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Dr. Suresh Giragani

MBBS, MD, DM - Neuro Radiology

Radiologist, Secunderabad

12 Years Experience  ·  500 at clinic  ·  ₹500 online
Dr. Suresh Giragani MBBS, MD, DM - Neuro Radiology Radiologist, Secunderabad
12 Years Experience  ·  500 at clinic  ·  ₹500 online
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I believe in health care that is based on a personal commitment to meet patient needs with compassion and care....more
I believe in health care that is based on a personal commitment to meet patient needs with compassion and care.
More about Dr. Suresh Giragani
Dr Suresh Giragani, is consultant Neuro interventionist & vascular interventional radiologist, working at Yashoda Group of hospitals, Hyderabad. He has eight years of clinical experience in treating neurovascular diseases and other systemic vascular disorders.

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Education
MBBS - Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad - 2005
MD - PGIMER, Chandigarh - 2009
DM - Neuro Radiology - PGIMER, Chandigarh - 2012

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Cerebral Ischaemia And Cerebral Congestion - Homoeopathic Treatment For It!

BHMS, VLIR Belgium, Canadian Academy Of Homeopathy
Homeopath, Navi Mumbai
Cerebral Ischaemia And Cerebral Congestion - Homoeopathic Treatment For It!

Cerebral ischaemia or brain ischemia is a medical condition that restricts the flow of blood to the brain, resulting in an unmet metabolic demand. This leads to limited oxygen supply in the brain, which could result in death of brain tissues, cerebral infarction or an ischemic stroke. Thus, a cardiorespiratory arrest, a stroke, and irreversible brain damage are few possible consequences of cerebral ischaemia.

People with compressed blood vessels, low blood pressure, congenital heart defects or sickle cell anaemia have a high risk of developing cerebral ischaemia, since compressed blood vessels or very low pressure can lead to restricted blood flow. Also, sickle-shaped cells have a greater tendency to clot, causing obstructed blood flow.

Patients with cerebral ischaemia experience a host of symptoms, such as weakness in the body, problems in coordination and movement, vision and speech impairment and unconsciousness.

Cerebral congestion, on the other hand, refers to excessive quantity of blood in the brain vessels, causing pressure on the cerebral substance. Cerebral congestion is of two types. It is termed as active when there is too much arterial blood flow and passive when there is undue quantity of venous blood in the veins of the brain. Both conditions cause symptoms, such as severe headache, insomnia, irritability and unconsciousness. The patient gets little sleep and is disturbed, often followed by dreams. When awake, the patient’s mental activity in the brain is very high.

Homeopathy is now a well-established school of medicine backed with years of research and practice. Gone are the days when homeopathy was considered no more than an extension of herbal home remedies. Homeopathic laboratories around the world produce large number of medicines covering almost all ailments. The benefits of homeopathic treatment are now well established due to its holistic approach and minimal side effects. Homeopathy is undoubtedly a ray of hope for patients with cerebral ischaemia and cerebral congestion, as it delivers a comprehensive treatment plan designed to target the signs and symptoms of the disease and address its non-occurrence.

The medications deal with mild to severe symptoms, including inflammation of the brain, headache, vomiting, insomnia, stroke/convulsions and seizures. The stramonium drug, for example, deals with seizures. Belladonna is an effective remedy for sharp shooting headaches, a common symptom of cerebral congestion. Ferrum is believed to be a valuable remedy for brain ischaemia. Few drugs deal with the symptoms of both ischaemia and congestion—nux is a suitable drug for the treatment of ischaemia as well as for passive cerebral congestion. Similarly, phosphorus can be used to treat brain ischaemia and congestion. Zincum metallicum is a highly recommended drug for chronic cases of ischaemia.

The treatment is comprehensive and long term and shows substantive results. Regular follow-ups and consultation with a homeopath specialist is the key to an effective treatment.

Vertebroplasty (PVP) / Kyphoplasty - Approach To Management Of Vertebral Body Fractures!

MBBS, MD, FIMSA, FIPP
Pain Management Specialist, Delhi
Vertebroplasty (PVP) / Kyphoplasty - Approach To Management Of Vertebral Body Fractures!

