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Dr. Vivek Pandey

BVSc

Veterinarian, Pune

31 Years Experience
Dr. Vivek Pandey BVSc Veterinarian, Pune
31 Years Experience
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I want all my patients to be informed and knowledgeable about their health care, from treatment plans and services, to insurance coverage....more
I want all my patients to be informed and knowledgeable about their health care, from treatment plans and services, to insurance coverage.
More about Dr. Vivek Pandey
Dr. Vivek Pandey is a popular Veterinarian in Shastri Nagar, Pune. He has had many happy patients in his 31 years of journey as a Veterinarian. He has completed BVSc . He is currently associated with Pet Clinic in Shastri Nagar, Pune. Book an appointment online with Dr. Vivek Pandey on Lybrate.com.

Lybrate.com has a number of highly qualified Veterinarians in India. You will find Veterinarians with more than 44 years of experience on Lybrate.com. You can find Veterinarians online in Pune and from across India. View the profile of medical specialists and their reviews from other patients to make an informed decision.

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BVSc - Nagpur Veterinary College - 1986
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English
Hindi

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Indira Park Society, Opposite Police Station, Shastri Nagar Road, Yerawada Pune Get Directions
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BVSc
Veterinarian,
Foods which are poisonous to dogs.

Most dogs love food, and they?re especially attracted to what they see us eating. While sharing the occasional tidbit with your dog is fine, it?s important to be aware that some foods can be very dangerous to dogs. Take caution to make sure your dog never gets access to the foods below. Even if you don?t give him table scraps, your dog might eat something that?s hazardous to his health if he raids kitchen counters, cupboards and trash cans. For advice on teaching your dog not to steal food, please see our article, Counter Surfing and Garbage Raiding.
Avocado

Avocado leaves, fruit, seeds and bark may contain a toxic principle known as persin. The Guatemalan variety, a common one found in stores, appears to be the most problematic. Other varieties of avocado can have different degrees of toxic potential.
Birds, rabbits, and some large animals, including horses, are especially sensitive to avocados, as they can have respiratory distress, congestion, fluid accumulation around the heart, and even death from consuming avocado. While avocado is toxic to some animals, in dogs and cats, we do not expect to see serious signs of illness. In some dogs and cats, mild stomach upset may occur if the animal eats a significant amount of avocado flesh or peel. Ingestion of the pit can lead to obstruction in the gastrointestinal tract, which is a serious situation requiring urgent veterinary care.
Avocado is sometimes included in pet foods for nutritional benefit. We would generally not expect avocado meal or oil present in commercial pet foods to pose a hazard to dogs and cats.
Bread Dough

Raw bread dough made with live yeast can be hazardous if ingested by dogs. When raw dough is swallowed, the warm, moist environment of the stomach provides an ideal environment for the yeast to multiply, resulting in an expanding mass of dough in the stomach. Expansion of the stomach may be severe enough to decrease blood flow to the stomach wall, resulting in the death of tissue. Additionally, the expanding stomach may press on the diaphragm, resulting in breathing difficulty. Perhaps more importantly, as the yeast multiplies, it produces alcohols that can be absorbed, resulting in alcohol intoxication. Affected dogs may have distended abdomens and show signs such as a lack of coordination, disorientation, stupor and vomiting (or attempts to vomit). In extreme cases, coma or seizures may occur and could lead to death from alcohol intoxication. Dogs showing mild signs should be closely monitored, and dogs with severe abdominal distention or dogs who are so inebriated that they can?t stand up should be monitored by a veterinarian until they recover.
Chocolate

