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Management of Surrogacy
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment of Gynae Problems
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Menopause Related Issues
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Treatment of Mirena (Hormonal Iud)
Pap Smear Procedure
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Treatment
Treatment of Uterine Bleeding
Antenatal And Postnatal Exercise
Management of Postnatal Care
Adiana System Treatment
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- Zika virus disease is caused by a virus transmitted by aedes mosquitoes.
- People with zika virus disease usually have a mild fever, skin rash (exanthema) and conjunctivitis. These symptoms normally last for 2-7 days.
- There is no specific treatment or vaccine currently available.
- The best form of prevention is protection against mosquito bites.
- The virus is known to circulate in africa, the americas, asia and the pacific.
Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first identified in uganda in 1947 in rhesus monkeys through a monitoring network of sylvatic yellow fever. It was subsequently identified in humans in 1952 in uganda and the united republic of tanzania. Outbreaks of zika virus disease have been recorded in africa, the americas, asia and the pacific.
- Genre: flavivirus
- Vector: aedes mosquitoes (which usually bite during the morning and late afternoon/evening hours)
- Reservoir: unknown
Signs and symptoms
The incubation period (the time from exposure to symptoms) of zika virus disease is not clear, but is likely to be a few days. The symptoms are similar to other arbovirus infections such as dengue, and include fever, skin rashes, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain, malaise, and headache. These symptoms are usually mild and last for 2-7 days.
During large outbreaks in french polynesia and brazil in 2013 and 2015 respectively, national health authorities reported potential neurological and auto-immune complications of zika virus disease. Recently in brazil, local health authorities have observed an increase in zika virus infections in the general public as well as an increase in babies born with microcephaly in northeast brazil. Agencies investigating the zika outbreaks are finding an increasing body of evidence about the link between zika virus and microcephaly. However, more investigation is needed before we understand the relationship between microcephaly in babies and the zika virus. Other potential causes are also being investigated.
Zika virus is transmitted to people through the bite of an infected mosquito from the aedes genus, mainly aedes aegypti in tropical regions. This is the same mosquito that transmits dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever.
Zika virus disease outbreaks were reported for the first time from the pacific in 2007 and 2013 (yap and french polynesia, respectively), and in 2015 from the americas (brazil and colombia) and africa (cape verde). In addition, more than 13 countries in the americas have reported sporadic zika virus infections indicating rapid geographic expansion of zika virus.
Zika virus is diagnosed through pcr (polymerase chain reaction) and virus isolation from blood samples. Diagnosis by serology can be difficult as the virus can cross-react with other flaviviruses such as dengue, west nile and yellow fever.
Mosquitoes and their breeding sites pose a significant risk factor for zika virus infection. Prevention and control relies on reducing mosquitoes through source reduction (removal and modification of breeding sites) and reducing contact between mosquitoes and people.
This can be done by using insect repellent; wearing clothes (preferably light-coloured) that cover as much of the body as possible; using physical barriers such as screens, closed doors and windows; and sleeping under mosquito nets. It is also important to empty, clean or cover containers that can hold water such as buckets, flower pots or tyres, so that places where mosquitoes can breed are removed.
Special attention and help should be given to those who may not be able to protect themselves adequately, such as young children, the sick or elderly.
During outbreaks, health authorities may advise that spraying of insecticides be carried out. Insecticides recommended by the who pesticide evaluation scheme may also be used as larvicides to treat relatively large water containers.
Travellers should take the basic precautions described above to protect themselves from mosquito bites.
Zika virus disease is usually relatively mild and requires no specific treatment. People sick with zika virus should get plenty of rest, drink enough fluids, and treat pain and fever with common medicines. If symptoms worsen, they should seek medical care and advice. There is currently no vaccine available.
Who is supporting countries to control zika virus disease through:
- Define and prioritize research into zika virus disease by convening experts and partners.
- Enhance surveillance of zika virus and potential complications.
- Strengthen capacity in risk communication to help countries meet their commitments under the international health regulations.
- Provide training on clinical management, diagnosis and vector control including through a number of who collaborating centres.