As life expectancy is increasing so is the incidence of vertebral body (VB) fractures now being the commonest fracture of the body. PVP is an established interventional technique in which bone cement is injected under local anaesthesia via a needle into a fractured VB with imaging guidance providing instant pain relief, increased bone strength, stability, decreasing analgesic medicines, increased mobility with improved quality of life and early return to work in days.

In this era of minimally access surgery replacing open surgeries, PVP is a novel procedure & should be in the first line of management in place of conservatism or major spine surgery for painful uncomplicated compression fracture spine.

Morbidity & consequences of spinal fracture:

  • Traumatic VB is a painful condition requiring bed rest restricting daily activities markedly
  • Left untreated it can cause DVT, increase osteoporosis, loss of VB height, respiratory & GI disturbances, emotional & social problems secondary to unremitting pain, loss of independence with high cost of rehabilitation.
  • High risk of primary or consequential damage to neural, bony or disc element
  • Increased wedging, deformity & increase incidence of adjacent VB
  • Chronic pain of altered spine mechanics
  • Uncomfortable braces & sleep disturbance because of pain & discomfort with its sequels.
  • Cost of surgery and hospital treatment
  • Cost of implants
  • Phobia of surgery
  • Prolonged recovery period & Extensive rehabilitation
  • Changed spinal mechanics & transition syndrome
  • Major surgery & anesthesia with its own complications

Results / Outcome

  • PVP is a novel procedure with high benefit to risk ratio, which is highly underutilized in relation to the high prevalence of the vertebral.
  • Different studies show an immediate pain relief in (85 – 90)% of patients with low complication rate ranging from (1-5)% depending upon the type of lesion.
  • PVP does augment height of VB but ideal would be kyphoplasty
  • Patient is either off medicine or on reduced doses.
  • Patient feels so well that he almost forgets if he had VB
     

Percutaneous Vertebroplasty (PVP) is an emerging interventional technique in which surgical polymethyl methacrylate bone cement is injected under local anaesthesia via a large bore needle into a vertebral body (VB) under imaging guidance providing increased bone strength, stability, pain relief, decreased analgesics, increased mobility with improved QOL and early return to work. Started in 1984 by Galibert PVP is done in host of indications.

Senile osteoporotic compression remains the commonest Indication. Other indications are  Metastatic VB,  Multiple myeloma VB, VB haemangioma,  Vertebral osteonecrosis & for strengthening VB before major spinal surgery. The benefit has been extended to the traumatic stable uncomplicated VB compression (VCF)   which is commoner in younger age group with active life profile and prime of their career where strict bed rest and acute or chronic pain are unacceptable and they are more demanding for proactive treatment approach so as to be back to work ASAP.

Discovering the fact that VB is the commonest of body, its incidence >the hip, it becomes imperative to take it more seriously. With increasing life-span there is more of aged osteoporotic population, more so due to sedentary indoor lifestyle and post menopausal osteoporosis.  Diabetics, smokers & alcoholics are at higher risk of developing osteoporosis. I have seen such alcoholic patient developing six spine fractures in just three months time from a single fracture being on complete bed rest.

Quick fix of fracture spine makes patient walk back same day instead of bed rest of months together avoiding morbidity & mortality of prolonged bed rest, making bedridden patient walk, in a way bringing patient  back to normal life.

In this era of MAS replacing open surgeries, PVP is a novel procedure & should be in the first line of management in place of conservatism or major spine surgery for painful uncomplicated compression.

Morbidity & consequenses of spinal 

  • Traumatic VB is a painful condition requiring bed rest restricting daily activities markedly.
  • Left untreated it can cause DVT, increase osteoporosis, loss of VB height, respiratory &
  • GI disturbances, emotional & social problems secondary to unremitting pain, loss of independence with high cost of rehabilitation.
  • High risk of primary or consequential damage to neural, bony or disc elements.
  • Increased wedging, deformity & increase incidence of adjacent VB
  • Chronic pain of altered spine mechanics.
  • Uncomfortable braces & sleep disturbance because of pain & discomfort with its sequels.

