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I found the answers provided by the Dr. Masroor Ahmad Wani to be very helpful. Thanks alot sir
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We are thank full to you for personal and professional experience that gives us a hope that public health care is a most worth while means of promoting and maintaing peoples health ....
We are thank full to you for personal and professional experience that gives us a hope that public health care is a most worth while means of promoting and maintaing peoples health ....
There are a lot of health conditions people do not want to talk about publicly, as they find it shameful or fear it can point questions at them. However, not talking about them leads to many myths and misconceptions, which hold no truth.
Of these, common is Erectile Dysfunction in men. Most men, at some point of time, experience Erectile Dysfunction. Erectile Dysfunction is a condition, whereby the person concerned is unable to get an erection. Even if he gets one, he fails to keep it. Erectile Dysfunction often goes untreated because most men find the condition embarrassing enough to be discussed. This lack of awareness has given rise to many unreasonable and illogical myths and misconceptions.
Myths and misconceptions about ED that needs to be busted:
Erectile Dysfunction is nothing to be ashamed of. In fact, timely medication can greatly improve the condition. For proper awareness, it is necessary to get the facts right.
- Myth: Erectile Dysfunction is nothing serious, self-medication will help
- Fact: Really? Your grey matter must be working overtime to bless you with such amazing ideas. Erectile Dysfunction, at times, can be an indication of something as big and serious as Diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, Hypertension or Atherosclerosis. Reason enough to shed your inhibitions and consult a physician at the earliest.
- Myth: Erectile Dysfunction is an old age problem
- Fact: These illogical misconceptions will do you no good. Get this baseless myth out of your system. Though Erectile Dysfunction is common amongst the older folks, the younger lot are not spared either.
Erectile Dysfunction can affect men of all age groups.
- Myth: Erectile Dysfunction can be due to a cold partner, who fails to attract and excite you
- Fact: Lack of interest in your partner seldom results in Erectile Dysfunction. There can be many underlying factors that can interfere with the erection. Certain medications, depression, obesity or lifestyle habits (smoking and street drug abuse) can affect one's performance greatly.
- Myth: Any erection problem is Erection Dysfunction
- Fact: This myth is as absurd and irrational as the saying; all tumors are benign. Before drawing any conclusion, it is important to get to the root cause. A person going through an intense emotional turmoil or stress might not get an erection. There will be days when a man will not be able to keep an erection. There is nothing to raise a hue and cry over it. It is just a phase and will pass off soon.
- Myth: Erectile Dysfunction results in low or no libido at all
- Fact: In males, low libido often results from a significant drop in the testosterone level. It is an outcome of the hormonal changes taking place within the body. Erectile Dysfunction has little to do with low libido. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a sexologist and ask a free question.
I have needed to increasing my stamina while during intercourse, sometime it takes tym while sometime not? Why happened this and wht should do to increase the stamina.
Sir I am 26 years old male ,I am suffering from spermatorrhoea, sir me 8 sal se is bimari me hu or meri shadi v kiya he 2 saal ho gaya phir bhi yeh bimari dikhai de raha he .Sir please help me we both r not happy with our sexual life so please give me ayurvedic treatment with permanent solution .nehito me jab he tension karta hu to mere dum ghutta he .please help me.
I have mild burning sensations during urination and erectile dysfunction. Is it fully curable? Should I go to a urologist or a sexologist?
What is Chancroid?
Chancroid is caused by the bacteria Haemophilus ducreyi. The bacteria usually attacks tissues and produce open sores which are termed as ulcers or chancroids. Both men and women are affected and the sores are usually found close to the external reproductive organs.
The ulcer might bleed and weep which produces contagious fluid. This can spread the bacteria during vaginal, anal, or oral sex. It can also spread from skin contamination. Thus it is a type of a venereal disease. Chancroids can be prevented by practicing safe sex practice.
Symptoms of Chancroid:
As both men and women can have chancroid, the symptoms may vary in both, but the initial symptoms begin one day to several weeks after contamination with the bacteria.
Symptoms in Men: A red, small bump on the genitals which usually changes to an open sore in a day or two. There can be ulcers on any area including the scrotum and penis.
Symptoms in Women: There might be 4 or more red bumps on the labia (folds covering the female genitals), thighs and between labia and anus. Once the bumps become open or ulcerated, they lead to a painful and burning sensation especially during bowel movements and urination.
Common Symptoms in Men and Women
The following symptoms can be seen:
The ulcers vary in size from 1/8 to 2 inches.