Chocolate intoxication is most commonly seen around certain holidays?like Easter, Christmas, Halloween and Valentine?s Day?but it can happen any time dogs have access to products that contain chocolate, such as chocolate candy, cookies, brownies, chocolate baking goods, cocoa powder and cocoa shell-based mulches. The compounds in chocolate that cause toxicosis are caffeine and theobromine, which belong to a group of chemicals called methylxanthines. The rule of thumb with chocolate is ?the darker it is, the more dangerous it is.? White chocolate has very few methylxanthines and is of low toxicity. Dark baker?s chocolate has very high levels of methylxanthines, and plain, dry unsweetened cocoa powder contains the most concentrated levels of methylxanthines. Depending on the type and amount of chocolate ingested, the signs seen can range from vomiting, increased thirst, abdominal discomfort and restlessness to severe agitation, muscle tremors, irregular heart rhythm, high body temperature, seizures and death. Dogs showing more than mild restlessness should be seen by a veterinarian immediately.
Ethanol (Also Known as Ethyl Alcohol, Grain Alcohol or Drinking Alcohol)

Dogs are far more sensitive to ethanol than humans are. Even ingesting a small amount of a product containing alcohol can cause significant
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Hi my male gsd has turned 1 this April and I want to nueter him also he has developed umbilical hernia, both the operations at same time now is it okay for my dogs health?

MVSc
Veterinarian, Mumbai
ye it is better to opeate two thing in on ananesthesia so animal is not under anaesthesia twice if proper care is taken then both wound will heal nicely and dog is free of pain for life
1 person found this helpful
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Master of sciences, B.V.Sc. & A.H.
Veterinarian, Salem
Dogs have to be taught to walk nicely on leash. They’re not born knowing that they shouldn’t pull ahead or lag behind. Teaching leash manners can be challenging because dogs move faster than us and are excited about exploring outdoors. Leashes constrain their natural behaviors and movements. Some dogs are determined to run around as fast as they possibly can. Other dogs want to stop, sniff and urinate on anything and everything in their paths. To teach your dog to walk without pulling, it’s critical that you never allow him to pull. If you’re inconsistent, your dog will continue to try pulling because sometimes it pays off.

How to Teach Your Dog to Walk Nicely on a Leash

You’ve probably seen dogs at shows or on TV who prance alongside their handlers, staring up with rapt attention. These dogs have received extensive training in precision heeling. It’s impressive but demanding work. Precision heeling demands constant attention from both dog and handler and is not appropriate for long periods of time, like for your daily walks around the block or to the park. Even dogs trained to heel need to learn to walk on leash without pulling when they’re not formally heeling.

You can use various methods to teach dogs to walk without pulling on leash. No single method works for all dogs. Here are some overall guidelines before we look at several methods:

Until your dog learns to walk without pulling, consider all walks training sessions. Keep training sessions frequent, short and fun for your dog.
Since loose-leash training sessions will be too short and slow to provide adequate exercise, find other ways to exercise your dog until he’s mastered loose-leash walking. In fact, you’ll succeed more quickly if you find a way to tire your dog out before taking him on a training walk. Dogs pull, in part, because they’re full of excess energy. So unless you can expend that energy, your dog will find it hard to control himself. Before you train, play fetch in a hallway or your backyard, play a vigorous game of tug, or drive your dog to the park so that he can play with his buddies.
Teaching a dog to walk without pulling requires plenty of rewards. Use highly desirable treats that your dog doesn’t get at other times. Soft treats are best so your dog can eat them quickly and continue training. Most dogs love wieners, cheese, cooked chicken or ham, small jerky treats or freeze-dried liver. Chop all treats into small peanut-sized cubes.
Walk at a quick pace. If your dog trots or runs, she’ll have fewer opportunities to catch a whiff of something enticing, and she’ll be less inclined to stop and eliminate every few steps. Additionally, you are far more interesting to your dog when you move quickly.
If you expect your dog to control herself while walking on leash, you must also expect her to control herself before you go for a walk. If she gets wildly excited as you prepare for a walk, you need to focus on that first. Walk to the door and pick up the leash. If your dog races around, barks, whines, spins or jumps up, just stand completely still. Do and say absolutely nothing until your dog calms down a bit. As soon as she has all four paws on the floor, slowly reach toward her to clip on the leash. If she starts to bounce around or jump up on you, quickly bring your hands (and the leash) back toward your body. Wait until your dog has all four paws on the floor again. Then slowly reach toward her again to attach her leash. Repeat this sequence until your dog can stand in front of you, without jumping up or running around, while you clip on her leash. This may seem like a tedious exercise at first, but if you’re consistent, your hard work will pay off. Eventually, your dog will learn to stand still while you attach her leash.