Morbidity and complication of spinal surgery 

  • Cost of surgery and hospital treatment
  • Cost of implants
  • Phobia of surgery
  • Prolonged recovery period & Extensive rehabilitation
  • Changed spinal mechanics & transition syndrome
  • Major surgery & anesthesia with its own complications

Preparation & Procedure:
X-ray spine in a/p & lat view. CT is more informative of bone & morphology. MRI is good for soft tissue injuries. Ask for pedicle size in all dimensions and construct a 3D image aiming needle placement and cement filling in scan room itself as rehearsal of PVP. This reduces operative time & gives better results. Conventionally PVP is done by hammering the vertebroplasty needle through the bone. Here we use light weight drill to bore through the vertebra. It is important to set the needle at exact entry site & side with right trajectory aiming the defects.

In lateral view needle should go through middle of the pedicle going up to anterior 1/3 of VB. In P/A view the needle can be in midline or paramedian depending upon & if uni/bipedicular approach is planned. Approach varies as per location of vertebra, anterolateral in cervical, costotransverse/parapedicular in thoracic & transpedicular in lumbar vertebra.

Do bone biopsy if there is any doubt about lession. Do dye test (vertebral venography). Make cement more radiopaque by adding barium /or tungsten. Inject cement with 1or2 ml luerlock syringes strictly under fluoroscope in lateral view & cross checking in P/A view. Stop injecting either there is adequate filling or at the first sight of ectopic cement leak. Keep sample cement to see for hardening. Remove needle with rotational movement before cement hardens.

Pain relief is by virtue of different mechanisms postulated :

  • Cementing of fragments.
  • Thermal neurolysis of VB nerve ending due to heat of polymerization.
  • Washing away of nociceptor chemicals.
  • Neurolytic action of liquid monomer.
  • By allowing early ambulation decreasing pains of immobility & bed rest.

Complications 

  1. PVP is generally safe with low risk.
  2. Ectopic cement leak is frequent but generally inconsequential.

Outcome 

  1. PVP is a novel procedure with high benefit to risk ratio, which is highly underutilized in relation to the high prevalence of the vertebral
  2. Different studies show an immediate pain relief in (85 – 90)% of patients with low complication rate ranging from (1-5)% depending upon the type of lesion.
  3. PVP does augment height of VB but ideal would be kyphoplasty.
  4. Patient is either off medicine or on reduced doses.
  5. Patient feels so well that he almost forgets if he had VB
1 person found this helpful

All About Bone Cancer

M.Ch - Orthopaedics, Fellowship in Arthroscopy & Sports Medicine, MS - Orthopaedics, MBBS
Orthopedist, Delhi
All About Bone Cancer

Cancer that originates in the bones of a human body is referred to as bone cancer. Any bone could come under the threat of this disease, but generally the longer bones of your body, so to say the bones of your limbs, are at a greater risk. 

A few factors that might push you an inch closer to bone cancer are:

  1. Genes could jinx your health: A few typical genetic syndromes could increase a person's chances of contracting bone cancer. These syndromes could have been active in any person belonging to your lineage. One such syndrome is Li-Fraumeni.
  2. Treatment for one kind of cancer can make you prone to some other kind: Radiation affects your bones adversely. A patient of breast cancer might be undergoing radiation therapy that further increases his or her risk of contracting bone cancer in future.  
  3. Paget's disease can have unfavorable implications: Paget's disease is a disease that affects elderly people. This condition, if left untreated, can turn into bone cancer at a later stage. 

Several symptoms of bone cancer can be found below:

  1. Sudden loss of weight: If you lose a considerable amount of weight in a few weeks time without having made any effort at all, you should probably be worried about the health of your bones. Bone cancer can result in sudden and unintentional weight loss
  2. Unexpected bone fracture or breakage: Cancer of the bones is known to gnaw at the strength of your bones. Weakened and diseased bones can break or get fractured very easily. An unexpected fracture should not be overlooked so as to prevent chances of anything more harmful.
  3. Long spans of unyielding exhaustion: Constant fatigue and sleepiness might be hinting at a more serious underlying problem. The bones in your body hold you together; cancerous bone cells can make you feel exhausted without much exertion as your bones lose their inherent potency.
  4. Persistent pain in the bones: Excruciating cramps or pangs of stinging pain in a person's bones either continuously or at odd hours, could be indicative of bone cancer. Such instances require the advice and guidance of an experienced oncologist.
  5. Bone swelling: The area affected by bone cancer can grow big and tender or the bone itself can swell up.
3245 people found this helpful

I have been suffering from disk problem since 7 months. I have consulted a doctor. I took x-Ray as per his advice. He said disk has been narrowed. He prescribed some painkillers and vitamin tablets. Could anyone please prescribe some medicine for me. I am really unable to sit without any support.

