancy, but this usually resolves itself by the 16th or 20th week of pregnancy. Some women may even feel sick for the entire day.
- Bleeding gums: Pregnancy hormones can make your gums more vulnerable to the build-up of plaque. This can lead to inflammation and bleeding gums. This condition may also be known as pregnancy gingivitis.
- Cramps: Many pregnant women complain of cramps in their calves and feet. This usually is more common at night, but the cause behind it is not clear.
- Urinary incontinence: Urinary incontinence is a problem experienced by many women during and after pregnancy. They often find themselves involuntarily urinating while coughing, laughing or sneezing. In most cases, this is a temporary problem caused by the relaxation of pelvic floor muscles (to prepare for delivery) and should resolve itself after delivery. Women may also find themselves feeling the urge to urinate frequently. This may be because of the pressure being placed on your bladder by the uterus.
- Skin and hair changes: Pregnancy hormones can make birthmarks, moles and freckles darken. Your nipples may also turn darker. In addition to this, you may notice the bumps around the nipples become more prominent. Pregnant women may also find their skin more prone to sunburns. You may also notice an increased rate of hair growth.
- Feeling hotter than normal: The hormonal changes occurring during pregnancy can make you feel warmer than normal because of increased blood supply to the skin. You may also find yourself sweating more than usual. In addition, you may also feel faint because of decreased blood supply to the brain. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
Preconception planning and health care focus on things you can do before and between pregnancies to increase your odds of having a healthy child. For a few women, preparing their body for pregnancy takes a couple of months. For others, it may take longer. Here are a few things you should consider in your preconception planning:
- See your doctor: Before getting pregnant, consult a doctor and talk to them about the preconception healthcare needs. The doctor will need to examine your family history and any other medical conditions you may have at present that could influence your future pregnancy.
- Medical conditions: In case you have any medicinal conditions, make sure they are under control and being dealt with properly. Some of these conditions include: STDs (sexually transmitted diseases), diabetes, thyroid, phenylketonuria (PKU), seizures, hypertension, joint inflammation, dietary issues and other chronic diseases.
- Lifestyle and behavior: Consult a doctor or a specialist in case you smoke, drink liquor or use drugs; live in an unpleasant or oppressive environment; or work with or live around harmful substances.
- Medication: Consuming certain medicines during pregnancy can bring about genuine birth defects. These include some remedy and over-the-counter pharmaceuticals and dietary or home grown supplements. In case you are planning a pregnancy, you need to examine the requirement for any medicine with your specialist before becoming pregnant and ensure you are taking just those medicines that are vital.
- Take 400 micrograms of folic acid every day: Folic acid is a vital nutrient that the body requires, especially during pregnancy. If a woman has enough folic acid in her body at least one month before and during pregnancy, it can prevent some birth defects of the infant's brain and spine.
- Quit drinking alcohol, smoking, and using drugs: Smoking, drinking liquor and consuming drugs can bring about numerous issues during pregnancy for a woman and her child which may include untimely birth, birth imperfections, and newborn death.
- Dodge toxic substances and environmental contaminants: Dodge lethal substances and other ecological contaminants and destructive materials at work or at home. For example, engineered chemicals, metals, bug sprays, fertilizers and animal faeces.
- Maintain a healthy weight: Women who are overweight have a higher risk for some serious conditions, including complications during pregnancy, coronary disease, type-2 diabetes and certain other diseases (endometrial, bosom, and colon). Women who are underweight are likewise at risk for other medical issues. The way to accomplish and keep up a sound weight is not about short-term dietary changes. One should maintain it throughout in order to stay healthy and fit.
- Family history: Gathering your family's health history can be critical for your child’s well-being. Depending upon your family history, you might be recommended to genetic counselling by your doctor. Women go for genetic counselling owing to different reasons such as having had premature deliveries in the past, an infant’s death, infertility, or even a hereditary condition or birth defect that happened during a past pregnancy. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
More than half of the women who menstruate, tend to go through pain from period cramps for a day or two every month. During the menstrual cycle, the uterus contracts to remove its coating or lining. Hormone like substances, called prostaglandins, which are the cause for pain and aggravation, trigger the uterine muscle contractions. More elevated levels of prostaglandins are linked with more severe menstrual cramps.