I have got a golden retriever of 6 months and its has hurt its leg while playing .

Master of sciences, B.V.Sc. & A.H.
Veterinarian, Salem
If he is climbing please take x-ray or if not just pain killer would do with calcium tablets please consult your vet as soon as possible
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My pup is 1 year old. let me know the vaccination schedule for him. He is a pug . Also let me know deworming schedule too.

M.V.Sc, B.V.Sc. & A.H.
Veterinarian,
What we are doing in kolkata -- fecal sample examination routinely to get an idea about the worms present within body/ intestine and selection of dewormers inaccordance with. For vaccination, it's best to have a prior health check up for fitness and high end immune status so that after innoculation antibody could be produced at desired level. Schedule we are following at par indian standard, a qualified vet will guide you as per your pet's requirement, individual dog differs with its schedule. Rabies, an endemic disease in india at different parts, needs no excuse to execute while planning for immunization against it. Consult further with your dog's previous records of immunizations and deworming. Thanks.
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Hello dr my dog barks at everyone and mostly bites evryone.How can we control its anger.It is 2 years of age and a female Pomeranian breed.

MVSC
Veterinarian, Hyderabad
Train the dog to be quite with the known persons, cover her mouth with the available mouth gags when not feeding. Check her closely whether her estrous cycles might have started. Take her near the male dog and see her response. Give her well balanced diet.
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Do pet dogs (puppies) contact malaria from mosquito bites? If yes, then what is the cure? What are the symptoms?

Master of sciences, B.V.Sc. & A.H.
Veterinarian, Salem
They don't actually get malaria from mosquitoes but can get a diseases with same pathology to liver with ticks mange and mites. As their hair are lengthy and covers whole body they have less chance to get mosquito borne infection.
1 person found this helpful
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My labrador puppy is having parvo virus what to do? is there any medicine or injection for him?

M.V.Sc (Surgery)
Veterinarian, Mohali
How old is your dog. Best treatment for parvo virus is regular fluid therapy. You can use parvo virus immunoglobulin along with fluids. Antibiotics for prevention of secondary infection.
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My Question wasn't answer properly hence i am briefing on that. I am from a village in Jharkhand India, as there is no proper Veterinary available in my village. I require your guidance for my Male GSD named SPIKE whose DOB is 15 June 2014. As of now he is 9 months old, but he is too slim and have dull coat in compare to his brothers of same age/litter all are on home diet. I use same supplement which they are using analso deworm him regularly.Last dewormed on 15-16 March 2015 using Zoetis Alfanil. I have also started feeding him home cooked food ( from which he will be getting very d small or no nutrient). Am am feeding and wants to fed home cooked food only no DRY FOODS.Hence I wants to supplement him with available natural, herbal or any multivitamin supplement available in the country. I have contacted AAFCO, NRC and FEDIAF in this regard too.I have converted the NRC & AAFCO nutrient quantity in milligram and wanna be assure that he gets adequate nutrient. I have contacted aafco, nrc and fediaf in this regard too.I have converted the nrc & aafco nutrient quantity in milligram and wanna be assure that he gets adequate nutrient. So i wanna know which product should i feed him for multivitamin supplement or calcium, nutrient, vitamins, amino acid etc. Please for god sake or for the sake of dogs please And have done a COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS of all products that provide adequate nutrient to dog in my country (See Attachment).I am looking that he get minimum nutrient according to that report. I am using this shampoo (http://www.Ayurvet.Com/product.Php?id=42) I feed him 3 times, At Morning (Same at night) 1 glass of milk, 2 Big Chapatti, 10 ml Proviboost (http://www.Dogspot.In/proviboost-syrup-supplement-dog-500-ml/), 5-7ml CALCIMUST (https://www.Mankindpharma.Com/product/veterinary-medicine) Sl. No. 10, 10 mg Pet O Boost (http://www.All4petsmart.Com/pet-suplements/nutritional-supplements/pet-o-boost.Html), 1.5 ml Liver tonic LIVJIVAN (http://www.Ayurvet.Com/product.Php?id=43) At Afternoon I feed him DROOLS FOCUS PUPPY 300 grams, After 10-15 Days i feed him Bones, once every week i feed him 200-500 grams COw Meet, I feed him (2 months) cow 1 lungs every day which I Stopped this month. I want to feed him home food n NO COMMERCIAL FOODS. And Planning to feed this supplements 10 mg Pet O Boost (http://www.All4petsmart.Com/pet-suplements/nutritional-supplements/pet-o-boost.Html), and 3-4 Tab of Pet O Vitab Plus (http://www.All4petsmart.Com/pet-suplements/nutritional-supplements/petovitab-plus.Html) or Pfizer Pet N tab instead of Pet O Vitab Plus I am also attaching his pics PLz do take ur time research and reply.