Diploma in Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Morena
Dear, do the following things. 1. Hot fomentation for 1/2 hrs with lukewarm water. 2. Back extension excercises. 3. Pavan muktasan yoga 4. Bujangasan 5. Muscle relaxant tablets for 5-7 days. 6. Local application of analgesic ointment. 7 vitamin d in form of capsules/sachets under guidance of doctor. Check your vit. B12 level.
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I am a 38 year old married lady with 2 kids. I have herniated disc of l5 s1 with mild detention as detected in mri. What is the treatment? I am really scared. Is it dangerous?

Diploma in Radio-Diagnosis
Radiologist, Shimla
-nothing to worry -no jerky movements -avoid long standing, sitting posture. -hard bed rest. -no pillow -take Ms. Relaxant, analgesic. -click on private questions for further treatment.
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Is ozone therapy is successful in case of slip disc? Surgery would be better or slip disc?

B.P.T, M.P.T(ORTHO), Certification in Gym Instructor & Prenatal and Post natal
Physiotherapist, Gurgaon
Dear sir Surgery is d last option keep it in mind. Ozone therapy results as per our knowledge is 60 to 70percent. You can also try matrix rhythm German therapy you can contact us for further discussion
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Herniated disk l3-14 mm L4-11 mm L5-10 mm S1-8 mm My age 23 /M Dr. suggest for surgery but I didn't want that any chances for normal.

MBBS, MD (Anaesthesiology)
Pain Management Specialist, Varanasi
It seems that you are having multiple disc herniation. I cannot comment unless I see you MRI but definitely you having at least two slipped disc at L4/5 & L5/S1. These days non surgical treatment are available like TFSI, Disc Fix and Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy (PLED) done under Local anaesthesia, no blood loss, no stich required, patient walks within next few days. We will provide you detailed information if you wish or you may see on website. I may need your blood inv. Like TLC/DLC/ESR/CRP/HLA B-27 before giving further opinion.
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She has a desk job and feeling pain in right leg the mri shows reduced space in intervertebral disc.

MPT - Orthopedic Physiotherapy, BPTh/BPT
Physiotherapist, Noida
She has a desk job and feeling pain in right leg the mri shows reduced space in intervertebral disc.
Maintain your pelvic sit straight equal balance sciatica pain take ultrasonic therapy and swd then start stretching exercise is confirmation.
1 person found this helpful
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I am having ls S1 disk bulge problems if I am having physiotherapist it will cure or not?

DNB (Radiodiagnosis), DMRD, MBBS
Radiologist, Bangalore
Hi, thanks for your query a l 5 - s 1 disc bulge might respond to physical therapy. It cannot be cured completely like before but with precautions and medicine you will feel much better and have a normal life. Please take care not to involve yourself in any activity which might stress your lower back. This will delay recovery and might also cause complications and the pain and discomfort to increase. Avoid doing sudden movement involving lower back and lifting weight more than 5 kg. This will help you recover quickly. For mild pain you should use ointments with muscle relaxant and pain relief. In severe pain plase adk your doctor for oral ner pain reluef medicine and non steroidal anti inflammatory pills. Use of heat pack is also recommended. Regards.
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My dad has a disc problem and in morning time he suffers from stiffness in lower back area. What should he do?

MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Chennai
My dad has a disc problem and in morning time he suffers from stiffness in lower back area. What should he do?
He should not bend down, avoiding bike riding and sitting for long time and lifting heavy weights. He should gentle back toning exercises. If not alright he might need surgery.
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Kindly prescribe ayurvedic medicine for l5s1 disc herniation. Kindly note I am taking jointhar from last six months but cud not find any relieve.

MBBS
General Physician, Mumbai
I will suggest you to take Panchkarma therapy treatment as a part of ayurved treatment for a minimum of five sessions
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Herniated Disc - What are the Risks Involved in it?

MCh - Neurosurgery, MBBS
Neurosurgeon, Chennai
Herniated Disc - What are the Risks Involved in it?