- Strengthen the capacity of laboratories to detect the virus.
- Support health authorities to implement vector control strategies aimed at reducing aedes mosquito populations such as providing larvicide to treat standing water sites that cannot be treated in other ways, such as cleaning, emptying, and covering them.
- Prepare recommendations for clinical care and follow-up of people with zika virus, in collaboration with experts and other health agencies.
I had intercourse on 5, n had ipill within 24 hours n check the pref test came out to be negative after one day n my date of starting with menstruation cycle was 7 n now its 10th I haven't got it yet so why is it getting delayed?
My breast are so loose and small. How can I make it in perfect size. Any exercise can improve it, then please suggest me or something else which can improve it. Thanks.
Here are top 6 nutrients that are a must for women of all ages.
1) Vitamin B12 - Women suffer from extreme fatigue as soon as they reach late 20s or mid-30s and vitamin B12 has proven to be extremely efficient in not only curbing the feeling of fatigue, but also in promoting swiftness and alertness in the body.
2) Vitamin D3 - Lack of vitamin D3 is detrimental for breast and ovarian cancers which plague a large number of women. This vitamin also builds immunity against certain autoimmune diseases and provides adequate strength to muscles, bones and teeth.
3) Iron - Adequate levels of iron in the body ensures that you never run out of energy and are always active. In addition, iron plays an important role in maintaining efficient functioning of the brain.
4) Vitamin B6 - Vitamin B6 mainly promotes the maintenance of a healthy and regular sleep pattern and protects against sleep-related disorders such as insomnia. It also helps in the correct regulation of your appetite while maintaining hormonal balance, thus protecting you from mood disorders.
5) Folate - Women who are expecting or have recently given birth certainly benefit a great deal from adequate consumption of folate. These women are highly vulnerable to a number of spinal and brain defects which are effectively prevented by the nutrient. It also helps to make the body highly resistant to colon and breast cancers.
6) Calcium - Calcium is like a wonder drug for all women as it solves a majority of problems which hinder their daily life. It plays an important role in maintaining a stable blood pressure and is extremely efficient in controlling certain noxious symptoms of PMS. It is important also to maintain their bone density as they age.
If you have any questions on women health, please click on 'Consult.
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Hi. I am 10 weeks 6 days preg. My hcg is doubling in 48 hours. But for safer side doc suggested me to take hcg 5000 iu injection weekly. 1. Pls confirm till what time I should take hcg injection or should I stop it? 2) baby heartbeat at 9 weeks 6 days is 168 bpm. Is it on higher side? 3) doc has suggested double marker test 10 weeks 5 days. Is it the correct time to go for the same? 4) m taking susten sr 300 mg twice. Is it sufficient dose? 5) m taking bigomet sr 500 mg twice daily as I have pcod. And till what time I should take bigomet and when to stop? 6) also m taking bharglob in every three weeks (immunoglobulin) and enoxaparin 40 mg daily as I had 3 previous miscarriage at 6 weeks.
Hello I'm I'm pregnant I feel baby movements and I took three pregnancy test came back positive but Friday 13 of may I went to see a nurse I pee on the stick the nurse it came back negative Wats the problem.
Since I was 15 old I am suffering from breast pain bt I recover it by homeopathic medicine bt nw at the age of 24 I get started pain again or since morning it started n goes down slow after one hour what must I do.
My wife AnD we are trying for conceiving baby. Her period date is 12 april. We had on 25 and 27 march now in between around 3 april she hd stomach infection n high fever too though she is alright now but dis time she is feeling little bit nauseatic. Vomiting feeling but only sometime only n also one of her nipple is swelled n having little bit tingling pain. Sometime she has pain in stomach too like she wants to go to washroom for getting fresh. Are these symptoms of pregnancy. please guide me also can we take home pregnancy check now. 4 days before menstrual cycle.
Hello Dr. I'm 27 male my GF is facing twice periods problem may I know what is the problem why so is happening?
