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Vighanharta Sai Hospital & Laboratory

Multi-speciality Hospital (Physiotherapist, Gynaecologist & more)

Sukh Samruddhi, Alandi Road, Dighi. Pune
10 Doctors · ₹0
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Vighanharta Sai Hospital & Laboratory Multi-speciality Hospital (Physiotherapist, Gynaecologist & more) Sukh Samruddhi, Alandi Road, Dighi. Pune
10 Doctors · ₹0
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About

By combining excellent care with a state-of-the-art facility we strive to provide you with quality health care. We thank you for your interest in our services and the trust you have place......more
By combining excellent care with a state-of-the-art facility we strive to provide you with quality health care. We thank you for your interest in our services and the trust you have placed in us.
More about Vighanharta Sai Hospital & Laboratory
Vighanharta Sai Hospital & Laboratory is known for housing experienced Orthopedists. Dr. Rahul, a well-reputed Orthopedist, practices in Pune. Visit this medical health centre for Orthopedists recommended by 67 patients.

Timings

MON-SAT
09:00 AM - 01:00 PM

Location

Sukh Samruddhi, Alandi Road, Dighi.
Alandi Road Pune, Maharashtra - 411015
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Doctors

Dr. Rahul

MBBS
Orthopedist
Available today
09:00 AM - 01:00 PM

Dr. Gaikwad

MBBS
Physiotherapist
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09:00 AM - 01:00 PM

Dr. Nimarkar

MBBS
General Surgeon
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09:00 AM - 01:00 PM

Dr. Neha

MBBS
Ayurveda
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09:00 AM - 01:00 PM

Dr. Neha

MBBS
Ayurveda
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Dr. Hublikar

MBBS
Pathologist
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09:00 AM - 01:00 PM

Dr. Akash

MBBS
Gynaecologist
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09:00 AM - 01:00 PM

Dr. Gaikwad

MBBS
Physiotherapist
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09:00 AM - 01:00 PM

Dr. Ravi

MBBS
General Physician
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5 Homeopathic Remedies To Treat Anxiety!

BHMS, Health Care Management
Homeopath, Pune
5 Homeopathic Remedies To Treat Anxiety!

Anxiety disorders are serious issues amongst individuals of all ages today. It is a psychological feeling of uneasiness or fear about something, which can create other physiological and behavioral changes in a human being and can even drive a a person crazy. It can be characterized by symptoms such as sweating palms, rapid heartbeat, muscle tension, dry mouth, which arise due to various reasons such as face of fearing the crowd, stage-fright, doubt about facing a difficult situation, fear of failure or rejection and many more.

Homeopathy comes into this picture with a unique recovery program for such kinds of anxieties. Its treatment procedure is individualistic, which means, it has a separate recovery therapy for separate anxiety disorders. In addition, treatment is purely natural with no side effects. Following are some homeopathic remedies of various kinds of anxiety disorders: 

  1. Aconite: This is the best homeopathic remedy for anxiety symptoms such as agitation, restlessness, dry mouth, fear of mixing with people, panic attack, fear of death, fear of future or even certain agonized feeling related to some past traumatic incident. In such cases, the patient may sometimes become very violent also.
  2. Argentum nitricum: This medicine comes into play in cases of extreme nervousness or apprehension of a person which turns him or her to be very much impulsive. The patient also becomes forgetful and dull always wearing a melancholy and grim face.
  3. Arsenic Album: There are certain anxieties, which include fear of security and safety leading to anxiety about robbers, health or money. Consequently, they tend to feel insecure and always try to be neat and perfectionist to avoid such problems. Arsenic Album is very helpful in such cases.
  4. Calcarea carbonica: People who suffer from a fear of change or losing hold of situation and are very stubborn and obstinate may take help of this medicine.
  5. Gelsemium sempervirens: This is useful when the patient is suffering from muscle tensions, shaking of legs or knocking of knees due to performance anxiety.

In addition, Lycopodium clavatum, Kali arsenicosum, Kali Phosporicum, Phosporus are also very useful for anxieties. However, people should always consult a doctor before taking the medicines.

What Can Possibly Cause Blood In Urine?

MBBS, MS - General Surgery, M.Ch - Urology
Urologist, Bangalore
What Can Possibly Cause Blood In Urine?

Blood in urine, medically known as Hematuria is not usually a cause of concern, but it can translate into an adverse condition if left unevaluated. The kidneys and other structures in the urinary tracts such as urethra (tube connecting the bladder to the outer part of the body); bladder (that stores the urine) and ureters (tube joining the bladder to the kidney) are the sources of blood flow to the urine. Hematuria can be accompanied by symptoms such as discharge of tea-colored, brownish-red or pink colored urine due to the presence of red blood cells, traces of which can only be detected under the microscope.

Underlying causes behind this disorder might be

  1. Urinary tract infection is where the bacteria enter the body through the urethra and begin to proliferate in the bladder.
  2. Kidney infections (pyelonephritis) is when bacteria infiltrate into the kidneys from the bloodstream or travel up from the uterus to the kidneys.
  3. A kidney or a bladder stone is marked by the minerals in the concentrated urine precipitating out and molding into crystals that deposit on the bladder or kidney walls.
  4. Enlarged prostate is a condition in which the prostate gland, that is situated just below the bladder surrounding the upper part of the urethra, starts growing as males head towards their middle age.
  5. Kidney disease such as glomerulonephritis causes swelling of the kidneys, thus disrupting the filtering system.
  6. Bladder, kidney and prostate cancer are also possible causes.
  7. Hereditary disorders such as sickle cell anemia (a hereditary disease of the red blood cells in the hemoglobin) can also pose as a cause behind this disorder.
  8. Kidney injury as a result of heavy blows, accidents or injuries sustained while playing a spot can also contribute to this condition.
  9. Medications such as penicillin or the anti-cancer drug ‘cyclophosphamide’
  10. Strenuous physical exercises like intense workout or running may also result in Hematuria.

Treatments
There is no fixed cure for Hematuria; instead the doctor would work on treating the repressed conditions behind the symptoms, such as prescribing antibiotics to heal the urinary tract infection or a medicine to shrink and normalize the enlarged prostate or administer a shock wave therapy to destroy the kidney or bladder stones

Ovarian Cysts - Know The Common Types!

MBBS, DGO
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Ovarian Cysts - Know The Common Types!