Ulcers present with having a soft center which is gray to yellowish ray, while the edges are sharp and defined.
There is pain while urinating and sexual intercourse.
Presence of swelling in the groin area (this is the area where the thigh and the lower abdomen meet).
In case the lymph nodes are swollen, they might break and lead to abscesses or pus collections. that often drain
Diagnosis of Chancroid:
Diagnosing of chancroid usually involves the collection of samples of the fluid which drain from sores. These samples are then sent to the laboratory for further investigations. Diagnosis through blood test is not possible yet. The doctor might also examine and assess the lymph nodes of the groin for pain and swelling.
Treatments of Chancroid:
Chancroid can be treated successfully with medication. The infection usually goes away without any treatment, but the medication only helps to accelerate the treatment with minimum scarring involved.
Treatment through Medication: Antibiotics are usually prescribed by the doctor to kill the bacteria responsible for the ulcers. Also, antibiotics reduce the chances of scarring.
Treatment through Surgery: In this the abscess of the lymph nodes which are painful and large can be drained. This decreases the pain and swelling, but might lead to slight scarring as the sore heals. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
My vagina has swollen and its paining .there is also a lot itching with discharge of liquid. What should I do? And tell me what could be the reasons behind this?
STD or sexually transmitted disease is usually an infection which spreads from one person to another during sexual contact. Some STDs can also be transferred through touch, since they spread by skin contact.
Best preventive measures for preventing STDs:
- Keeping intimate areas clean: Do not ever forget to wash your genitals after or before making intercourse with your partner and this is needed for preventing sexual diseases. Sometimes, excessive lubrication during sexual intercourse brings infectious diseases and thus, your genitals get exposed to sexual diseases.
- Avoid multiple sex partners: Both the sex partners should be loyal to each other and should not make sex with multiple partners as that will invite STDs. Having sex with more than one partner can be quite dangerous as a result of which your genital organs get infected and this infection later on turns into serious sexual diseases that cannot be easily treated.
- Using latex condoms: Latex condoms need to be used during sex every time, and these condoms are the safest of all condom varieties available in the market. Both pregnancy and STDs can be easily and efficiently prevented by means of these condoms, and this is the reason everybody is using the same. But you should have the knowledge of correct usage of these condoms.
- Stop sharing items: Sharing undergarments or towels with your friends or close mates can be very much dangerous as you might develop STDs. Even if you have allowed somebody using these personal items of yours, you have to wash them carefully before using the same.
- Avoiding unhealthy lifestyle: If you are exposed to excessive smoking, drugs and alcohol, then you might develop different kinds of STDs. Therefore, you are highly recommended to lead a completely healthy lifestyle so that a healthy sexual life can be enjoyed. You will never be able to have safe sex if you are so very addicted to alcohol, smoking and drugs.
It is important that you protect yourself from various types of diseases and infections as much as possible. Female condoms are used to have protected intercourse so as to avoid contact with ejaculatory fluids. These condoms help a person to steer clear of blood, semen and vaginal fluids as well. Female condoms fall under the category of barrier contraceptives. They are considered to be less effective in comparison to male condoms, but are nonetheless good for preventing any kind of infection. Ensuring fine health through safe sex is your due responsibility. Hence, a little knowledge about these contraceptives is helpful if you wish to shun chances of unwanted pregnancy or Sexually Transmitted Diseases.
What is it like?
A female condom looks like an ill fitting hollow cylinder. It is a thin sheath with a closed end, that goes inside the vagina and an open end that remains outside the vagina covering other external, genital parts. The covered end has to be inserted into the vagina or into the anus. It is a misconception, that female condoms can only be used by females. It is predominantly used by females, but can also be used by any receptive partner during sexual intercourse. The ends have circular rings to keep the condom in place.
What are they made of?
Femidoms are usually made up of polyurethane. This material is expensive, making the product costly. The need for a cost effective product was immediately felt to encourage the use of condoms among females. Thus, the next generation of female condoms were made with synthetic Nitrile. Nitrile proved to be a competent substitute as it did away with the annoying noises polyurethane made during sex. It also reduced condom pricing considerably. Researchers have also come up with natural latex female condoms that retain the feel of a male condom.