Master of sciences, B.V.Sc. & A.H.
Veterinarian, Salem
Dear sir I think you are too much confused and too much worried about your pet. Just feed him with best foods available and with vitamins and mineral supplement and Sunday homemade non-veg with rice could improve him well rather than making too much complication.
2 people found this helpful
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My 6yr old Lab has dandruff.I have bathing him with medicated shampoo prescribed by his doctor.Not much of help.Please advice.

MVSc
Veterinarian, Pune
Dandruff could be due to fugal infection , bacterial or skin infection so please do skin scrapping routine and bacterial and fungal culture
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Lot of hair loss for labordor,at age of 8 months sir please tel me any type of precautions or give me any type of medicine .

Master of sciences, B.V.Sc. & A.H.
Veterinarian, Salem
Rule out winter shedding which is as usual. give supplement of omega 3,6 fatty acids . and fish oil as supplement.
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Is it true that birds like sprrow or pigeon is not giving eggs if we touch the eggs? and how long time they will take for come out from the eggs?

M.V.Sc (Surgery)
Veterinarian, Mohali
This is just the myth, no matter how flighty birds appear, they do not readily abandon their young, especially not in response to human touch. If a their nest is disturbed by a potential predator during the nesting or egg-laying stage, there's a possibility that they will desert and re-nest.
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I bought male lab of 2 months . And now I think it is a time for time for his vaccination. Well want to know proper vaccination process and vaccines recommended. Post and pre conditions of my puppy. Side effects please answer in detail.

Veterinarian, Bhiwadi
The right vaccines needed ate 1. Kennel cough on 4 week to protect from infectious cough. 2. Vaccine for distemper, parvo, hepatitis, leptospira 3. Vaccibe against rabies. For exact schedule contact your nearest vet.
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Hello My dog is mixed breed of lab and street and is 8 years old this year. Could you please let me know the precautions I should take ? He sheds hair every two months as well. But Is very active and runs a lot.

MVSc
Veterinarian, Pune
For hair do regular brushing once a day and start some nutricoat tonic for hair. As considering age do blood test regular once in year.
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I have Saint Bernard, he is not eating since last 6 months properly & goes slim & slim I have tried every thing Please help me Please I beg u

Master of sciences, B.V.Sc. & A.H.
Veterinarian, Salem
Deworm properly , give him good exercise .And have good diet preferably dogs food with lot of nonveg . as they are heavy breeders.
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Is giving oral anti tick pills safe for dogs? Does this medicine endectin10 has any adverse side effects? My dog has got ticks but i'm hesitating to give him this medicine. Kindly advice me with the better way.