Ovaries are a part of a woman’s reproductive system. The primary function of ovaries includes producing ‘ova’ or eggs and secreting hormones such as progesterone and estrogen. Cysts are fluid-filled sacs that form the ovaries; they usually do not cause any symptom and are not painful.

There are primarily two types of ovarian cysts:

1. Follicle cysts: During a woman’s menstrual cycle, the egg develops in a sac known as the follicle. Under normal circumstances, the sac breaks open and releases the egg. When this doesn’t happen, fluids start accumulating in the follicle to form a cyst.

2. Corpus luteum cysts: Follicle sacs dissolve after releasing the egg, but in some cases, these sacs remain and the opening of the sacs gets sealed. It again results in fluid accumulation, leading to the formation of corpus luteum cysts.

Symptoms

Usually, cysts do not cause any symptom. If the size of the cysts increases, they may cause symptoms such as stomach pain, pain during bowel movements and sex as well as pelvic floor pain. The breasts may become tender and one may experience rapid breathing. Other symptoms of ovarian cysts are fever, nausea and dizziness. Usually, rupturing of a cyst leads to these symptoms surfacing; hence you would know when exactly to call the doctor.

Treatment

The treatment options for ovarian cysts are:

  1. LaparoscopyLaparoscopy is carried out if the cysts are small in size. An incision is made close to the navel, through which an instrument is inserted to get rid of the cyst.
  2. Birth control pillsFor chronic ovarian cysts, oral contraceptives are prescribed to stop the ovulation process in order to arrest the formation of cysts.
  3. Laparotomy: In case of large cysts, this procedure is recommended. A relatively bigger incision is made in the abdomen, through which the cyst is removed.

Ovarian cysts, if left untreated, can certainly cause infertility. Pre-menopausal women and who suffer from frequent hormonal imbalances in the body are the most vulnerable to this condition.

Piles : Say No to Surgery!

M.S. (Ayurveda), Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Delhi
Piles : Say No to Surgery!

Piles are the tortuous veins which bulge out in the anal canal. There are so many factors responsible for this engorgement of the anal veins. The most common cause is chronic constipation. In such condition patients have to strain for defecation which puts pressure on the veins leading to congestion & engorgement.

When these veins get ruptured by passing hard stools or due to straining it initiates characteristic painless bleeding. Bleeding may be in the form of fresh blood drops or spurts of fresh blood. At this stage bleeding is the only symptom that patients complain of. This is known as 1st degree hemorrhoid. When these congested rectal veins increase in size, the pile mass may protrude out during defecation. After passing stool, the pile mass reduces by itself and sometimes patients have to reduce the pile mass manually. This stage is labeled as 2nd degree piles. When these pile masses further increase in size they may protrude out during walking or sitting etc this is known as third degree piles.

Types of piles-

Piles also known as hemorrhoids are dilated, engorged veins carrying blood in the anal canal. In simpler words, these are dilated blood veins that are located near the areas of anus. Piles are mainly of two types in nature namely

1. Internal hemorrhoids and

2. External hemorrhoids.

The internal ones are more common in occurrence in the human body than the external ones. Most often, these appear around two centimeters above the opening in the anal canal. As the name suggests, the external piles occurs on the outside area of anus. Whereas the internal piles are present inside the anal canal. Here are different stages of internal piles.

  1. In First stage patient complains of painless bleeding during defecation.
  2. In 2nd stage- There is painless bleeding along with mass protruding out per rectum during defecation which gets reduced by itself or manual reduction is necessary.
  3. In 3rd stage; pile mass could not be reduced back or if reduced by force; these come out even on coughing, walking or sitting.
  4. Some classify piles differently as when manual reduction is required; it is the 3rd stage while when pile mass is not reducible; it is the 4th stage of internal piles.

Symptoms of piles-

Following are the symptoms commonly seen in patients of Piles:.

  1. Blood drops with the passage of stool. Blood spurts may also be noticed while passing stools.
  2. Moreover, there are instances when there is unbearable itchiness around the anus specialty in ext. piles.
  3. A soft mass or lump may be noticed coming out through anus during passing stools which is reduced spontaneously & if it is large in size then it may be manually inserted back in the anus.
  4. Acute cases when the pile masses get infected or inflamed there may be symptoms of acute pain

Treatment of piles without surgery!!!

Yes; It is possible to treat piles without having to undergo the knife of doctor. Ayurveda is well known for treatment of piles without surgery.

A. In the first stage of piles, Kshar Karma therapy (application some kshar or medicine on the pile mass that cause shrinking of the mass) is performed which leads to arrest of the bleeding & regression of the pile mass. No surgery is required.

B. In the second & third stage of piles, the pile mass is ligated by the Ksharsutra as an opd procedure. After ligation pile mass shed off in some days. Usually hospitalization or bed rest is not required & patients can go home after the treatment. It is not advisable to ignore the problem as it will only aggravate with time. Earlier is always better to treat pile. Even at first stage; it is very important to see the doctor because the blood loss during passing stools may lead to anemia. .

Home remedies for Piles

1. Piles are the resultant of putting too much strain while defecation or sitting too long for defecation. So these should be avoided.

2. Avoid fast foods, spicy and too much oily foods.

3. Increase consumption of fibrous foods like green leafy vegetables, fruits and salads;

4. Increase intake of fluids and butter milk etc.

5. You should exercise regularly.

6. If the pile mass protrude out during defecation these should be reduced and it is better to keep them inside.

How To Get Quick Heartburn Relief?

MBBS, MD - Internal Medicine, Post Graduate Program in Diabetology
General Physician, Delhi
How To Get Quick Heartburn Relief?

Heartburn is the name given to that burning sensation in your chest or throat that happens when acid rises up from your stomach into your mouth. Heartburn is a common symptom of gastroesophageal reflux disease or GERD, also called acid reflux.

The commonest heartburn trigger is your diet. Spicy, heavy food causes acid reflux. Coffee, soda, tomatoes, alcohol and chocolate are culprits too. Obesity, smoking and medications for hypertension and cancer are the causes of heartburn too.

Certain people are more susceptible to heartburn. Sportspeople experience heartburn more, usually because exercise is a big trigger. It does so by putting increased pressure on the abdomen, which can increase the risk of acid reflux.

What can you do when heartburn strikes?

