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A fracture requires quick and careful medical attention to ensure proper healing and alignment of the bone. Most fractures usually recover within six weeks but that is only half the problem. A lot of other tissues get damaged in the process when there is enough stress placed in the body to fracture a bone. Additionally, when you are unable to move that bone, you will have joint stiffness and significant muscle weakness.
After a fracture, physiotherapy might be recommended to guarantee that you come back to your ideal capacity. You might have to go for regular appointments to your physiotherapist in order to achieve full recovery. Usually, your physiotherapist will try to prevent your post-fracture stiffness in the nearby joints and muscles after the initial six weeks while you are recovering from your fracture. After six weeks or later, if x-rays show that the bone has not been fully healed, your physiotherapist can take a shot at recovering full movement of the joints and muscles near the affected area.
Here are five ways in which physiotherapy helps heal post-fracture:
- Physiotherapy after a fracture can help you enhance your muscle movement. In case you have fractured your leg, your physiotherapist can help you improve your walk and help you decide whether you need to take the support of a walking stick, crutches or a cane. In case you have broken an arm or shoulder, exercises focused on reaching and grasping are included.
- Modalities might be used to help with the pain and swelling. Your physiotherapist may choose to use ice, heat or whirlpool baths.
- Electrical stimulation can also be used to improve your muscle movement. You need to keep in mind that while inactive treatments like electrical stimulation or ultrasound might be used, you also need to keep your muscles physically active to better your movement and strengthen your bones.
- If you have had surgery to join the fractured bone, you may have surgical scar tissue. Scar massage can decrease scar attachments and increase movement around the scar.
- Exercise to improve the scope of movement and strength can also be started. Particular focus points need to be treated in the joints around the fractured area. If you have fractured a bone close to your elbow, exercises need to be included for your elbow, wrist, and shoulder. Moreover, a fracture in the shin needs to include exercises for the knee, lower leg, and hip. Exercise can guarantee that your bone can endure the load during daily routine work. Make sure to consult with your physiotherapist to learn the correct exercises for your condition.
A fracture can be very painful and might lead to a disability or problem in movement. Depending on the seriousness of the damage, the loss may be temporary or permanent. Physiotherapy can help you come back to your optimum function as quickly as possible.
Breast cancer is a type of cancer, which occurs due to the development of cancerous cells in breasts. Women are usually affected by breast cancer and breast cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer after skin cancer. Usually fatal if not diagnosed in its early stage, breast cancer is a very serious medical ailment. Read on more to find all about the different symptoms, causes, preventive measures and treatment of breast cancer.
Symptoms: Breast cancer has few distinct characteristics and if you have a few or all the following symptoms you could be more likely to suffer from breast cancer.
- The formation of a lump in your breast, which is different from the surrounding tissue and usually more thickened.
- The discharge of bloody fluid material from the nipples.
- Sudden change of the size, shape and appearance of the breast.
- Certain distinct changes to the skin over the breast for example an indentation in the skin similar to that of a dimple.
- Appearance of an extra nipple which is inverted.
- If the darkened area around the nipples known as the areola is flaking or peeling off.
Causes: Studies and researches remain inconclusive on what causes breast cancer. Breast cancer occurs due to abnormal division of the cells located in the breast, which over time accumulate and form lumps. They
might spread to other parts of the body. Breast cancer is caused mainly due to a complex interaction of personal genetics, environment and lifestyle choices. Breast cancer can also be caused due to genetics as about 5% to 10% of cases are due to gene mutations which pass onto generations.
Risk factors: There are certain factors, which increase the probability of contracting breast cancer. Increasing age, personal and family history of breast cancer, obesity, radiation exposure, pregnancy at an older age, postmenopausal hormone therapy are some of the factors that increase the chances of breast cancer.
Treatment: Several forms of surgical methods exist to treat breast cancer. Depending on the condition and spread of the disease a suitable surgery is performed. These include mastectomy, lumpectomy, axillary lymph node dissection and removal of both breasts. Other forms of treatment include chemotherapy or the use of high doses of drugs to destroy cancerous cells. Radiation therapy where X-rays are used to destroy the cancer cells is also effective.
How does neuclus pulposus take to decay when it comes out of annulus fibrosus and extruded to nerve root as for example in L5-S1? Does it decay over the time or it never?