MVSc (Ph.D pursuing)
Veterinarian, Hyderabad
There are better and safer options than endectin 10. As it may not be sufficient at all in case of heavy recurrent tick infestation. You can consult your vet Dr. And ask for spot on. It comes by diff names by diff companies. Try to go for the best one in your area. Just a small tube of liquid to be applied in your dog body at one spot. And you r done. In 20 min, even children can touch the body. Can repeat monthly if required. No side effects no wastage of time n money. No troublesome for animals like other oral or injectables.
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MVSc, BVSc
Veterinarian,
Pets become overweight for very simple reason. they eat more calories than what they can spend. Owners are responsible to ensure and regulate proper calorie intake and expenditure.
Factors contributing to obesity are-
Food type: Feeding carb rich and excessive fatty food has cumulative effect leading to obesity.
Neutering - calorie requirements reduce post neutering as the metabolic rate lowers. controlled intake and regular activity helps to keep obesity at bay.
Diseases - Hypothyroidism, Cushing's Disease (excess intrinsic steroids), diabetes etc

Adverse effects of obesity:
Early onset of osteoarthritis/joint disease
Breathing difficulty in short snouted breeds like pugs
Heart disease/high blood pressure
Pancreatitis/hepatitis in cats

Obesity in Pets is completely preventable disease. Cost of managing a obese pet can be financially as well as emotionally taxing. Its always better to prevent than cure!!!!
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My dog is vomiting water like liquid little foamy with tiny bits of blood, it happened twice, one 5 days back in the morning around 4am, then at 2am. During vomiting he collapsed and paralyzed without any movement. Both time he woke up after 5 mins and he was active. I gave him rantac and vomited (half). Please help me, I am scared, he is 12 years old. 6 months back he had UTI. He is being given Nefrotec DS 1 tabs a day from 4 months as Advised by Vet. Please Please Help me, save my boy.

MVSc (Ph.D pursuing)
Veterinarian, Hyderabad
Due to her kidney problems, seems her heart is suffering a bit. Toxins r slowly raising to the brain. You have to get your dog to your nearby vet Dr. For daily blood tests and iv fluid therapies with proper antibiotics if any sign of infection is confirmed by the blood reports.
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Master of sciences, B.V.Sc. & A.H.
Veterinarian, Salem
Home-prepared diet guidelines: You don’t need a spreadsheet or a degree in nutrition to feed your dog a complete and balanced diet.

Over the past few months, I have offered diet critiques that tweaked good home-prepared diets in order to address health concerns – or simply to optimize the diet. To do this, I analyzed the diets and compared them to the National Research Council’s guidelines for canine nutrition. I want to be clear, though: I don’t believe this is a requirement for feeding a home made diet. Just as with the diet you feed yourself and your family, feeding a wide variety of healthy foods in appropriate proportions should meet the needs of most healthy dogs.


Don’t bother trying to make every single one of your dog’s meal nutritionally complete; as long as he’s receiving what he needs over a week or two (often referred to as “balance over time”), he’ll be fine. This approach is similar to how we feed ourselves and our families.

Problems arise with how this description is interpreted.


Too often, people think that they’re feeding a healthy diet when key ingredients may be missing or are fed in excess. Here are specific guidelines to help ensure that the diet you feed meets your dog’s requirements.

Complete and Balanced

It’s important that the diet you feed your dog is “complete and balanced,” meaning it meets all of your dog’s nutritional needs. It is not important, however, that every meal be complete and balanced, unless you feed the same meal every day with little or no variation.

Home-prepared diets that include a wide variety of foods fed at different meals rely on balance over time, not at every meal. Similar to the way humans eat, as long as your dog gets everything he needs spread out over each week or two, his diet will be complete and balanced.

A human nutritionist would never expect someone to follow a single recipe with no variation, as veterinary nutritionists routinely do. Instead, a human would be given guidelines in terms of food groups and portion sizes. As long as your dog doesn't have a health problem that requires a very specific diet, there’s no reason you can’t do the same for your dog.

Keep in mind that puppies are more susceptible to problems caused by nutritional deficiencies or excesses than adult dogs are. Large-breed puppies are particularly at risk from too much calcium prior to puberty.

GUIDELINES

Following are guidelines for feeding a raw or cooked home made diet to healthy dogs. No single type of food, such as chicken, should ever make up more than half the diet.