  1. Wear Loose Clothes- Heartburn happens when stomach contents go back into the food pipe where the stomach acid burns tissue. If tight clothes constrict your abdomen, you can experience more heartburn. To get immediate relief, you can just loosen the belt of your trousers.

  2. Proper Posture- Sitting up or standing straight can control heartburn. A slumped body posture can compress the internal organs including the stomach. An immediate quick fix is to lengthen your spine by gently moving your head towards the ceiling.

  3. Eat Less- Overeating can cause the door between the stomach and food pipe to open, allowing contents to flow back and cause heartburn.

  4. Quick Home Remedies-

    • Drink teaspoonful of baking soda mixed into a glass of water whenever you suffer from heartburn. This is a home remedy that works.

    • Raise your body, if you’re lying down and experience heartburn. Use a pillow to elevate your body waist-up. This will get rid of heartburn fast.

    • Chewing gum can neutralise stomach acid. This is because gum increases saliva which clears off acid in the gut.

  5. Avoid Cigarette Smoke- Smoking, both active and passive are harmful, if you suffer from heartburn.

  6. Over-the-counter Medications- Antacids, H2 blockers, and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are all effective in treating heartburn. PPIs work by blocking acid production, H2 blockers reduce the amount of acid in your stomach and antacids neutralise stomach acid.

  7. Melatonin- A common sleep–inducing supplement is being investigated as a heartburn remedy.

Always remember to check with your doctor before taking any herbal remedy or supplement for heartburn. This is because supplements can have side effects or can interact with medications you may already be taking.

Common tips to prevent heartburn are to eat at least three hours before bedtime, avoid lying down immediately after eating and staying away from fatty and spicy foods. Maintaining a healthy weight is also key to preventing heartburn. It also helps if you do mild exercise regularly.  

Who Is At Risk Of Osteoporosis?

DNB (Orthopedics), MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Visakhapatnam
Who Is At Risk Of Osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis is a condition which usually results due to a decrease in bone density. In this condition, the bones become weak and brittle. Fractures are a common result of osteoporosis. Usually, symptoms or signs do not show up until the condition progresses to its advanced stages.

Since osteoporosis is usually irreversible and incurable, preventing the fractures is considered to be extremely important.

Who is at risk of osteoporosis?
All men and women have some risk of developing 'thinning' of the bones (osteoporosis) as they become older, particularly over the age of 60. As mentioned above, women are more at risk than men. The following situations may also lead to excessive bone loss and so increase your risk of developing osteoporosis. If you:

  1. Are a woman who had the menopause before 45 years of age
  2. Have already had a bone fracture after a minor fall or bump
  3. Have a strong family history of osteoporosis.
  4. Have a body mass index (BMI) of 19 or less (that is, you are very underweight)
  5. Have irregular periods
  6. Have taken, or are taking, a steroid medicine (such as prednisolone) for three months or more
  7. Are a smoker
  8. Have an alcohol intake of more than four units per day
  9. Lack calcium and/or vitamin D (due to a poor diet and/or little exposure to sunlight).
  10. Are mostly inactive

Ways To Treat Osteporosis

Osteoporosis in women can be treated using Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT). The therapy makes use of either a combination of progestin and oestrogen or simply, oestrogen. However, it is possible that certain combinations have side-effects that might give rise to other medical conditions. Therefore, proper consultation with an orthopedist is an essential pre-requisite so that the condition of osteoporosis as well the side effects may be addressed before proceeding with Hormone Replacement Therapy.

There are a number of medications that can be used which have long-term effects on osteoporosis. However, the schedule for intake of these medicines should be followed diligently. Failing to adhere to the schedule could lead to serious complications. For example, the intake of Risedronate medications (prevent bone loss) should be scheduled once every month, failing which can cause ulcers in the food pipe. Raloxifene has effects which are similar to oestrogen but does not exhibit any serious side effects. Teriparatide can be used to treat osteoporosis in people who have a high risk of suffering from bone fractures.

Don't rely entirely on medication as the only treatment for your osteoporosis. These practices also are important:

  1. Exercise. Weight-bearing physical activity and exercises that improve balance and posture can strengthen bones and reduce the chance of a fracture. The more active and fit you are as you age, the less likely you are to fall and break a bone.
  2. Good nutrition. Eat a healthy diet and make certain that you're getting enough calcium and vitamin D. Being underweight or losing a lot of weight unintentionally is associated with poorer bone health and a higher risk of fracture — even if you're taking a bisphosphonate.
  3. Quit smoking. Smoking cigarettes speed up bone loss.
  4. Limit alcohol. If you choose to drink alcohol, do so in moderation. For healthy adults, that means up to one drink a day for women of all ages and men older than age 65, and up to two drinks a day for men age 65 and younger.

Missed Periods - 6 Reasons Behind It!

MBBS, DGO, DNB - Obstetrics & Gynecology
Gynaecologist, Noida
Missed Periods - 6 Reasons Behind It!

Amenorrhea is the medical condition wherein a woman misses the menstrual periods. Girls aged 15 or more who have not yet started menstruating are at the maximum risk of this condition. The most common cause of amenorrhea is pregnancy. Other causes of amenorrhea include problems concerning the reproductive organs or glands that help to regulate hormone levels. Treatment of the underlying conditions often resolves amenorrhea.

Some of the main causes and solutions of amenorrhea are:

  1. Dieting: In some women, dieting may cause amenorrhea. This is reversible, simply by eating a balanced diet.
  2. Anorexia: Women who suffer from anorexia nervosa are highly likely to suffer from amenorrhea. In this case too, the only solution is to eat a healthy balanced diet.
  3. Obesity: In some women, being overweight can cause amenorrhea. They should restrict the amount of fat consumed and should exercise daily to maintain an ideal body weight.
  4. Vigourous Exercise: However, extreme exercise is also a cause of amenorrhea. More than 8 hours of vigorous workout, in a week, for a prolonged period of time, can cause amenorrhea. Try to strike a balance between the right kind of exercises and the time devoted to them.
  5. Emotional stress: Excessive stress can often cause normal menstrual cycles to be disrupted. This can be cured by simply dealing with the cause of stress. Once stress levels come down to normal, so will menstruation.
  6. Addiction: Excessive consumption of alcohol or smoking of cigarettes can also cause amenorrhea. Maintaining a safe distance from all such intoxicants is advised.