जिगर शरीर में सबसे बड़ा ग्रंथियों वाला अंग है और शरीर को विषाक्त पदार्थों और हानिकारक पदार्थों से मुक्त रखने के लिए विभिन्न महत्वपूर्ण कार्य करता है। पेट के दाहिने ऊपरी चतुर्भुज मंर स्थित है, पसलियों के ठीक नीचे। लिवर पित्त के उत्पादन के लिए जिम्मेदार है, जो एक पदार्थ है जो आपको वसा, विटामिन, और अन्य पोषक तत्वों को पचाने में मदद करता है। यह ग्लूकोज जैसे पोषक तत्वों को भी स्टोर करता है और दवाओं और विषाक्त पदार्थों को तोड़ता है।
लिवर कैंसर, जिसे हेपेटिक कैंसर भी कहा जाता है, एक कैंसर होता है जो लिवर में शुरू होता है। जब कैंसर लिवर में विकसित होता है, तो यह लिवर कोशिकाओं को नष्ट कर देता है और सामान्य रूप से कार्य करने के लिए लिवर की क्षमता में दखल देता है। लिवर कैंसर के दो प्रकार होते हैं। प्राथमिक लिवर कैंसर, जो लिवर की कोशिकाओं में शुरू होता है। जबकि, कैंसर जो कि कहीं और से शुरू होता है और अंततः जिगर तक पहुंच जाता है, उन्हें जिगर मेटास्टेसिस या द्वितीयक लिवर कैंसर कहा जाता है।
प्राथमिक लिवर कैंसर के विभिन्न प्रकार
विभिन्न प्रकार के प्राथमिक लिवर कैंसर लिवर के विभिन्न कोशिकाओं से उत्पन्न होते हैं। प्राथमिक लिवर कैंसर लिवर में एक गांठ के रूप में, या एक ही समय में लिवर के भीतर कई स्थानों में शुरू हो सकता है।
1. हेपैटोसेलुलर हेपैटोसेलुलर:
हेपेटोसेल्यूलर कार्सिनोमा (एच.सी.सी), जिसे हेपेटामा भी कहा जाता है, सबसे सामान्य प्रकार का लिवर कैंसर है। एचसीसी मुख्य प्रकार के लिवर कोशिकाओं में शुरू होता है, जिसे हेपोटोसेल्यूलर कोशिका कहा जाता है। एचसीसी के अधिकांश मामले हेपेटाइटिस बी या सी, या शराब के कारण जिगर के सिरोसिस के संक्रमण का नतीजा है।
2. फाइब्रोलैमेलर एचसीसी:
फाइब्रोलामेरेलर एचसीसी एक रेअर प्रकार का एचसीसी है, जो आम तौर पर अन्य प्रकार के लिवर कैंसर की तुलना में उपचार के लिए अधिक संवेदनशील होता है।
कोलेंजियोकार्सिनोमा, जिसे आमतौर पर पित्त नली के कैंसर के रूप में जाना जाता है, लिवर में छोटे, ट्यूब जैसे पित्त नलिकाओं में विकसित होता है। पाचन में मदद करने के लिए, ये नलिकाएं पित्ताशय में पित्त को ले जाने के लिए जिम्मेदार हैं। जब कैंसर लिवर के अंदर नलिकाएं के खंड में शुरू होता है, तो इसे इंट्राहेपेटिक पित्त नलिका कैंसर कहा जाता है। यद्यपि, जब लिवर के बाहर नलिकाओं के अनुभाग में कैंसर शुरू होता है, तो एक्स्ट्राहेपाटिक पित्त वाहिका कैंसर कहलाता है।
एंजियोनेसकोमा लिवर कैंसर का एक रेअर प्रकार है जो लिवर के रक्त वाहिकाओं से शुरू होता है। इस प्रकार का कैंसर बहुत तेज़ी से प्रगति करता है, इसलिए यह आमतौर पर एक और अधिक उन्नत चरण में डिटेक्ट किया जाता है।
हेपोटोब्लास्टोमा एक अत्यंत असामान्य प्रकार का लिवर कैंसर है।
लिवर कैंसर के लक्षण
ज्यादातर लोगों के प्राथमिक जिगर कैंसर के शुरुआती चरणों में लक्षण नहीं होते। जिसके परिणामस्वरूप, लिवर कैंसर बहुत देर से डिटेक्ट किया जाता है। लिवर कैंसर के लक्षणों में शामिल हैं:
- भूख में कमी
- वजन घटना
- एबडोमीनल पेन
- मतली और उल्टी
- सामान्य खुजली
- हेपटेमेगाली (बढ़े हुए जिगर)
- बढ़े हुए स्प्लीन
चूंकि लिवर कैंसर के लिए कोई व्यापक रूप से अनुशंसित नियमित स्क्रीनिंग टेस्ट नहीं हैं, इसलिये बीमारी के परिवार के या अन्य जोखिम कारकों के इतिहास वाले लोगों को उनके डॉक्टर से बात करनी चाहिए ताकि वे अपने जोखिम को मॉनिटर करने या कम करने के लिए सही कदम उठा सकें।
लिवर कैंसर के जोखिम कारक
प्राथमिक लिवर कैंसर के खतरे को बढ़ाने वाले कारकों में शामिल हैं:
- उपचय स्टेरॉयड्स
- कम प्रतिरक्षा और मोटापा
L4-l5 and l5-s1 between disk problems years-44-women. Please give advise operation after disk moving
Liver cancer is when the cells in the liver grow uncontrolled. As the liver filters blood from all parts of the body, one of the most common reasons for liver cancer is perhaps metastasis, which is spread from other parts. Through the blood, cancer cells from other parts reach the liver for filtration and can then make the organ cancerous.