Except where specified, foods can be fed either raw or cooked. Leftovers from your table can be included as long as they’re foods you would eat yourself, not fatty scraps.

Meat and Other Animal Products: Should always make up at least half of the diet. Many raw diets are excessively high in fat, which can lead to obesity. Another potential hazard of diets containing too much fat: If an owner restricts the amount fed (in order to control the dog’s weight) too much, the dog may suffer deficiencies of other required nutrients.

Unless your dog gets regular, intense exercise, use lean meats (no more than 10 percent fat), remove skin from poultry, and cut off separable fat. It’s better to feed dark meat poultry than breast, however, unless your dog requires a very low-fat diet.

Raw Meaty Bones (optional): If you choose to feed them, RMBs should make up one third to one half of the total diet. Use the lower end of the range if you feed bony parts such as chicken necks and backs, but you can feed more if you’re using primarily meatier parts such as chicken thighs. Never feed cooked bones.

Boneless Meat: Include both poultry and red meat. Heart is a good choice, as it is lean and often less expensive than other muscle meats.

Fish: Provides vitamin D, which otherwise should be supplemented. Canned fish with bones, such as sardines (packed in water, not oil), jack mackerel, and pink salmon, are good choices. Remove bones from fish you cook yourself, and never feed raw Pacific salmon, trout, or related species. You can feed small amounts of fish daily, or larger amounts once or twice a week. The total amount should be about one ounce of fish per pound of other meats (including RMBs).

Organs: Liver should make up roughly 5 percent of this category, or about one ounce of liver per pound of other animal products. Beef liver is especially nutritious, but include chicken or other types of liver at least occasionally as well. Feeding small amounts of liver daily or every other day is preferable to feeding larger amounts less often.


Fruits such as melon, berries, bananas, apples, pears, and papayas can be included in your dog’s food or given as training treats.

Eggs: Highly nutritious addition to any diet. Dogs weighing about 20 pounds can have a whole egg every day, but give less to smaller dogs.

Dairy: Plain yogurt and kefir are well tolerated by most dogs (try goat’s milk products if you see problems). Cottage and ricotta cheese are also good options. Limit other forms of cheese, as most are high in fat.

Fruits and Vegetables: While not a significant part of the evolutionary diet of the dog and wolf, fruits and vegetables provide fiber that supports digestive health, as well as antioxidants and other beneficial nutrients that contribute to health and longevity. Deeply colored vegetables and fruits are the most nutritious.

Starchy Vegetables: Veggies such as potatoes, sweet potatoes, and winter squashes (including pumpkin), as well as legumes (beans), provide carbohydrate calories that can be helpful in reducing food costs and keeping weight on skinny and very active dogs. Quantities should be limited for overweight dogs. Starchy foods must be cooked in order to be digestible by dogs.

Leafy Green and Other Non-Starchy Vegetables: These are low in calories and can be fed in any quantity desired. Too much can cause gas, and raw, cruciferous veggies such as broccoli and cauliflower can suppress thyroid function (cook them if you feed large amounts). Raw vegetables must be pureed in a food processor, blender, or juicer in order to be digested properly by dogs, though whole raw veggies are not harmful and can be used as treats.

Fruits: Bananas, apples, berries, melon, and papaya are good choices. Avoid grapes and raisins, which can cause kidney failure in dogs.

Grains: Controversial, as they may contribute to inflammation caused by allergies, arthritis, or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); as well as seizures and other problems (it’s not clear whether starchy vegetables do the same). Some grains contain gluten that may cause digestive problems for certain dogs. Many dogs do fine with grains, however, and they can be used to reduce the overall cost of feeding a home made diet.

Grains and starchy veggies should make up no more than half the diet. Good choices include oatmeal, brown rice, quinoa, barley, and pasta. White rice can be used to settle an upset stomach, particularly if overcooked with extra water, but it’s low in nutrition and should not make up a large part of the diet. All grains must be well cooked.