Once the cause of amenorrhea is determined, treatment is directed at correcting the underlying disease, which should restore normal menstruation. In case of any anatomical abnormalities of the genital tract, surgery may be advised. Treatment with medications such as dopamine agonists, Glucophage or oral contraceptives is also helpful. Hormone replacement therapies are used in those cases wherein a lack of estrogen is the cause behind it.

A word of caution
While many individuals and companies have marketed herbal therapies as a successful treatment for amenorrhea, none of these have been conclusively proven to be of help. In fact, some of these have been associated with serious and even fatal side effects, though in rare cases. Some preparations have been found to contain high levels of toxins. Before deciding to take a natural or an alternative remedy for amenorrhea, it is best to seek the advice of a healthcare practitioner.

Amenorrhea is very easily avoidable by eating healthy and balanced diets, exercising moderately, maintaining ideal body weight and avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and smoking.

Diabulima - Should You Be Worried About It?

Diploma in Diabetology
Endocrinologist, Mumbai
Diabulima - Should You Be Worried About It?

Diabulimia is an eating disorder often associated with Type-1 Diabetes. Also referred to as ED-DMT1, not many people are aware of this non-clinical term. It is a well known fact that many people with Type-1 diabetes require the daily administration of insulin. In the case of Diabulimia, a person having Type-1 diabetes purposely manipulates with the insulin dosage in an endeavour to lose weight. In some extreme cases, a person may completely avoid the use of insulin.

You need no rocket science to understand the impact diabulimia will have on a diabetic patient (Type-1) who is entirely dependent on insulin. Some of the lethal consequences of diabulimia include

  1. Yeast infections: Manipulating with the appropriate dosage of insulin can trigger an abnormal rise in the blood glucose level (Hyperglycemia), some of which gets eliminated out through the urine, thereby enabling a person to lose weight. However, the high glucose level is just the ideal and favorable condition for yeast growth. The hyperglycemic condition will result in increased yeast infections. The infection can be very uncomfortable and annoying. In fact, there will be repeated yeast infections until the blood glucose level comes down to the normal range.
  2. Ketoacidosis: As already mentioned, diabulimia devoids the body of insulin. As a result, glucose is unable to enter the body cells (glucose is an important fuel for the muscles and the other cells and tissues of the body). In its absence, the body starts looking for alternate sources. Gradually the body starts breaking down fats to get the desired energy. Increased breakdown of fats results in accumulation of ketone bodies in the bloodstream, a condition medically termed as Ketoacidosis or Diabetic Ketoacidosis. The condition if left untreated can be harmful triggering Cerebral Edema (a condition characterized by a swelling of the brain), Hypokalemia (low potassium level) or even Hypoglycemia.
  3. Diabetic retinopathy: Hyperglycemia can spell doom for your eyes. The accumulation and buildup of high levels of glucose in the eyes often damage the retinal blood vessels, a condition known as Diabetic Retinopathy. There may not be any early signs associated with the condition. However, diabetic retinopathy can give rise to many serious complications such as Glaucoma (characterized by severe damage to the optic nerve), Vitreous Hemorrhage (the blood leaks into the areas adjacent to the vitreous humor of the eye), or even Blindness. There may also be a Retinal Detachment.
  4. Renal failure: One of the common and harmful consequences of diabulimia is the kidney failure. Increased concentration of glucose in the kidneys often damages the filtration units of the kidneys called the Glomeruli (increased glucose blocks the capillaries of the kidney) leading to kidney damage and failure.

Teenage Acne - 6 Myths Busted!

Diploma in Dermatologist, Venereologist and Laparoscopy , MBBS
Dermatologist, Rewari
Teenage Acne - 6 Myths Busted!

You may have heard a lot about teen acne and things related to it, especially its nature and solutions to cure this skin condition. However, there are several misconceptions about acne. Many facts regarding the cause and remedy for acne, which are commonly talked about, are incorrect. Here are some myths and facts about teen acne you should know about:

  1. Tanning clears the skin: A tan may act as a temporary mask to prevent acne. However, the sun dries up the skin and irritates it. This may further lead to acne breakout. There is no link between exposure to the sun and acne prevention, and the rays of the sun can cause damage to the skin. You should always use a sunscreen while going out in the sun.
  2. Wash your face to prevent acne breakouts: Washing your face helps in removing the dirt and oil from the pores of the skin. However, too much washing may cause dryness and irritation, triggering more acne breakout. You should not scrub your face and use a mild soap or a facewash to wash your face.
  3. Popping pimples will help in faster elimination: Popping pimples makes them less noticeable for some time, but it causes the pimples to last longer. When you squeeze a pimple, you push bacteria, dead skin cells and oil back into the skin. This causes increased swelling and reddening. It might also cause a red or brown scar, which takes a lot of time to disappear. Some of these scars last forever.
  4. Stress leads to acne: The normal daily stress a teenager faces does not lead to acne. However, in the case of stressful periods, such as dealing with the death of a loved one or facing parent’s divorce, the skin produces extra oil or sebum. This does not always mean that you will get more zits and pimples.
  5. Acne is curable: Acne is not curable. It is chronic in nature and may last for a very long time. It is like a continuous situation which keeps on recurring on the skin. It may come and go several times and in case you are prone to acne, you will face a hard time dealing with it.
  6. Pimples occur overnight: Another common misconception regarding acne is that pimples occur overnight. The truth is that a pimple takes weeks to develop but it may surface while you are asleep. The process of acne development is a complicated one and involves four steps.

Many people think that applying cold water closes pores and hot water opens pores. This is not true as the pores present all over your face do not have muscles. They cannot open and close.

Seizures - 3 Ways It Can Be Treated!

MCh - Neurosurgery, MS-General Surgery, MBBS
Neurosurgeon, Delhi
Seizures - 3 Ways It Can Be Treated!