While menstrual cramps, additionally called dysmenorrhea, are normally not an indication of a highly serious health condition, they can act as barriers in your daily lifestyle. To help with the pain, here are five things that may offer some relief. In case your period cramps appear to be extreme or you do not get help even after attempting some of these choices, check with your specialist for the required medication or treatment. Five ways to prevent severe menstrual cramps are:
- Exercise: A regular walk or any sort of physical movement can relieve you from the abdomen and thigh pain. This discharges endorphins to balance the prostaglandins and diminish your cramps. Exercising a little three to four times each week is useful for the general strength of your body.
- Apply a heating pad: Warmth unwinds the contracting muscles in your uterus, which is the reason for your pain. There are a number of over-the-counter warming pads and cushions, or electric, reusable heating bags.
- Drink chamomile tea: Certain teas may calm menstrual cramps. Teas have been used traditionally and can offer relief from pain. Chamomile tea is one of the most effective teas among many others. It tends to increase the hippurate element in your body, which is a natural anti-inflammatory agent. Mitigating agents diminish the prostaglandin formation in the body, accordingly assisting in pain relief from menstrual cramps.
- Improve your diet: Vitamin D is vital in decreasing menstrual cramps. Decreasing your fat intake and eating more vegetables as a part of your diet may ease the pain. Low-fat food and less carbs help your health by and large, even as they can have an obvious impact on menstrual issues. Swap less solid fats like the saturated fats found in junk food, for more healthy ones like unsaturated fats found in olive oil. Getting more dietary magnesium appears to relieve the pain as well. Magnesium directs better nerve and muscle functioning, among other crucial functions.
- Massage with essential oils: Using certain sweet-smelling oils and massaging them can likewise soothe menstrual pain. Dilute lavender, clary sage, or marjoram to a three percent concentration in an unscented cream. The duration of pain can be lessened from two and a half to one day after self-massaging with these essential oils. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.
Are you in the last trimester of pregnancy and experiencing symptoms such as abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, uterine tenderness and back pain? This might be an indication of a condition called placental abruption. This is a serious, but rare pregnancy complication in women. The placenta is the structure, which develops in the uterus for nourishing the growing baby. When the placenta peels away from the inner uterine wall before delivery, placental abruption occurs. The condition can deprive the growing baby of oxygen.
There are several factors, which increase the risk of placental abruption. They are as follows:
- High blood pressure: High blood pressure, be it chronic or because of pregnancy, increases the risk of placental abruption.
- Abdominal trauma: Certain trauma caused to the abdomen such as a fall or a blow to the abdomen increases your risk of having the condition.
- Substance abuse: Women who smoke and use drugs such as cocaine during pregnancy are more likely to have placental abruption.
- Premature rupture of the membranes: The growing baby is supported and surrounded by a fluid-filled membrane or the amniotic sac. When the sac leaks or breaks before labor, there are high chances of placental abruption.
- Blood clotting disorders: Any health condition which impairs blood clotting may increase the chance of placental abruption.
- Multiple pregnancy: For women who are carrying more than one baby, the delivery of the first baby may lead to changes in the uterus. This may cause placental abruption before the next baby is delivered.
- Maternal age: Placental abruption is more common or likely to occur among women who are above the age of 40.
It is not possible to reattach a placenta, which gets separated from the wall of the uterus. The treatment options for placental abruption depend on several circumstances. They are as follows:
- The baby is not close to full term: If the abruption is mild, your baby has a normal heart rate, and it is too early for him to be born, you might need to be hospitalized for monitoring. If the bleeding ends and the baby is in a stable condition, you might be able to go home and rest. In some cases, medicines are given to the baby for making his lungs mature.
- The baby is close to full term: If your baby is near full term, and the placental abruption is less, a closely monitored vaginal delivery is undertaken. In case of a progressive abruption, an immediate delivery might be required via C section.
It is recommended for you to consult a doctor on experiencing any symptom of placental abruption. This will help you in protecting your baby from any harm.
In medical terms, the pelvic floor refers to a group of muscles in the pelvic area. These muscles provide support to the organs in the pelvic region, including the bladder, uterus (women), prostate (men) and rectum.
What is pelvic floor dysfunction?
This is a medical condition that is used to refer to a situation when you are unable to control the functioning of the pelvic floor. It means you fail to control the bowel movement. People suffering from pelvic floor dysfunction use these muscles to contract rather than to relax. It is for this reason that they cannot have a bowel movement. They often have an incomplete one.
What causes pelvic floor dysfunction?
In most of the cases, the exact reason behind this dysfunction is unknown. It is often believed that this condition is caused due to traumatic injuries to the pelvic area. This can happen after an accident and due to complications aroused after vaginal childbirth.