SUPPLEMENTS
Some supplements are required. Others may be needed if you are not able to feed a variety of foods, or if you leave out one or more of the food groups above. In addition, the longer food is cooked or frozen, the more nutrients are lost. Here are some supplements to consider:

Calcium: Unless you feed RMBs, all homemade diets must be supplemented with calcium. The amount found in multivitamin and mineral supplements is not enough. Give 800 to 1,000 mg calcium per pound of food (excluding non-starchy vegetables). You can use any form of plain calcium, including eggshells ground to powder in a clean coffee grinder (1/2 teaspoon eggshell powder provides about 1,000 mg calcium). Animal Essentials’ Seaweed Calcium provides additional minerals, as well.

Oils: Most homemade diets require added oils for fat, calories, and to supply particular nutrients. It’s important to use the right types of oils, as each supplies different nutrients.

Fish Oil: Provides EPA and DHA, omega-3 fatty acids that help to regulate the immune system and reduce inflammation. Give an amount that provides about 300 mg EPA and DHA combined per 20 to 30 pounds of body weight on days you don’t feed fish. Note that liquid fish oil supplements often tell you to give much more than this, which can result in too many calories from fat.

Cod Liver Oil: Provides vitamins A and D as well as EPA and DHA. If you don’t feed much fish, give cod liver oil in an amount that provides about 400 IUs vitamin D daily for a 100-pound dog (proportionately less for smaller dogs). Can be combined with other fish oil to increase the amount of EPA and DHA if desired.


Top-quality fish body oil and cod liver oil can provide your dog’s diet with valuable omega-3 fatty acids. Be cautious about feeding the amounts suggested on the labels, however; these often supply too much fat.

Plant Oils: If you don’t feed much poultry fat, found in dark meat and skin, linoleic acid, an essential omega-6 fatty acid, may be insufficient. You can use walnut, hempseed, corn, vegetable (soybean), or high-linoleic safflower oil to supply linoleic acid if needed. Add about one teaspoon of oil per pound of meat and other animal products, or twice that amount if using canola or sunflower oil. Olive oil and high-oleic safflower oil are low in omega-6 and cannot be used as a substitute, although small amounts can be added to supply fat if needed. Coconut oil provides mostly saturated fats, and can be used in addition to but not as a replacement for other oils.

Other Vitamins and Minerals: In addition to vitamin D discussed above, certain vitamins and minerals may be short in some homemade diets, particularly those that don’t include organ meats or vegetables. The more limited the diet that you feed, the more important supplements become, but even highly varied diets are likely to be light in a few areas.

Vitamin E: All homemade diets I’ve analyzed have been short on vitamin E, and the need for vitamin E increases when you supplement with oils. Too much vitamin E, however, may be counterproductive. Give 1 to 2 IUs per pound of body weight daily.

Iodine: Too much or too little iodine can suppress thyroid function, and it’s hard to know how much is in the diet. A 50-pound dog needs about 300 mcg (micrograms) of iodine daily. Kelp is high in iodine, though the amount varies considerably among supplements.

Multivitamin and mineral supplements: A multivitamin and mineral supplement will help to meet most requirements, including iodine and vitamins D and E, but it’s important not to oversupplement minerals. If using the one-a-day type of human supplements, such as Centrum for Adults under 50, give one per 40 to 50 pounds of body weight daily. Note that most supplements made for dogs provide a reasonable amount of vitamins but are low in minerals, and so won’t make up for deficiencies in the diet. Be cautious with small dogs; I’ve seen some supplements that recommend the same dosage for 10-pound dogs as for those weighing 50 or even 100 pounds. In those cases, the dosage is usually too high for the small dogs and should be reduced. Products made for humans are also inappropriate for small dogs.

Green Blends: Often containing alfalfa and various herbs, green blends may be especially helpful if you don’t include many green vegetables in your dog’s diet. You can also use a pre-mix that includes alfalfa and vegetables, such as The Honest Kitchen’s Preference. Note most pre-mixes also supply calcium, so you should reduce or eliminate calcium supplements, depending on how much of the pre-mix you use.

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