The primary aim of the treatment in patients suffering from seizure is leasing a seizure-free life without giving way to any adverse effects. This goal can be accomplished in over 60 percent people with the help of anticonvulsants. Some patients also experience adverse effects since they suffer from a seizure which is refractory to medical therapy. Here are some of the common treatment options for seizures:

  1. Monotherapy: Sometimes, monotherapy is given as it reduces the chance of all sorts of adverse effects and even avoids drug interactions. Moreover, this type of treatment approach is much less expensive than polytherapy since many older generation of the anticonvulsant agent comprises of hepatic enzyme which is responsible for reducing the serum level of the concomitant drug which leads to an increase in the dosage level of such medicines.
  2. Social And vocational rehabilitation: People suffering from problems in psychosocial adjustments after the diagnosis may also need social and vocational rehabilitation. Many physicians do not pay enough attention to the consequences that an epilepsy diagnosis may leave on the patient. For instance, people with epilepsy may have a fear of experiencing next attack of seizure and they may be unable to work at heights or drive.
  3. Consulting an expert: It is important to refer patients with intractable spells to epileptologist or neurologist for subsequent workup. A neurosurgical consultation may also be needed when the patient has to be treated surgically.

Importance of anticonvulsant therapy
Patients who have had already suffered from recurrent attacks of unprovoked seizure may need treatment with an anticonvulsant. This treatment is not recommended until the person has risk factors for suffering from the problem yet again. The primary means of treating seizure is anticonvulsant therapy where the most suitable drug is chosen based on accurate diagnosis of the syndrome as a response to specific anticonvulsants may vary from one patient to another. The difference in response may reflect the various pathophysiologic mechanisms in different types of seizures.

Types of anticonvulsant therapy
Some of the anticonvulsant therapy medication may have multiple action mechanism while some have an only single mechanism of action. Some of the most common variants of the therapy include:

  1. Neuronal potassium channel referred to as KCNQ opener
  2. Blockers of unique binding sites such as perampanel, gabapentin, and levetiracetam
  3. H-current modulators such as lamotrigine and gabapentin
  4. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as zonisamide and topiramate
  5. Alpha-amino 3-hydroxy 5-methyl 4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor blockers like topiramate and perampanel.
  6. N and L-calcium channel blockers like zonisamide, valproate, topiramate, and lamotrigine

Even though there are so many types of drugs available, all of them cannot be used for the treatment of seizures. Doctors would evaluate the condition thoroughly before prescribing a medication that can be helpful in reducing the severity of the condition.

How Physiotherapy Helps Treat Dementia?

MDT(Mc Kenzie) , P.G-Dietitian, N.D.T-( Neuro Development Technic ), Physiotherapist
Physiotherapist, Mumbai
How Physiotherapy Helps Treat Dementia?

The point of doing a work out is to put your body through the motions and phases before you hit an intense spot of persistent action before cooling down. This helps in giving your body a well-balanced work out. But what many of us do not know is that a good workout schedule will also involve well-paced warm up sessions with exercises that will warm up the body and its various areas as well as the muscles so that the intensity does not hit the body suddenly and result in some sort of injury or undue fatigue.

So get it right with these eight warm up exercises that you aren't doing, but totally should!

  1. Dynamic: Follow a dynamic routine and mix it up a little with various kinds of movements that will work the different areas of the body. Start with squats and move on to lunges before you do a few skips to warm up!
  2. Jump: Try the jumping rope the next time you hit the gym and watch your heart rate go up just enough to get you all warm and loose, ready for that heavy duty work out. You can start with five minutes of this motion before moving on to your first set.
  3. Dance: Did you know that switching on your favourite music and shuffling your feet before you start to gyrate a little can actually get you in the right frame of mind for a work out? So next time, warm up with a little dancing!
  4. Balance: Warm up with a balancing act or two. Stand on one leg and do deadlifts with a dumb bell. Repeat the same motion for both arms. This helps in imitating the actual work out that you will be indulging in, which helps in warming up the relevant areas.
  5. Stretches: Try doing stretches and jumping jacks for stability and to work your core strength before you hit the gym equipment. This will bring about better blood circulation and help you get your heart ready for the work out.
  6. Swing: Use swinging movements with your arms and legs with circles and marches to help loosen up the muscles.
  7. Walk: Do the animal walk with crab walks, frog jumps, bunny hops, inch worm motions and much more to unleash your energy.
  8. Medicine Balls: Grab some medicine balls and do a few moves like the rotational twist, the front body push, the reverse eight and many more to get your body pumped up.

Warming up is an important part of working out, so remember to get your warm up routine right!

Tooth Sensitivity - Why It Happens?

BDS
Dentist, Mumbai
Tooth Sensitivity - Why It Happens?

For people with no dental problems, the teeth seem to be white pearls which add beauty to a person’s smile and face. However, there is more to it. The tooth does have layers which can make it sensitive and even painful. Those who have sensitivity when sipping cold water or eating sweets know how bad the experience can be. To understand how the sensitivity sets in a tooth, it is first important to understand the structure of the tooth.

There are 3 layers to the tooth from outside inwards – the outer white layer of enamel, a second sensitive layer of dentin, and the innermost one called the pulp. The enamel is devoid of any sensation and provides a protective covering for the tooth. It is the second hardest material in the body. The next inner layer, known as dentin, is made of fine tubules, which is responsible for sensation. The third innermost layer known as the pulp contains the blood and nerve supply essential for the tooth.

The tooth also has a crown and a root portion. The crown portion is what is visible in the mouth. The root portion is what is hidden in the jaw bone, provides an anchor, and is covered by the gums. The structure of the root is very similar to the crown, except that the first layer of enamel is replaced by a much softer material known as the cementum. As the gums recede, which often happens with age, the cementum is exposed to the oral environment, which then wears off much faster, and then sensitivity sets in.

How does sensitivity sets in?
The oral cavity is a very active environment with food particles, saliva, and millions of microorganisms. In this moist environment, food is degraded and acids are produced. These acids act on the enamel and there is a constant loss of enamel. The enamel does not have any sensation, and other than cosmetic concerns, enamel loss is asymptomatic. However, once the enamel layer is completely lost, and the dentin is exposed to the oral environment, the acids that are produced penetrate the fine tubules which cause sensitivity. Due to old age, when the gums recede, the cementum is exposed, and the rate at which cementum is lost is much rapid than that of enamel. Therefore, the dentin on the root surface produces sensitivity much faster than the crown surface.

To summarize, let us take a look at some of the most common causes of sensitivity:

  • Tooth decay, often worsened by soft, sticky foods which produce acids more than grains and vegetables
  • Use of hard brush which can lead to enamel wear-off
  • Improper dental fillings, allowing seepage of the acid into the dentin
  • Age, leading to gum recession

Lower Back Pain - Know the Causes and Treatments Of It!

Diploma in Orthopaedics, MBBS
Orthopedist, Gurgaon
Lower Back Pain - Know the Causes and Treatments Of It!