Benefits of using a female condom
It is a great barrier in thwarting the flow of semen into the womb. Thus, they reduce the risk of accidental pregnancy. It also protects you against sexually transmitted infections like gonorrhoea, Syphilis, and HIV. Sex partners should be careful to refrain from any sexual contact before the insertion of a female condom. Only after the condom has been placed properly, the penis should enter the vagina or the anus. Femidoms are available in varied sizes, but the average sized condom fits most females. Large sized condoms can be used by new mothers. It is advised to buy condoms that bear the CE mark on them. The CE mark represents European Safety Standards and thus, leaves you least vulnerable to accidents or diseases.
Because of the fallowing causes:-
3. Irregular sperms.
4. Sperm allergy
5. Unexplained fertility problems
6. Combination fertility problems.
Diabetes affects you with sexual and urological complications. Individuals with controlled diabetes are less susceptible to these sexual and urologic problems.
1. Avoid depression.
2. Have a balanced diet.
3. Have regular exercise.
4. Keep your body hygienic.
5. Talk sex with your friends.
6. Search sex tricks.
Serum PSA and Testosterone Levels
Serum PSA levels may useful for diagnosing hypogonadism (low testosterone), Italian researchers say.
In the past, the relationship between PSA levels and testosterone has been difficult to define, as some researchers have found a connection and others have not.
The goals of this study were to better understand this possible relationship for men with sexual dysfunction and to determine whether PSA levels may give information about testosterone levels.
Almost three thousand men participated in the study. All of them were seeking treatment for sexual dysfunction and had PSA levels of less than 4 ng/mL. They ranged in age from 18 to 85 with a mean age of 52.5 ± 12.4 years.
A variety of physical measurements were conducted, including blood pressure, waist circumference, testis volume, total testosterone, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. Also, each man was interviewed using the Structured Interview on Erectile Dysfunction (SIEDY), ANDROTEST, a tool that screens for hypogonadism in men with erectile dysfunction, and PsychoANDROTEST, which examines the psychological signs and symptoms of low testosterone.
After adjusting for age, the researchers found that low PSA levels were associated with delayed puberty and lower testis volume, two markers of hypogonadism. Low PSA was also associated with metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.
Two other aspects of the research were noted.
First, the authors reported that the “saturation hypothesis” was supported. The connection between PSA levels and testosterone was only present when men’s testosterone levels were lower than average. For men with normal testosterone levels, the relationship was not as clear.
In this study, PSA levels did not rise substantially when total testosterone levels were above 8 nmol/L.
“It might be inferred that [testosterone] therapy in men with values above this point would not be expected to result in a rise in PSA, whereas men with [testosterone] values below this point may very well experience a rise in PSA,” the authors wrote.
Second, age appeared to play a role in the applicability of the findings. Using PSA levels to predict low testosterone was more accurate in younger patients.
“The efficacy of PSA, as a ‘screener’ for hypogonadism is modest and decreases as a function of aging, when PSA levels are affected by other factors, besides androgen activity,” the authors explained.
The study was published online in July in the Journal of Sexual Medicine.
The Journal of Sexual Medicine
Rastrelli, Giulia, MD, et al.
“Serum PSA as a Predictor of Testosterone Deficiency”
(Full-text. First published online: July 16, 2013)
- See more at: http://www.issm.info/news/sex-health-headlines/serum-psa-and-testosterone-levels#sthash.62jmdKR1.dpuf
Vaginal Atrophy: What the CLOSER Survey Reveals
Vaginal atrophy (VA) has a great effect on women and their male partners, according to survey results recently published in the Journal of Sexual Medicine.
It’s possible that these results may prompt more communication about VA between couples and their healthcare providers.
Vaginal atrophy refers to changes in the vagina caused by menopause. When estrogen levels drop, the vagina may lose some elasticity, leading to dryness, discomfort, and pain. Some studies estimate that over half of women experience some degree of vaginal atrophy. However, VA is not something many women freely discuss.
To learn more about how VA affects women and their male partners, a research team from Italy and the United States conducted a survey, which was administered online to 4,100 women and 4,100 men from nine countries: the United Kingdom, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Italy, France, Canada, and the U.S.
The assessment was called the CLOSER (CLarifying Vaginal Atrophy’s Impact On SEx and Relationships) Survey.
The women were between 55 and 65 years old and had stopped menstruating at least 12 months prior to the survey. They also had symptoms of VA.
The men were in relationships with postmenopausal women aged 55 to 65 who had vaginal discomfort. They were not partnered with the female participants.
For both men and women, VA/vaginal discomfort were described as, “dryness, itching, burning, or soreness in the vagina, bleeding during intercourse, pain during urination, or pain in the vagina in connection with touching and/or intercourse.”