What are the symptoms?
There are several symptoms that are linked to this medical condition. You must visit your doctor if you come across the following signs:
- The feel of having several bowel movements within a short period of time.
- If you feel that you cannot complete a bowel movement.
- When there is constipation pain linked with bowel movements.
- A frequent urge to urinate.
- Painful urination.
- Pain in lower back.
- Continuous pain in pelvic region, genitals, or rectum.
- Pain during intercourse in women
How is pelvic floor dysfunction diagnosed?
It may be diagnosed through a physical examination by the doctor. You will ask several questions to know the case history and find out the cause. You may also be asked to take pelvic muscle control test by placing surface electrodes on the perineum or sacrum. A small device called a perineometer is also used for the same.
What are the best ways for treating pelvic floor dysfunction?
It can be treated without surgery. There are several techniques. Some of these are as follows:
- Biofeedback: It is done with the help of a physical therapist.He uses special sensors to watch and monitor the muscles.
- Medication: A low-dose muscle relaxant is prescribed to treat the same.
- Relaxation techniques: Your therapist may ask you to take up techniques for relaxation such as warm baths, yoga, and exercises.
- Surgery: If your physician finds out that the dysfunction is caused by a rectal prolapse or rectocele, he or she will take up surgery.
Pelvic Floor Dysfunction results in Urinary Dysfunction. Urinary incontinence is the unintentional passing of urine. It's a common problem thought to affect millions of people. There are several types of urinary incontinence, including:
- Stress Incontinence – when urine leaks out at times when your bladder is under pressure; for example, when you cough or laugh
- Urge Incontinence – when urine leaks as you feel a sudden, intense urge to pass urine, or soon afterwards
- Overflow Incontinence (chronic urinary retention) – when you're unable to fully empty your bladder, which causes frequent leaking
- Total Incontinence – when your bladder can't store any urine at all, which causes you to pass urine constantly or have frequent leaking
It's also possible to have a mixture of both stress and urge urinary incontinence.
Pelvic Organ Prolapse
Pelvic organ prolapse is a condition in which structures such as the uterus, rectum, bladder, urethra, small bowel, or the vagina itself may begin to prolapse, or fall, out of their normal positions. Without medical treatment or surgery, these structures may eventually fall farther into the vagina or even through the vaginal opening if their supports weaken enough. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an urologist and ask a free question.
One’s pregnancy is a time when one must be extremely vigilant about a proper diet and good exercise regime that will benefit the child and mother in equal measure. A balanced diet during pregnancy and enough of it is essential for your child to develop and grow in a healthy manner. You need to up your daily intake by 300 to 350 calories per day. Women carrying twins require 500 calories extra each day. Despite the fact that nausea during the initial months of pregnancy can make this troublesome, try to eat a properly balanced diet and take prenatal vitamins.
Here is a guide to a healthy diet during pregnancy:
- Eat a variety of food items to get a good amount of the nutrients, which your body requires. 3 main meals and 3 small meals should be taken each day.
- Pick fruits and ingredients that are high in fiber like whole grain breads, oats, beans, pasta and rice. In case you take a fiber supplement, increase the dose you take, slowly. This can get rid of gas and cramping. It is just as essential to drink enough fluids when you increase your fiber consumption.
- Ensure you are getting enough vitamins and minerals daily. Your specialist can suggest an over-the-counter supplement or recommend a prenatal vitamin for you.
- Eat and drink no less than four servings of dairy items and calcium-rich food products a day to guarantee that you are getting at least 1,000 milligrams of calcium on a daily basis.
- Eat at least three servings of iron-rich foods such as spinach, beans, lean meat and breakfast cereals every day to ensure that you are getting 27 milligrams of iron each day.
- While you are pregnant, you will require 220 micrograms of iodine a day to guarantee for your child's brain and sensory system growth. Look for dairy items like milk, cheese, and yogurt. In addition, baked potatoes, cooked beans, limited portions of fish like cod, salmon, and shrimp can be very healthy.
- Consume at least one good source of vitamin C consistently. For instance, oranges, grapefruits, strawberries, papaya, broccoli, cauliflower, brussel sprouts, green peppers, tomatoes and mustard greens. Pregnant women require 80 to 85 milligrams of vitamin C a day.
- Every pregnant woman needs one milligram of folate each day to counteract neural tube defects like spina bifida. Folic acid is an essential choice when you are pregnant.