The symptoms caused due to herniated disc can be very severe and can also cause a bit of disability. The disc of the spine is like a cushion and separates the set of bones on the backside. The discs are shock absorbers of the spine and are mainly composed of 2 parts, a soft jelly centre called the nucleus and a tough outer covering called the annulus.

Effects of Herniated Disk
A herniated or cracked disc is a severe condition and it seems to happen most commonly in the lower back.  It happens when a fraction of the soft centre gets pushed through the destabilized area due to degeneration, trauma or by putting pressure on the spinal cord. 

Nerves are located precisely at the back of every disc and are responsible for controlling everything in our body. While a disc gets herniated, the external covering of the disc tears and creates a bulge. The soft jelly gets shifted from the centre of the disk to the region where the damage has occurred on the disc. Most commonly, the bulge occurs in areas where the nerve is located and it causes strain on the affected nerve. It has been observed that individuals do not feel any painful sensations even if their disc gets damaged.

When is Surgery Recommended for Herniated Disc?
Surgery for herniated disc is recommended only after options like steroid injections, pain relievers, exercise and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs do not work. If the pain persists even after these options, then it becomes important to go for surgery. There are certain risks involved in this surgery like infection, bleeding or nerve damage. 

There are chances that the disc may get ruptured again if it is not removed. If you are a patient suffering from degenerative disc disease, then there are chances that problem occurs in other discs. It is very important that a patient maintains healthy weight to prevent any further complications.

The main factor that increases the risk of herniated disc is excess body weight, which causes a lot of stress on the lower back. A few people become heir to a tendency of developing this condition. Even individuals with physically demanding jobs are prone to this condition. 

Activities like bending sideways, pushing, twisting, repetitive lifting can increase the risk of a herniated disk. At times, emergency surgery is also required to avoid paralysis in a patient. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an orthopedist.

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Brain Stroke: Things You Must Know

BHMS
Homeopath, Ajmer
Brain Stroke: Things You Must Know

A brain stroke can affect anyone at any point of time when the supply of blood to the brain is interrupted. It can threaten major physical functions and can prove to be fatally dangerous at times. The brain stem which is placed right above the spinal cord controls the breathing, heartbeat and levels of blood pressure. It is also in charge of controlling some elementary functions such as swallowing, hearing, speech and eye movements

What are the different types of strokes?
There are three main kinds of stroke: ischemic strokes, hemorrhagic strokes and transient ischemic attacks. The The most common type of brain stroke is the ischemic stroke is caused by narrowing or blocking of arteries to the brain, which prevents the proper supplyof of blood to the brain. Sometimes it so happens that the blood clot that has formed elsewhere in the body have travelled via the blood vessels and has been trapped in the blood vessel which provides blood to the brain. When the supply of blood to a part of the brain is hindered, the tissue in that area dies off owing to lack of oxygen. The other variant of brain stroke is termed as hemorrhagic stroke is caused when the blood vessels in and around the brain burstor or leak. Strokes need to be diagnosed and treated as quickly as possible in order to minimize brain damage.

What are the common symptoms of a brain stroke?
The symptoms of the brain stroke are largely dependent on the area of the brain that has been affected. It can interfere with normal functioning, such as breathing and talking and other functions which human beings can perform without thinking such as eye movements or swallowing. Since all the signals from the brain as well as other parts of the body traverse through the brain stem, the interruption of blood flow often leads to numbness or paralysis in different parts of the body.

Who is likely to have a stroke?
Anyone is at a risk of developing brain stroke although ageing is directly proportional to the risk of having a stroke. Not only that an individual with a family history of brain stroke or transient ischemic attack is at a higher risk of developing stroke. People who have aged over 65 accounts for about 33 percent of all brain strokes. It is important to point here that individuals with high blood pressure, high blood sugar, cholesterol, cancer, autoimmune diseases and some blood disorders are at a higher risk of developing brain stroke.

There are a few factors which can increase the risk of developing stroke beyond any control. But there are certain lifestyle choices as well which aids in controlling the chances of being affected by stroke. It is crucial to refrain from long-term hormone replacement therapies as well as birth control pills, smoking, lack of physical activity, excessive use of alcohol and drug addiction. A brain stroke is a life-threatening medical condition, and when an individual has symptoms that resemble that of stroke, it is crucial to seek immediate medical help.