The survey included questions about vaginal discomfort, its symptoms, and its effects on intimacy, relationships, and self-esteem. Participants were also asked about erectile dysfunction (ED) and VA treatments, such as local estrogen therapy (LET).
Most of the women (72%) said that they told their partners when they first felt vaginal discomfort. The other 28% did not do so, explaining that they were embarrassed or thought their symptoms were a normal part of aging. Thirty-six percent said they would try self-treatment before telling their partner about their symptoms.
The authors noted that the men were more likely to discuss VA than the women were, although they were not always aware that sex was uncomfortable for their partner.
Half the women said they were “upset their body does not work as it used to.” Others reported that they felt old and sexually unattractive. Some lost confidence as a sexual partner and others felt that the symptoms would never go away.
Many sexual behaviors changed as a result of VA. Over half the participants said they had less sex and almost a quarter stopped having sex altogether. Sixty-two percent of the women and 76% of the men said they avoided intimacy.
Fifty-eight percent of the women used vaginal moisturizers or lubricants to alleviate their symptoms. Only 15% of the men knew that their partner was using this type of treatment.
Local estrogen therapy appeared to improve sex lives, relationships, and quality of life. Over half the men and women said that sex was less painful and almost half the women said sex was more satisfying.
The researchers stressed the importance of communication about VA between couples themselves and with their healthcare providers.
They also explained the role of healthcare providers in that discussion. “Because women may not be willing to openly discuss the vaginal discomfort they are experiencing, it is crucial for [healthcare providers] to be proactive in helping women address the issue of VA,” they wrote.
The Journal of Sexual Medicine
Nappi, Rossella E., MD, PhD, et al.
“The CLOSER (CLarifying Vaginal Atrophy's Impact On SEx and Relationships) Survey: Implications of Vaginal Discomfort in Postmenopausal Women and in Male Partners”
(Full-text. First published online: June 27, 2013)
- See more at: http://www.issm.info/news/sex-health-headlines/vaginal-atrophy-what-the-closer-survey-reveals#sthash.6PwSR5cv.dpuf
Men diagnosed with the fertility related issues or infertility are more susceptible to type 2 diabetes according to recently published study.
The study recommends routine visits of such patients for check-up. The rates of infertility among men are rising due to changing lifestyle, dietary habits, stress and other physiological factors.
The scientists have been studying the associated factors for infertility. Now for the first time scientists have studied the effects of infertility on general ailments.
The scientists from stanford university, school of medicine conducted the study which showed that patients diagnosed with infertility have a greater risk of developing other conditions such as ischemic heart disease, type 2 diabetes compared to fertile men.
The scientists conducted retrospective study in which they assessed the medical records of over 1, 15, 000 men filed between 2001 and 2009.
The scientists scrutinized the men's medical visits before and after fertility testing to determine what health complications they developed in the years after fertility evaluations. They compared general health conditions of men with infertility diagnoses to men without the diagnoses and to men who underwent vasectomy.
The results of the study showed that the infertile men had higher rates of most diseases the researchers had shortlisted.
The scientists found that the infertile men had higher rates of diabetes even when the results were adjusted for the obesity. They found similar results for ischemic heart diseases.
The scientists have wished to expand their research to check physiological relationships between these conditions. Meanwhile, scientists have recommended that infertile men should regularly undergo health check-ups in order to prevent of onset of these conditions.
New Year is a good the time for new beginnings. At times our sex lives needs to be revived too. After a few years together, a couple’s sex life may begin to stagnate. A boring sex life can negatively impact your relationship as well. But by employing some very easy tricks in the bedroom, you can bring back the passion and add spark to your life.
Can’t figure out where to start? Here are 6 tips and tricks to help you out.
1. Be spontaneous: One of the main reasons a couple’s sex life dwindles is because they fall into a routine. Whether it’s the position you choose, or the sequence of events- right from foreplay to the actual intercourse- every couple has their own set routine. Break this monotony and try out new positions that can greatly enhance your pleasure. Also, try having sex somewhere else in the house that you haven’t before to spice things up.
2. Don’t be shy: Sex is one of the most intimate acts you can share with someone. However, sometimes you may find yourself being unable to open up to your partner about what gets you in the mood. This can make sex an unfulfilling experience. Try telling your partner what you’d like him/her to do. You might end up discovering that both of you share a common fantasy you hadn’t spoken about before.
3. Explore all erogenous zones: There are a lot of erogenous zones on a man and woman’s body. Take your time and get to know every single one of them. If you don’t know where they are, explore your partner’s body and see what turns him/her on and where. This is a great exercise that also sets the foundation for more fulfilling sex in the future.