Hi I am Smita. I have irregular periods from september 2015 to May 2016. I want to conceive. So I consulted a gynecologist. She gave me CCQ 200gm. I was continuing this fir 3 month (june to august). My period occurred perfectly after use this. Bt this month doctor gave me "susten" I am already missing my period before 7 days. Is ther any problem for stop the medicine CCQ?
Curd and buttermilk are both milk based products, have the same composition, and more or less the same nutrients, yet there remains a persistent question as to which out of the two is better?
Does adding water to the contents of the curd, to turn it into buttermilk, really affect the properties of curd?
The answer is yes.
Read on to find out, how.
The basic difference between curd and buttermilk is the process of dilution by the addition of water. The more water you put in curd, the less concentrated the buttermilk becomes. According to Ayurveda, the churning (Manthana) of the curd into buttermilk, gives it additional properties. Churning induces the proteins in the buttermilk to be easily digested due to their degraded structure.
Here are a few pointers that could help you choose which out of the two suits your needs more:
- Calorie content - If you are looking to reduce your weight and prefer a controlled diet, you should opt for buttermilk. 100 grams of buttermilk contains 40 calories, whereas 100 grams of curd contains close to 98 calories. So, for undernourished children or people looking forward to gain weight, curd should be opted because it is nutrient dense.
- Nutrient content - Buttermilk is rich in calcium, vitamin B12, zinc, iboflavin and proteins. It helps in keeping your bones healthy, lowering the level of bad cholesterol, preventing cancer, battling stress and anemia due to the presence of these nutrients. On the other hand, curd contains calcium, phosphorus, vitamins B12, B5, B2, potassium, proteins, and molybdenum. These nutrients prove to be beneficial in preventing chances of hypertension and heart diseases, promoting teeth and bone health and reducing stress and anxiety.
- Fluid content - Buttermilk has significant fluid content, so it can be consumed in extremely hot weather conditions to curb dehydration and as a replacement to other fluids. On the contrary, curd has limited fluid content, which makes it suitable for consumption by people who have been instructed to adhere to a fluid restricted diet, but require an intake of good quality proteins.
- Probiotics content - Both curd and buttermilk are rich in probiotics or good bacteria, which help in strengthening your immune system and increase longevity.
Remember make either of the two a part of your regular diet!
I am 30 years old female mother of 2 kids I had delivered 7 months back and I am breastfeeding my baby till now. I have still not got my periods n I feel that I am pregnant again however I have not done any home test is there any chances of pregnancy with breastfeeding?
I am 19 year old girl. I am suffering from irregular manstulation/period cycle and minimum blood is released(3-4 drops) and have lots pain while bleeding. What should I do?
Reasons You Must Consider Gynecologic Laparoscopy
An alternative form of surgery, gynecologic laparoscopy uses an instrument known as laparoscope to view the inside of your pelvic area. In comparison to conventional open surgery, wherein large incisions are made, this surgical procedure involves smaller cuts or incisions being made, leading to smaller scars and quicker recovery. This technology also enables a medical professional to easily see as well as identify health issues.
Why is the procedure performed?
Depending on individual cases, laparoscopy can be opted for treatment, diagnosis or both. It can be used for the following scenarios like:
- Diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis (a condition wherein the tissue that lines your uterus develops outside it)
- Removal of scar tissue and ovarian cyst
- To take care of ectopic pregnancy in which an embryo places itself outside the uterus
- Used to perform female sterilization (a surgical procedure on the fallopian tubes to put a stop to future pregnancy)
- Used to perform oophorectomy (removal of the ovaries through surgery) or hysterectomy (removal of the uterus through surgery)
- To investigate cancer-related instances like lymph nodes
In addition to these reasons, laparoscopy may also be recommended in cases such as pain in the abdomen or difficulty in getting pregnant. At the same time, certain gynecologic conditions may require open surgery. It's best to consult an expert before taking any decision.
What happens after the reason is identified?
Once the reason is identified, a biopsy of your tissue may be taken during the procedure. This is done to identify the kinds of cell and whether they are cancerous or non-cancerous. Many a time, biopsies are also performed to identify certain conditions like endometriosis.