Treatment for stroke:

  • Treatment depends on the type of stroke.
  • Ischemic strokes can be treated with 'clot-busting' drugs.
  • Hemorrhagic strokes can be treated with surgery to repair or block blood vessel weaknesses.
  • The most effective way to prevent strokes is through maintaining a healthy lifestyle.

What is TPA?
TPA is a thrombolytic or a “Clot Buster” drug. This clot buster is used to break-up the clot that is causing a blockage or disruption in the flow of blood to the brain and helps restore the blood flow to the area of the brain. It is given by intravenous (IV). This can be given only within 45.5 hrs of the onset of symptoms

Time is brain

Remember Every second Loss means brain cells die.

Rush to the nearest Stroke Centre whenever you experience such symptoms.

You can save the brain cells dying if you reach within 4.5 hrs by the CLOT BUSTER. 

Endovascular procedures:
Another treatment option is an endovascular procedure called mechanical thrombectomy, strongly recommended, in whichtrained  trained doctors try  removing a large blood clot bysending sending a wired-caged device called a stent retriever, to the site of the blocked blood vessel in the brain

Stroke prevention:
The good news is that 80 percent of all strokes are preventable. It startswith with managing keyrisk risk factors, including 

  • High blood pressure,
  • Cigarette smoking,
  • Diabetes Atrial fibrillation and
  • Physical inactivity.

More than half of all strokes are caused by uncontrolled hypertension or high blood pressure, making it the most important risk factor to control. 

Rehabilitation:
The best way to get better after a stroke is to start stroke rehabilitation ("rehab"). In stroke rehab, a team of health professionals works with you to regain skills you lost as the result of a stroke. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a neurologist. Homoeopathic Remedies which may be helpful during stroke or after stroke: Creategus, Terminalia Arjuna, Arnica, Glonoine, Glycyrrhiza Glabra, Lachesis, Opium, Staphysagria, Gelsemium, Phosphorous etc. 

Note : Do not take any Homoeopathic medicine without consulting any Homoeopath.

L4-l5 and l5-s1 between disk problems years-44-women. Please give advise operation after disk moving

Hand Surgery SR Ship, MS - Orthopaedics, Thesis Work, M.B;B.S
Orthopedist, Jaipur
Dear, surgery in spine disorders is not a full proof guarantee that all will be well once surgery is done. As we all have multiple discs, so the key is to get surgery if pain is severe, and there are neurological weakness, but once you are off from surgery change lifestyle if you want no more problems.
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Hi doctor, What are the chances of me getting breast cancer if my mom has got it during her menopause? I am getting married soon and this has raised a concern in my fiance's mind.

MS - General Surgery
General Surgeon, Kanpur
yes there is 2 to 5 times more risk than general population of developing breast cancer if 1 or 2 member of 1st degree relatives are suffering from breast cancer, do routine self examination of your breast.
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Please advice some treatment for bulging of disc I tried everything possible. Visited all type of doctor, did physical exercise and massage as well but still pain persists.

BPTh/BPT, MPTh/MPT
Physiotherapist, Ranchi
Please advice some treatment for bulging of disc
I tried everything possible. Visited all type of doctor, did physica...
Ok, please try for the laser therapy 6 to 10 session may do some change for your back pain please don't discontinue your spinal extension exercises planks, core strengthening exercises, hamstring stretching, standing balance on stability disc or you may try for seragem for one month.
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I am bodybuilder I had a disc replacement due to bulge in my disc. Is it possible to continue bodybuilding. Lifting weights etc. Plzz help me.

Fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons (FRCS), Membership of the Royal College of Surgeons (MRCS)
Orthopedist, Trichy
lifting weights is not advisable once you have had problems in your spine. there are other discs in the spine that can always create the same problem you had initially.
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Causes, Types And Treatment Of Bone Fracture!

Diploma In Orthopaedics (D. Ortho), DNB (Orthopedics), Diploma SICOT, Fellowship in Spine Surgery, Fellowship in Endoscopic Spine Surgery
Orthopedist, Vadodara
Causes, Types And Treatment Of Bone Fracture!