- Consume at least one source of vitamin A each day. Sources of vitamin A are carrots, pumpkins, sweet potatoes, spinach, water squash, turnip greens, beet greens, apricots, and melon.
Are you observing bumps and lesions in and around your vagina? These are female genital sores, which may be painful, itchy, produce a discharge, and are very tender. These lumps and sores may occur due to skin disorders. Female genital sores mostly appear as a symptom of STIs or sexually transmitted infections. STIs are considered to be a hidden epidemic, which many women leave untreated because of embarrassment or fear.
Diagnosis of female genital sores
A physical examination is conducted for determining the cause of genital sores and lumps in females. A pelvic exam test will be undertaken and you will have to provide reports of your medical history. Certain tests such as blood work and a culture of the sore may be required as well. A culture involves taking a swab sample from the affected sore and testing it for detecting bacteria. After the cause of your genital sores is determined, an ideal treatment method is prescribed.
On observing the symptoms of genital sores, you can apply some self-care measures to treat them before you get to visit a doctor. You can try a sitz bath, which is effective for pain and discomfort relief. A sitz bath can be prepared at home by filling your bathtub with warm water, going up to your hips when you get immersed. You should add a mild saline solution or baking soda to the bathtub water. A small basin for a sitz bath can be purchased from a drug store.
- The method or treatment for genital sores and lumps depends on the cause.
- Certain topical oral medicines are used for treatment of the sores and for relieving pain.
- Other medications such as antibiotics, corticosteroids, pain relievers, antiviral medicines and several anti-itch drugs are also used.
- Some types of genital sores do not need treatment, but you should get them removed if they bother you. A noncancerous cyst is an example of such type of a sore.
- The long term outlook for genital sores in females depends on the cause, once again. Sores and lumps caused because of chronic skin conditions and genital herpes are likely to recur. The long term outlook also depends on how fast you get an existing STI treated.
For the prevention of female genital sores, you should practice protected sex by using condoms. This prevents the infection from spreading to the people you have sex with. It is also important for you to open up about your condition and seek proper treatment, if you experience symptoms.
Hello sir, I am pregnant so to avoid pregnancy I used mifepristone and misoprostol tablets. After using dis I got bleeding and lemon size clotting outside, so I thought that abortion gets completed but now when I tested then I got positive and again I am pregnant. So why did happened again nd again how to control dis can you please explain?
If you are experiencing lower back pain during pregnancy, you should know that it is a common complaint. The lower back pain may occur because of several factors associated with pregnancy. You gain weight, your center of gravity shifts and your hormones relax the ligaments present in your pelvic joints. There are several ways by which you can reduce your lower back pain during pregnancy. They are as follows:
- Practice good posture: As the baby grows inside you, your center of gravity changes in a forward direction. You may feel like falling forward and may lean back for prevention. This strains the lower back muscles and causes back pain during pregnancy. You need to maintain a good posture. Always stand tall and straight, hold your chest up high, and keep your shoulders backwards and relaxed. You should not lock your knees.
- Get proper gear: Get adequate gear for dealing with lower back pain during pregnancy. You must wear low heeled shoes having good arch support. Avoid wearing flat heeled shoes and high heels, which will shift your balance more forward, thereby increasing the chances of falling. You can also opt for a maternity support belt. This additional support might be helpful for you.
- Lift properly: While you are lifting an object, you should squat down, lifting your legs and arms. Do not bend at your waist and lift with your back. Know your limits before lifting anything.
- Sleep on your side: Sleep on your sides keeping your knees bent, instead of your back during pregnancy. You may also use support pillows between your knees, under your abdomen and at your back.
- Hot and cold massage: Although this method is not effective for long term relief, massaging your lower back with a hot pad followed by an ice pack may be effective for temporary pain relief.
- Engage in regular physical activity: Regular physical activity helps you in keeping your back strong and also relieves pain during pregnancy. You should opt for mild exercises such as walking and water exercises. You should consult a physical therapist for showing you effective stretches and aerobic exercises which are beneficial.
You can try stretching your lower back, resting your hands and knees and keeping your head in line with your back. Pull your stomach in, rounding your back a bit, and hold the position for some seconds. Several other complementary therapies are also effective in curing lower back pain during pregnancy.
Are you experiencing high blood pressure or hypertension during pregnancy? Hypertension is a condition in which your blood pressure levels shoot up to a level, which may cause damage to the body. In case of pregnant women, hypertension may inflict damage on both the mother and the growing baby. You require a special care for dealing with hypertension during pregnancy, irrespective of the fact whether it develops before or after conception. Here are some important facts you ought to know about hypertension and pregnancy.
