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At 77 age treated for bladder cancer, 28 radiations and 5 chemo. Now after a year no trace of it in bladder but perhaps catheter related uti since then is still not cured after twice culture tests and suitable antibiotics given. Burning feeling at urinating is still present. Now a days I find palpitations and high pulse rate may be due to uti. Guide me please. Age 78 diabetic plus bp for 30 years.
Is Pleomorphic adenoma is a cancer? My mom have pleomorphic adenoma for past 5 years we taken biopsy it came noncancerous but doctor said it may transfer into cancer it is true what are chances it may transfer into cancer?
I am 25 year old and I smokes cigarette everyday. Now I coughing early morning and split blood mixed saliva. Actually I have been coughing since December 2. And I didn't take any medicine. So I think it happens from any type of infection. After that I take a blood test. The result was total count 16000 and the wbc is decreased. Is it any cancer symptom?
Colon cancer is cancer that starts in the large intestine (colon). In most cases it begins as a non-malignant group of cells called polyps, which may turn cancerous over time. After the formation of the malignant tumors, the cancerous cells may spread to other parts of your body through lymph and blood channels. It can occur together with rectal cancer and is known as colorectal cancer.
Causes of Colon Cancer
The occurrence of colon cancer may depend on the presence of precancerous polyps in the colon. Adenomas polyps may turn cancerous, but are removable through colonoscopy. Hyperplastic polyps rarely become cancerous, whereas inflammatory polyps may become cancerous after the inflammation of the colon.
Other risk factors that may influence the occurrence of colon cancer are,
- Genetics: about 20% colon cancers are thought to be caused by mutation of the genes.
- Age: those over the age of 50 are more likely to develop colon cancer, though now it is also increasingly affecting younger people.
- Lifestyle: it is more likely to affect people who lead a sedentary lifestyle, smoke tobacco or are obese.
- Diet: it is more likely to affect those whose diets are high in red meats, calories, and fat while being low in fiber. Alcohol consumption may also affect its occurrence.
- Medical conditions: people who suffer from diabetes, acromegaly (growth hormone disorder) and colitis etc, may also be prone to develop colon cancer.
Warning Signs of Colon Cancer
Colon cancer generally goes undetected in the early stages. The symptoms vary with the location, spread and size of the tumor. In the earlier stages of cancer, most people experience no symptoms, but in the later stages they may experience one or more of these symptoms:
- Change in bowel habits such as diarrhea, constipation or change in consistency of stools; lasting more than a month
- Blood in stool or bleeding from the rectum
- Pain during passage of stool
- Pain, cramps or gas in the abdominal region
- Frequent urges to pass stool
- Irritable bowel syndrome
- Unexpected weight loss
However, these symptoms may not necessarily indicate colon cancer. They can occur in the absence of colon cancer too. It is confirmed by colonic biopsy and histopathological examination. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a general physician.
Cervical cancer can throw life completely off balance. It is one of the most common types of cancer affecting women worldwide. Lack of an early diagnosis makes this life threatening condition almost untreatable. A Pap smear also referred to as a Pap Test comes as a ray of hope for many women.
A Pap smear is a screening test that plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis and detection of cervical cancer in women. A Pap smear may further be used to point out any abnormalities in the cervical cells which may have a potential to turn malignant in the future. Doctors recommend all women (between 21-65 years of age) to undergo a pap smear to be on the safer side. While most women are advised to repeat the pap smear between every 3-5 years, women with the following conditions or ailments should be extra careful.
- Women who are HIV positive or those with a weak immune system.
- Those who have undergone an organ transplant.
- Any woman whose pap smear indicates the presence of precancerous cells.
- Women who had chemotherapy sessions.
The above mentioned conditions do not necessarily imply a 100% probability of cervical cancer. Consult your doctor and follow the necessary advice and precautions.
The procedure involved in a Pap smear
The Pap test is not a very tedious process and is often carried out in the doctor's clinic itself. The person to undergo the test is made to lie down on her back (the knees should be in a bent position). The physician then carefully inserts a speculum into the vagina. The main idea is to widen the vaginal walls so that the doctor can have a clear view of the cervix. Next, using a spatula, the doctor will collect samples of your cervical cells and send it for examination.
The significance of the Pap smear result
- A negative test indicates a healthy cervix with no precancerous cells.
- A positive result can, however, have many implications, such as there can be a condition known as dysplasia (minute alterations in the cervical cells). There may be some inflammation. However, the condition may be nothing to lose your sleep over. In many women, the condition heals by itself. A thorough investigation, (colposcopy followed by a biopsy) may be needed if the problem persists for long.
Further, there can be
- Squamous intraepithelial lesion: This, unfortunately, indicates the presence of precancerous cells.
- Squamous cell cancer: As the name suggests, this more than often, confirms the presence of malignant or cancer cells.
- Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance: Here the squamous cells appear very flat and thin, growing on the cervical surface. The condition may not necessarily indicate something serious. The person concerned may require further tests for a better interpretation of the condition.
A Pap smear is for your good. Go for a Pap smear and also encourage women in your circle to indulge in this healthy practice. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Hi I am 20 years old. I have been suffering from back pain about 1 year. There is a node like thing on the left side of my lower back and I think that is causing the pain. What is the node like thing?
The prostate gland in males surrounds the urethra, through which urine and sperm are passed out of the body. Its function is to secrete a fluid, which provides nourishment to the sperm. It is about the shape of a walnut and is present between the pubic bone and the rectum.
As a man crosses 40, the prostate gland begins to increase in size due to an increase in the number of cells. This is known as hyperplasia. The condition is usually benign and therefore the name benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). As it continues to grow, there is an increased pressure on the urethra. Therefore, there can be problems with urination. The bladder, being a muscular organ, compensates to some extent and so the problems with urination are mostly managed. If left untreated, this can continue to be a major problem and the bladder may not be able to compensate. In men who are 60-plus, BPH is very common.
Signs and symptoms
- One of the initial symptoms of BPH is when the urine stream begins to grow weak.
- There could also be a reduced speed of passing urine.
- Men with BPH never have a feeling of complete emptying of the bladder.
- On the other hand, there is also a constant difficulty in initiating a urine stream. There could be intermittent breaks in the urine stream.
- The person may feel the need to strain to initiate the stream and to ensure complete emptying.
- There could be dribbling of urine after passing urine.
- The duration between two bathroom visits can constantly reduce, with the constant urge to urinate.
- There is a constant urge to visit the bathroom, which is more common in the night. One of the most annoying features of BPH is the walking up at night to urinate, but with an inability to initiate a stream and an inability to completely empty the bladder, it leaves the person very irritated and frustrated.
- There could be blood in the urine. In fact, blood in the urine accompanied by fever, chills, nausea and vomiting are indications of an emergency.
- There could be blockage of urine completely, if the enlargement is quite severe.
If you are having any of these symptoms, then the doctor will first test for an enlarged prostate through a digital rectal exam. Then a test is done to check a chemical called prostate specific antigen. Increased levels of this chemical is almost always indicative of BPH. In addition, X-rays and scanning may be used to confirm diagnosis.
Though medications are available, confirmatory treatment is through surgical removal. The procedure needs a inimum of 2 to 3 days. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a urologist and ask a free question.