4. Experiment with your lingerie: Clothes can be a turn on or a turn off depending on what you wear. Try experimenting with your lingerie. A host of options are available out there for both men and women. These days you can even buy edible lingerie on leading online shopping sites. Choose bright shades like red, as they’ve been proven to increase arousal.
5. Play around with sex toys: Introducing sex toys in your bedroom can prove to be very stimulating as well as exciting for both you and your partner. Sex toys come in all shapes and sizes, for both men and women. You can take your pick from vibrators and vibrating rings, handcuffs, etc; even lubricants and gels can be used to enhance pleasure and make sex more exciting.
6. Shave your pubic hair: Another way to give your sex life a whole new dimension, shaving off your pubic hair can increase the sensitivity in your genitals making sex a more pleasurable experience. Besides, for many shaved genitals have a visual appeal and cause intense arousal, which is very important when it comes to having a satisfying sex life.
If you would like to consult with me privately, please click on 'Consult'.
Partners’ Responses to Entry Dyspareunia
A new study in the Journal of Sexual Medicine has examined the relationship between a male partner’s cognitions and a woman’s experiences with entry dyspareunia.
Specifically, the study focused on male catastrophizing and views of his partner’s self-efficacy. Researchers explored how these two factors influenced his female partner’s pain intensity, sexual function, and sexual satisfaction.
Dyspareunia refers to painful intercourse. Entry dyspareunia occurs when vaginal penetration causes the pain. It is estimated that 21% of women have problems with entry dyspareunia, which can greatly affect quality of life.
The study authors defined catastrophizing as “an exaggerated and negative set of cognitions during real or anticipated painful experiences.” Self-efficacy was defined as “the confidence an individual has in his or her ability to perform a specific task.”
One hundred seventy-nine couples participated in the study. The mean age for the women was 31 years. For the men, it was 33 years. The mean relationship duration was six years. Women reported having pain for a mean of six years.
To assess the couples, the following measures were used:
• Pain Numeric Visual Analog Scale (women’s pain intensity)
• Female Sexual Functioning Index (women’s sexual functioning)
• Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction (women’s sexual satisfaction)
• Pain Catastrophizing Scale (women’s and partners’ catastrophizing)
• Painful Intercourse Self-Efficacy Scale (women’s and partners’ self-efficacy)
After controlling for the women’s catastrophizing and self-efficacy, the researchers found that the women’s pain was less intense when their partners had higher levels of partner-perceived self-efficacy and lower levels of catastrophizing.
This authors suggest that in the case of couples dealing with entry dyspareunia, a man’s catastrophizing may make a woman more aware of her pain, thus increasing its intensity.
However, partner-perceived self-efficacy and partner catastrophizing did not appear to affect the women’s sexual function or satisfaction.
Many women continue to have sex despite their pain out of concern for their partners, so intercourse could be happening no matter what levels of partner catastrophizing or partner-perceived self-efficacy were present.
The authors also noted that women’s own perceptions of their sexual situation may carry more weight than their partner’s views.
“[Women’s] cognitions about pain (for example their own self-efficacy with regards to pain management and degree of pain catastrophizing) may serve to better explain variation in their sexual experience,” they wrote.
The study results point to the importance of considering the couple’s relationship when treating women with entry dyspareunia.
“Explaining to the couple how they both have a role to play in the experience of entry dyspareunia pain may serve to increase partner implication in treatment, diminish the identified patient’s feelings of guilt, and help in motivation toward change,” they wrote.
The Journal of Sexual Medicine
Lemieux, Ashley J., MA, et al.
“Do Romantic Partners' Responses to Entry Dyspareunia Affect Women's Experience of Pain? The Roles of Catastrophizing and Self-Efficacy”
(Full-text. First published online: June 27, 2013)
- See more at: http://www.issm.info/news/sex-health-headlines/partners-responses-to-entry-dyspareunia#sthash.UKc8jmw6.dpuf
Having the highest number of population aff ected by tuberculosis, india also has the highest incidence of genital tuberculosis. The number of indian women suffering from the condition is particularly high.
Nagpur: having the highest number of population affected by tuberculosis, india also has the highest incidence of genital tuberculosis. The number of indian women suffering from the condition is particularly high. It is among the most common causes of infertility, yet not many doctors consider the possibility of genital tuberculosis while treating infertility.