Lumbago or Lower back pain is a condition that is characterized by mild to serious pain or uneasiness in the lower back region. Lower back pain is more prevalent among the youth whose work includes physical exertion or sitting for long hours and is also common in individuals belonging to the 'retirement age' because of their sedentary lifestyles. The pain might be acute (sudden and extreme) or chronic if it has been endured over a span of three months. 

The most common causes of lower back pain are: 

  1. Overuse of the muscles and includes strains or sprains of soft tissues such as muscles, ligaments and vertebral compression fractures. 
  2. Pressure on the roots of nerves due to conditions such as spinal canal stenosis (narrowing down of the spaces within the spine) or herniated disc (a condition of the rubbery disc present between the spine bones (vertebrae)). 
  3. Osteoarthritis is a condition wherein the shock absorbers, found in the joints, progressively break down. 

When it affects the spine, the condition causes back pain by stiffening the spinal joints. Symptoms of Lumbago (Low back pain) include: 

  1. Stiff back 
  2. Numbness in the legs 
  3. Loss of weight 
  4. Difficulty in urinating 
  5. Sciatica, which is the pain running down the lower back to hips, legs and thighs. This occurs due to a compression by an intervertebral disc in the back, which leads to a pinched nerve. 

How to diagnose lower back pain or a slip disc?

Some methods that can be utilized for diagnosing back include Xray, CT Scans, Myelogram and MRI scans. 

Treatment options available -
Exercises along with correction of bad posture for relieving back pain are a common component of any treatment plan. Factors such as type and severity of the pain as well as the patient?s history can help in determining the type of treatment that can be administered. In most cases, the recovery time is usually six weeks without surgery. Typical treatment of back pain includes use of muscle relaxants, painkillers and physiotherapy. Surgery is suggested in severe cases. Some other treatments are discussed below: 

  1. Rest: A period of rest and inactivity would help the injured tissues to recuperate and relieve back pain. However, extended periods of rest lead to weakening of muscles and hence might prolong the existing back pain. 
  2. Heat and ice packs: Both heat and ice therapies are used according to the patient's preference to reduce inflammation. 
  3. Medications: A large variety of prescription and over-the-counter medicines are available. Some reduce back pain caused by inflammation and others prevent the pain signals from travelling to the brain. Examples would include acetaminophen, celecoxib and diclofenac.

Cholesterol - It Is Not Always Bad For You!

MBBS, MRCGP ( UK), Diploma in Diabetes (UK), DFSRH (UK), DRCOG (UK), CCT (UK)
Endocrinologist, Hyderabad
Cholesterol - It Is Not Always Bad For You!

Over the last few decades, the word cholesterol has assumed a different connotation. It has come to be known as a silent killer that spells doom for health. However, what we need to realize is that a certain amount of cholesterol is essential for the proper functioning of the body. The liver produces about 85% of the cholesterol that is required by the body normally. The ever changing food habits have introduced a lot of processed foods that are loaded with saturated fats. Along with this, reduced physical activity has led to accumulation of cholesterol in the blood.

The types of cholesterol are based on the density and we have 2 types of density that is Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL). LDL is more dangerous than HDL, called as bad and good cholesterol respectively. In addition, the triglycerides and lipoprotein are also critical indicators of overall cholesterol levels. Depending on a person's age, height and weight, normal levels are derived for each of these four.

Because of their density of the cholesterol molecules, as they are circulating in the blood stream, they tend to get sluggish and settle down along the walls of the blood vessels, referred to as plaque. This plaque attracts more and more cholesterol from the blood and the layer gets gradually thicker. This reduces the thickness of the blood vessels and in severe cases even completely blocks blood flow to important organs like the brain and heart, leading to severe conditions like stroke and heart attack respectively.

However, it is not always that all cholesterol is bad. It is one of the essential things for the proper body functions with the main functions listed below:

  1. Each cell in the body requires it to form the cell membrane, the protective layer around the cells
  2. Synthesis of vitamin D is done with the help of cholesterol, which is very essential for skin health
  3. It also helps in hormone formation. In addition to steroids, other hormones like testosterone, estrogen, cortisol require cholesterol as a main ingredient
  4. Formation of neurotransmitters and overall nerve function requires cholesterol. This ensures optimal neurological functioning.

So, as noted above, there are, both good and bad aspects to cholesterol. It is not all that dangerous a thing that it is made out to be. The trick is to maintain a good level of cholesterol so that the body's requirements are met, and at the same time, the harmful effects are kept at bay. Some important parameters to manage, include the percentage of bad cholesterol in the blood and the ratio of triglycerides to HDL in the blood. These are considered fair indicators of heart health and if need be, lifestyle changes and/or medications can be undertaken to manage overall health and reduce risk of heart disease and stroke.

Losing Your Virginity - Things You Must Know!

MBBS, FAACS(USA)
Sexologist, Ahmedabad
Losing Your Virginity - Things You Must Know!

It goes without saying that the notion of virginity is quite heterocentric and it excludes a large mass of people who may think that they have lost their virginity. The word ‘virgin’ means one who has not had sexual intercourse, which may be verified by an intact hymen. However, a girl whose hymen is intact may have had intercourse, whereas a girl who has never had intercourse may not have an intact hymen. The idea of chastity and virginity needs to be clarified. 

There are virgin individuals who are not chaste and chaste individuals who are not physiologically virgin. There is no reason to think that you are going to lose your virginity only when a male genital enters through it. The truth is that you may lose your virginity through manual stimulation, oral sex, sex toys and there is no specific set of criteria that have to be met. And, a virgin woman must bleed at the first attempt at sexual intercourse is a myth. This usually occurs due to the rupture of the hymen in virgins. 

However, the hymen may be absent from birth or might rupture while playing games, doing exercises or using tampoons. Hence, a woman need not necessarily bleed at the first attempt at sexual intercourse to prove her virginity. I have seen plenty of marriages on the rocks because of this misconception. It is all a matter of a big issue over a small tissue! Likewise, there are several things you should know about. 