Broken bone is commonly known as bone fracture a d it occurs when an exorbitant amount of force is applied causing the bone to split or shatter. While some minor fractures lead to cracks and crannies, others may lead to complete breakage of the bones. Despite being hard, bones are formed in such a way that they can absorb pressure to only a certain extent, beyond which they break. Statistically, the incidence of broken bones are most common in children and in old age people.

Causes of Bone Fracture
Bone fracture can be caused due to a number of reasons; both intentional and accidental. Some of them include:
1. Accidents and injuries: Sports injuries, being hit by a car and tripping and falling are some of the typical episodes.
2. Old age: Diseases such as osteoporosis and brittle bone disease are common in aged people. As bones tend to become more fragile among the aged, they are at a greater chance of bone fractures.

Type of bone fractures
Primarily bone fractures are of four types, based on the way the bone splits. They are:

  1. Complete fracture: This type of fracture refers to a complete breakage of the bone wherein the fracture may occur at various parts of the bone.
  2. Incomplete fracture: In this type of fracture, the bone partially breaks instead of splitting entirely.
  3. Compound fractures: This is a type of a fracture wherein the bone breaks past the skin. It is also known as an open fracture.
  4. Simple fracture: In this type of a fracture, the bone breaks without causing an open wound on the skin.

Treatment of bone fractures
In case of a broken bone, the immediate course of action would be to reach for the first aid box. This can be done to stabilize the bone prior to hospitalization. Icing the injury, elevating the injured area to prevent further swelling and covering the wound with bandages are common measures. In many cases, people also make household splints (made of newspapers) to keep the bone stabilized. Hospitalization and especially surgery, can be also opted for in case of severe fractures. Consult a doctor for more details.

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Back Injury

BPTh/BPT
Physiotherapist, Delhi
Back Injury
Herniated disks or bone spurts in the vertebrae of the neck may become the reason behind severe neck pan. They sometimes take too much space and compress the nerves branching out from the spinal cord.
225 people found this helpful

5 Ways to Decrease The Chance of Breast Cancer

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (MRCOG)
Gynaecologist, Alwar
5 Ways to Decrease The Chance of Breast Cancer

While you cannot cure breast diseases, family history and maturing, but there are some hazards or risks that you can control. Keeping in mind the fact that there is no certain approach to forestall breast cancer, there are things you can do that may bring down the hazard. Here are five approaches to ensure your breast's well-being:

  1. Watch your weight: Being overweight or hefty expands breast cancer chances. This is particularly true after menopause and for women who have put on weight as grown-ups. After menopause, the vast majority of your estrogen originates from fat tissue. Having more fat tissue can heighten your chances of getting breast cancer by raising the estrogen levels. Additionally, women who are overweight have a tendency to have more elevated amounts of insulin, than other hormones. Higher insulin levels have been associated with a few tumors, including breast cancer.
  2. Exercise routinely: Many reviews have found that exercise is the sign of having a healthy breast. Studies show that one to two hours of energetic walking each week, lessened a woman’s cancer risk by eighteen percent. Walking ten hours seven days decreased the hazard all the more.
  3. Constrain liquor: Women who have two to five mixed beverages every day have a higher danger of breast cancer than women who have just one drink a day or none . As much as three to six glasses of wine seven days have been found to somewhat increase breast cancer chances. It is not clear how or why liquor raises the hazard. In any case, constraining liquor is particularly essential for women who have other hazard variables for breast cancer, like, breast cancer running in their families.
  4. Restrain time spent sitting: Research has shown that sitting time, regardless of how much exercise you get when you are not sitting, increases the probability of growing cancer, particularly for women. Women who sit six hours or more a day outside of work have a ten percent more serious risk for breast cancer compared to the ladies who sit under three hours a day, and an increased hazard for other cancer types as well.
  5. Stay away from or confine hormone substitution treatment: Hormone Replacement Treatment (HRT) was utilized frequently in the past to control night sweats, hot flashes, and other troublesome manifestations of menopause. In any case, specialists now realize that postmenopausal ladies who take a blend of estrogen and progestin might probably create breast tumors or cancer. Breast cancer disease seems to come back within five years in the wake of ceasing the blend of hormones. Therefore, get a breast cancer test even if you feel a small lump. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.
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