According to some estimates, around 40% indians are infected with tb bacteria. Most of these are latent cases, wherein the sufferer doesn't show symptoms of the disease but can still spread the disease. Genital tb is found to affect around 1% women in india. Ways to manage the condition were discussed during the conference masterclass infertility organized in the city recently.
"the percentage of infertility in the country increases due to genital tb. Among those seeking treatment for infertility, 10-19% of females are affected by it. However, since the condition doesn't have any noticeable symptoms it remains undetected in most patients and infertility caused by it gets categorized as something else" said senior gynaecologist from the city Dr. Sushma deshmukh. She added that the lack of symptoms means that doctors often don't address genital tb as a reason causing infertility.
"the biggest problem is that very few bacteria can cause the disease. This low number makes most tests made to diagnose the disease unsuccessful. This is why it is recommended that bacteria culture, a molecular biology test for ccr and histopathology on the lining of the uterus must be done together" said bangalore-based gynaecologist Dr. Reeta biliangadi. The positive outcome of all these tests, along with observation of clinical signs indicates that the patient is suffering from genital tb.
Among the warning signs of the condition that doctors and the patients must look for include menstrual problems, constant pain in lower abdomen and white discharge" the condition generally flares up during menstruation in the adolescent age. If detected at this time, the damage to the reproductive organs like uterus and fallopian tubes can be minimized. If not, the damage can worsen with time, making it practically impossible for the woman to conceive naturally" said Dr. Biliangadi.
As the fallopian tubes get affected in all cases of the disease, chances of natural conception among the patients are less than 20%, added Dr. Deshmukh.
"despite the availability of tests to detect genital tb, less than 40% patients with it get the chance to go through the tests" she said.
Affect on reproductive health of patient
It starts by affecting the process of releasing the egg into the uterus, which also leads to menstruation
It destroys endometrium or the lining of the uterus where eggs get implanted. This makes natural conception difficult
Leads to obstruction of fallopian tubes, or gradual destruction of the tubes
Increases the possibility of diseases like fibroids.
A novel study from Karolinska Institutet and University of Michigan in the U.S. shows that gaining weight from one pregnancy to the next can increase the risk that women will face stillbirth or lose their second babies within the first year of life.
SWEDEN : A novel study from Karolinska Institutet and University of Michigan in the U.S. shows that gaining weight from one pregnancy to the next can increase the risk that women will face stillbirth or lose their second babies within the first year of life. The findings are being published in The Lancet and build on data from more than 450,000 women in Sweden.
"These tragic events are still very rare among infants of mothers with high weight gain. However, as many women gain weight between pregnancies, our results are very important from a public health perspective", says principal investigator Sven Cnattingius, professor of reproductive epidemiology at Karolinska Institutet.
In their study, researchers reviewed data from the first two pregnancies of nearly 457,000 women who gave birth in Sweden from 1992 to 2012. The women's information was recorded in the Swedish Medical Birth Register, which since 1973 has collected information on about 98 percent of all births in that country. Weight was assessed at the beginning of each pregnancy. The results show that stillbirth risk rose with larger gains in body mass index (BMI) from first to second pregnancy. Compared with women who kept their weight, women whose BMI increased more than four units had a 50 percent increased risk of stillbirth.
Among women of normal weight in first pregnancy, high weight gain also increased the risk of infant mortality: when their BMI increased by 4 units or more, risk of infant mortality increased by 60 percent. On the other hand, the results also point to the opposite situation. Women who were overweight by their first pregnancy, defined as a BMI of 25 or more (corresponding to at least 70 kg of women with average height), but who lost weight before the second pregnancy, reduced their risk of infant mortality.
Every fifth women in the study material gained so much weight that it influenced risks of stillbirth and infant mortality (i.e. at least 2 BMI units, corresponding to 5.5 kg). However, the researchers point out that stillbirth and infant mortality are very rare events in Sweden, and only 2.4 per 1000 births resulted in a stillbirth and 2.1/1000 in infant mortality. There are annually around 100,000 births in Sweden.
"Previously, we have published that risks of stillbirth, infant mortality and morbidity increase with maternal weight, and in this new study we find that find that weight gain influence mortality risks. Taken together, our results support the conclusion that mother's weight per see may influence infant chances of survival", says Dr Cnattingius. "Still, the explanation for the findings is still speculative. We cannot differentiate from the data whether it is the weight gain during the pregnancy or in between pregnancies that is of significance".
Financial support was provided by the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, and a Karolinska Institutet Distinguished Professor Award to Sven Cnattingius.