  1. The vagina is not going to bleed incessantly: There are some women who do not experience any bleeding at all while it is also true that some women bleed too much. This is initiated due to the tearing of hymen and since all women have varying hymenal tissue, no one can predict the amount of blood you can expect. 
  2. Hymen-check is not the foolproof method of determining virginity: Since different people have different thickness of vaginal tissue, some can get thinner while others can wear out or have lesser blood vessels than others.
  3. Losing virginity does not always hurt: When you are doing it for the first time, you can expect a certain amount of pressure or pain. But the overall experience is supposed to be pleasurable and not unpleasant. So, if it is hurting unbearably, you must stop and focus on lubrication.
  4. Get warmed up first: When people are absolutely sure about having sex, most people tend to ignore the initial steps and jump on to the main event. But this is something you must refrain from. The more the arousal, the more pleasant and less painful it is. 
  5. Having an orgasm should not be your aim: It’s true that orgasms are beautiful, but you should not focus entirely on achieving an orgasm. You must also try to learn what your partner likes or dislikes; it is fun and important too.
  6. You won’t be able to hit orgasm at the first time: Research shows that women are less likely to have an orgasm while having an intercourse for the first time. But there are ways to increase the likelihood, such as having sex with a familiar partner, shifting the focus from penetration and involving in significant amount of foreplay.
  7. You can get pregnant the first time you lose virginity: This is really important. You can get pregnant the first time the male genital gets into the vagina and starts ejaculating. Therefore, have your birth control measure ready to keep an unwanted pregnancy at bay. 

5 Things That You Must Consider Before You Diet!

Masters in Nutritional Therapy, Diabetes Educator, MSc - Food & Applied Nutrition
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Kolkata
5 Things That You Must Consider Before You Diet!

Eating right and exercising are key to healthy weight loss. In no case should you ever consider crash dieting or any form of extreme diets. There are many different types of diets popular today. The most common side effect of dieting is that in most cases weight loss stops the moment a diet is stopped and the individual begins to put on weight instead. Here are a few other after effects of dieting.

  1. Tiredness: Most diets are centred around limiting your food intake. As a result of this, the body has less food available to convert into energy. This also causes a drop in blood sugar levels. As a result of this, you may find yourself tiring easily and with less energy to go about your normal day.
  2. Mood changes: Fluctuating blood sugar level can also make you feel irritable and depressed. Limiting your food intake can make you crave food which further adds to your irritability. By cheating on your diet with a sugar laden snack you may cause further fluctuation of insulin levels. This can be seen in the form of temporary elation.
  3. Slow metabolism: The body needs a certain calorific amount to function. When this is not available, it will turn to stored fat reserves and slow down the rate of metabolism. This can lead to a loss of muscles instead of fats and even stall your weight loss. This is commonly seen in cases of extreme weight loss.
  4. Loose skin: Dieting only addresses the fat underneath your skin. As you put on weight, your skin stretches to accommodate the gained pounds. Hence, losing a lot of fat can leave you with loose skin and sagging folds. This usually occurs on the upper arms and abdomen. The amount of loose skin left depends on the speed of weight loss, the amount of weight lost and your age. In this case, exercise does little to help and the only way to tackle the loose skin is through plastic surgery.
  5. GallstonesWhen you cut down on the fat quotient of your diet, your gall bladder does not contract as often. In many cases, this can lead to the concentration of bile which further leads to the development of gall stones. These gall stones can be quite uncomfortable and can cause a stomach ache as well. To avoid this, do not cut out fats completely, but include a few healthy fats in your diet.

Can Feeling Extremely Depressed Be A Symptom Of Bipolar Disorder?

MD - Psychiatry
Psychiatrist, Chennai
Can Feeling Extremely Depressed Be A Symptom Of Bipolar Disorder?

Bipolar disorder is a condition where the patient may go through certain periods of extreme happiness and joy which is known as mania. On the other hand, there may be other periods where the patient may be extremely sad and depressed and even suicidal.

In some individuals, these phases may last quite long whereas, in others, they may change very quickly. However, there are certain common symptoms displayed by patients with bipolar disorder. Let's look at a few of them.

  • Feeling extremely happy, to the point of being careless - Certain patients, at the onset of bipolar disorder, will feel extremely happy and have their sense of judgment hampered. When patients feel very elated without proper context, or for very small reasons, it could be an indication that the person is experiencing mania.
  • Feeling extremely depressed - Similarly, on the other end of the spectrum, if a person feels extremely depressed without an appropriate reason, it may be due to bipolar disorder. Also, the severity of depression and the length of time for which a person experiences it is also an indicator of the condition.
  • Lack of interest in activities which formerly interested you - You may suddenly lose interest in an activity that genuinely interested you earlier. This may include your profession or hobbies.
  • Loss of appetite during the depression phases - During the phases of depression or sadness, which may sometimes last for months, a person may rapidly lose weight due to lack of interest in food. Even for patients who have shorter cycles of changes lasting for only a few weeks, this will be noticeable.
  • Extreme restlessness and lack of sleep during the manic phases - When the person enters a manic or happy cycle, it may trigger over enthusiasm, restlessness and lack of sleep. This, like the depression phase, will also vary from patient to patient and may continue for the entire duration of the phase. A jump from a depression cycle into this phase will be definitely noticed by others.


If a few of these symptoms are detected, then the patient should be taken to a mental health professional for appropriate treatment as soon as possible.

Neck Swelling - Why You Must Not Ignore It?

MBBS
ENT Specialist, Roorkee
Neck Swelling - Why You Must Not Ignore It?

A lot of people nowadays report to their ENT specialists about swollen neck problems are seen to be professionals who are confined to a chair or a workstation. A repetitive and monotonous posture results in back as well as neck related problems. A lot of people are unable to identify the root cause of the issue and fail to take corrective measures. However, irrespective of whether your problem is a short-term or a long-term one, the ENT specialist will be able to diagnose it.

Correcting your posture will be one of the first things that you will have to do.

  • Taking the appropriate medication will be the preliminary step in order to alleviate the pain.
  • Diagnosis is likely to be important only after medical tests have been confirmed.
  • Analysis of whether the swelling of the neck is just a small outcome or a symptom of something greater that is underneath, is important.
  • In order to ensure that the problem does not aggravate, you will have to fix your sitting posture. Also, any other piece of clothing that cause irritation should be removed at once. For example, wearing helmets for long period on a regular basis may be harmful.

Additionally, the use of ointments and other pain removal medicines will have to be incorporated into the treatment procedure. Among the most recent trends that are being observed these days, yoga being as a successful method of treating such ailments. There may be a number of poses and work out methods, which may actually end up handy for you as far as eliminating the problem is concerned.
 