There are different types of high blood pressure issues caused during pregnancy.
- Gestational hypertension: Women with this form of hypertension have high blood pressure, which develops around 20 weeks of pregnancy. There is no sign of organ damage or the presence of protein in urine. Many women with gestational hypertension develop preeclampsia eventually.
- Chronic hypertension: Chronic hypertension is the high blood pressure condition which is present before pregnancy or it may occur before 20 weeks of pregnancy. It is hard to determine high blood pressure as it does not have prominent symptoms.
- Chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia: This condition is likely in women with chronic blood pressure being present from before pregnancy. During pregnancy, women with this condition develop worsened high blood pressure and protein content in the urine. Other health complications are also indicated.
- Preeclampsia: This is a pregnancy complication featured by high blood pressure along with signs of damage to other organs of the body. This happens from chronic high blood pressure and gestational hypertension. It usually sets in within 20 weeks of pregnancy. If untreated, preeclampsia can lead to several serious complications to the mother and the baby.
Risks of high blood pressure during pregnancy
High pressure during pregnancy is associated with several risks. They are as follows:
- Decreased flow of blood to the placenta: When the placenta does not receive sufficient blood, your baby will be deprived of enough oxygen and nutrients. This might cause slow growth, premature birth or low birth weight in your baby. Prematurity also causes breathing trouble in the baby.
- Placental abruption: Preeclampsia increases the risk of placental abruption, where the placenta gets separated from the inner uterine wall before delivery. Severe cases of placental abruption lead to placenta damage and heavy bleeding.
- Premature delivery: In some cases, early delivery of the baby has to be carried out for preventing some life threatening conditions.
For reducing the risk of complications caused by hypertension during pregnancy, it is important for you to consult a doctor regularly throughout pregnancy. You should take blood pressure medicines prescribed by a doctor in the most suitable dosage. You should also stay active, follow a healthy low sodium diet and stay away from smoking, alcohol and substance abuse.
Unprotected Intercourse date: 27th August. Had ipill after 7 hours of intercourse. Then Bleeding from 1september to 4september. Beta hcg test on 18th October (I.e. After 51 days of intercourse) has value <1.20 miU/mL Bleeding on 23 October to 29th October. Again bleeding in next month from 23 November to 29th November. Question 1: Pregnant or not? Question 2: are these normal periods?
Uterine fibroid of 18 mm seen in pelvic ultrasound in 8 weeks of pregnancy. What may be the effect of this fibroids in my pregnancy?
For some women, having their own children is not as easy as it seems. Suffering from more than two or more miscarriages is known as recurrent miscarriage. This experience affects every aspect of a woman’s life from her mental and emotional health to her physical health and social well-being.
It is important for a woman undergoing this experience to keep in mind that she can still give birth to a healthy baby even after recurrent miscarriages.
- Look after your health: Miscarriages are not very uncommon and in many instances are a result of the woman’s body not being able to take the strain if a growing fetus. Hence, pay attention to your health to prepare your body for future pregnancies. Avoid smoking, alcohol, caffeine and exposure to toxins that can cause fertility problems. Eat healthy food and start taking a multivitamin with folic acid on a daily basis. Exercise regularly, but avoid strenuous activities that involve heavy lifting or dangerous contact sports. Yoga is great for pregnant women or women planning a family as it tones your body keeps your stress levels low.
- Talk to people: A miscarriage can affect your emotional health and self-image, but you must remember that you are in a way responsible for the miscarriage. Talk to other women who have had a similar experience and share your feelings with them. Men and women cope with a miscarriage in different ways and hence work on communicating your feelings with your partner. Do not suppress your feelings, but acknowledge them and work through them. You may also find it beneficial to talk to a counsellor or get involved with a support group.
- Give yourself a break: It’s ok to not attend your friend’s baby shower when you’ve recently suffered a miscarriage. Instead of surrounding yourself with your friend’s babies and children, take a break and pay attention to yourself. Develop a hobby or find something to keep yourself busy. Take a holiday with your partner and find ways to reconnect with them. Find your own way of acknowledging the pregnancy. This could be in the form of writing about it, naming the baby or planting a tree in memory of the baby.
- Get proactive: Don’t sink into despair because of your miscarriages. Educate yourself about the various reasons you may have miscarried the baby by reading books or talking to medical professionals. This can help prevent future miscarriages.