Do not delay!
A lot of people actually tend to downplay the seriousness of such developments and delay a visit to the doctor. It would be strictly advisable to pay a visit to your ENT specialist as soon as you feel that there may be a complication. It is all hunky dory, if nothing comes out from the investigations, but keeping it on hold, even though you know that there is something wrong, may lead to serious complications in the future. As a matter of precaution, it is best to visit the ENT specialist and have it verified for what the causes and symptoms may be. Following that, a simple procedure of diagnosis and treatment will be able to take care of the neck swelling problem for you. Swiftness however, is of the highest essence, in this situation.

Cervical Disc Replacement Surgery - Know Everything About It!!

MBBS, MS - General Surgery, MCh - Neurosurgery
Neurosurgeon, Guwahati
Cervical Disc Replacement Surgery - Know Everything About It!!

The cervical discs are protective cushions that allow the free movement of the neck. The intervertebral disks located between the cervical vertebrae (7 bones, C1-C7, that constitute the cervical spine) function as shock absorbers.

However, any damage and injury to the cervical disc, or an ailment can narrow the spinal canal. As a result, the intervertebral cervical discs exert pressure on the spinal nerves (responsible for movement and sensation in the upper body). There may be weakness and loss of sensation, causing pain (moderate to chronic) and discomfort in the neck. The free movement of the neck also gets affected (restricted).

In many cases, physiotherapy and other nonsurgical medications can help improve the condition. Cervical Disc Surgery comes as a blessing in extreme cases, where the non-surgical medications fail to provide any relief.

For long, the cervical disc surgery involved the surgical removal of the affected disc, followed by the fusion of the vertebrae located above and below the affected cervical disc (Traditional Fusion Surgery).

The advancement of technology has increased the effectiveness (higher success rate) of the cervical disc surgery. These days, the surgery is simple and involves replacing the affected cervical disk with an artificial one (Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement).

Triggers for a cervical disc replacement surgery:
Any damage to the cervical disc can affect the spinal cord and the neck adversely. A person may need to undergo a disc replacement surgery in case;

  1. There are pain and stiffness in the neck.
  2. Pain that gradually spreads into the arms and shoulder.
  3. One experiences extreme weakness in the arms, legs, hands or shoulders.
  4. There is a loss of sensation (numbness) or "needle prick" like sensations in the arms.
  5. There is a headache (moderate to severe).

Advantages of cervical disc replacement:
People have benefitted immensely from cervical disc replacement.

  1. In comparison to the fusion surgery, disc replacement has a faster recovery time.
  2. Disc replacement has a higher success rate (remarkable improvement in the shoulder and neck movement).
  3. It retains the cervical motion.
  4. It reduces the stress on the spinal cord and spine nerves greatly.

Risks involved in the cervical disc replacement:
With merits come the demerits. Though effective, there are some risks involved in the surgery.

  1. A person may experience some difficulty in breathing and swallowing of food.
  2. There may be some reactions to the anesthesia.
  3. The disc replacement may result in an infection, nerve injury, bleeding or leakage of the spinal fluid.
  4. Post replacement, there may be a stroke, voice modulation.
  5. In some unfortunate cases, there may be no improvement in the condition.
  6. The artificial disc may be affected (fractured or broken).

Recovery and Precaution:
A little alertness and precaution can speed up the recovery process.

  1. The first three weeks post-surgery, avoid strenuous work.
  2. For a better recovery, start walking after the surgery. However, do not overdo yourself.
  3. It is not advisable to start driving immediately after the surgery.
  4. Avoid rigorous exercise for as long as recommended by the doctor.
  5. Rest as much as possible.
  6. In the case of any discomfort, consult your attending physician.
     

Digestive Health - 10 Foods You Should Not Eat Too Much!

MBBS, MD - Medicine, DNB - Gastroenterology
Gastroenterologist, Pune
Digestive Health - 10 Foods You Should Not Eat Too Much!

Taking a balanced diet not only helps in maintaining overall health also helps in curing indigestion. The right mix of carbohydrate, protein, water, fat, vitamin, salt and fiber is important for the body to function well. Apart from maintaining a healthy diet, it is also essential to refrain from food that triggers indigestion. 

Here is a list of worst food for digestive health:

  1. Dairy Products: Dairy Products contain a protein called the casein. This protein can be highly allergic and inflammatory. Its strong insulin response can hold up fat and makes someone look fatter than his usual self. Lactose, the carbohydrate found in milk is extremely difficult to digest. If you are lactose intolerant, you should make it a point to stay away from dairy products such as kefir and yogurt to ensure smooth digestion.
  2. Gluten: This protein molecule is found in barley and wheat. Gluten is extremely difficult to break and has the capability to create a lot of damage. The unbroken molecules of gluten cause inflammation and bloating. People, who have GI issues, should definitely eschew gluten to ensure food digestion.
  3. Sugar: Patients suffering from indigestion should stay away from sugar related products such as candy, cake and crackers. Intake of sugar product increases the rate of inflammation, feeds harmful bacteria and suppresses the immune system. No wonder it is one of the worst food to consume, if you are suffering from indigestion.
  4. Fake fats: Fake fats are extremely difficult to digest and make the cell membranes more rigid. It can also show symptoms such as cramps, loose stools and bloating.
  5. Gums: Guar and xanthan gum are proved to be responsible for causing colitis. People with bowel disease are strongly suggested to stay away from gums and thickeners in order to avoid indigestion.
  6. Soy: Soy possesses protein inhibitors. It is an enzyme that restricts digestion. The carbohydrate content of the soy does not get recognized by the GI system. This leads to bloating, cramps and gas.
  7. Nightshade vegetables: Vegetables such as potato, bell pepper and tomatoes contain a compound called solanine. The latter is known to be responsible for indigestion. People with a compromised GI should not consume these vegetables at all.
  8. Red Dye: May fast food item contain a red dye which is known to decrease the production of energy, disturb nerve signaling and is an inflammatory agent.
  9. Sweeteners: Fake sweeteners show GI symptoms such as bloating and gas. Replacing this with sugar is not at all a good idea since it causes indigestion over a period of time.
  10. Legumes and beans: Legumes and beans contain compounds called saponins and lectins respectively. They are a major cause of a leaky gut and inflammation.
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