In addition to this, there are other risk factors that can lead to liver cancer. For example, people suffering from obesity, alcohol and tobacco abuse, viral hepatitis (B or C), chronic liver disease (especially in men, who are more prone than women to develop cancer), cirrhosis and someone who has a history of a prolonged use of steroids can suffer from the disease. Also, while liver cancer is very rare in the Americas, it is very common in Africa and Southeast Asia as the prevalence of hepatitis is higher in these regions.
When it comes to the symptoms, it’s acceptable that liver cancer is insidious, and the exact point of origin cannot be identified. It continues to grow until symptoms become evident, which are also nonspecific. Before analyzing your health on your own, it’s always recommendable to seek an expert’s final word on it. Let’s take a look at the top signs that might point out towards liver cancer.
- Abdominal pain: When you suffer a strong pain in the abdominal area, especially in the upper portion on the right side, it can signal a lump or a growing tumor in the liver. This can also be accompanied by middle or lower back pain.
- Weight loss: Many a time, women who suffer from a sudden loss of weight can be going through a deadly disease like this one. In most cases, these weight loss cases show no attempts on the patient’s side, that is, the weight loss occurred for unknown reasons. A loss of appetite, without any reasons, is another indicator. These can result due to unexplained reasons and should be taken seriously.
- White, chalky stools:This one is another tell-tale sign of liver cancer. Often, people tend to ignore stools in light, flaky colors. It is always better to consult a doctor, as you might be ignoring a sign of potential cancer.
- Bloating: When you feel certain heaviness or bloating in the upper part of the abdomen due to fluid accumulation it indicates, which is one of the indicators for testing liver cancer.
- Frequent body conditions: Apart from the above mentioned symptoms, one can also consider personal health history when facing any liver- related problems. Recurring severe nausea and vomiting and general signs of lethargy and weakness can also indicate liver cancer. Also, personal health history with claims the patient suffered from jaundice (due to the accumulation of bile pigments in the sclera and skin) can also be taken into consideration. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Oncologist.
I am 45 years of age, there are ligament disorder in my left side knee & slip disc problem too in both side feel heavy pain you are requested to advice me for better treatment & earlier relief in the same.
Our spinal disk resembles a jelly donut, wherein the softer insides are protected by the hard exterior. Sometimes, as a result of some injury or an accident the jelly slips out, leading to an extremely painful condition which in medical parlance is known as herniated disc. The pain that you are subjected to, during herniated disc, occurs as the nerves nearby are damaged due to the concussion.
Apart from pain, herniated disc is preceded by other symptoms, some of them are:
- Pain in the arm or the leg: Depending on which part of the body you have suffered the herniated disc, in the neck or in your lower back, this condition is succeeded by intense pain either near the buttocks or near the shoulders. It goes without saying that this pain increases sharply with movement.
- Numbness: That part of the body where the nerves are damaged due to herniated disc often becomes numb and has no sensation whatsoever.
- Weakness: Due to herniated disc, the muscles become weak that considerably impairs and curbs mobility.
However, there are various ways by which you can prevent a herniated disc. Some of them are:
- Exercise: Exercise in any form and even for a short while yields several benefits. Your body invariably gains momentum and agility. If you exercise daily, your spine becomes more stable and strong, thereby preventing a possible herniated disc.
- Maintaining the right and good posture: A lot depends on the way you sit and walk, in fact more than you can imagine. If you sit badly, it exerts a pressure on the spine and the discs. Subsequently, a good posture does the very reverse and curbs chances of a herniated disc in the future.
- Keep a tab on the weight: It is always healthy to maintain the right weight, the one that keeps you away from the onset of various diseases. If you are overweight, it puts more pressure on the spine disk, thereby increasing the risk of developing a herniated disc.
What are the alternatives to avoid surgery for my brother aged 47 identified with Listhesis with foot drop and disc extrusion. In fact I had disc bulge (L3 L4 L5) at the age of 41 in 2013 and took oil massage in Kerala for 15 days and I am doing good now.
Breast cancer, is a type of cancer, which is common to women, where cancer cells grow on the breasts or the female mammary gland. It starts out with the formation of a small lump in your breast and can spread out to your other organs very rapidly. It generally affects women above forty years of age. Breast cancer can be classified into two types. They can either start forming on the inner linings of your milk ducts ( known as Ductal carcinoma) or in the lobules which supply milk (known as Lobular carcinoma).
There are many causes responsible for breast cancer they are mentioned below:
- Obesity or post-menopausal obesity (Learn more about Heart Diseases Post Menopause)
- Exposure to frequent radiation (X-ray)
- Consumption of alcohol
- Being taller than average
- Start of periods at an early age
- Late menopause
- Hormone replacement therapy
- Consumption of birth control pills
The most common symptoms of breast cancer are as follows:
- Formation of a lump in your breast
- Swelling or shrinking of your breast
- Change of size, shape and color of your nipple
- Blood or milk discharge from the nipple
- Breast pain
- Itching sensation
- Appearance of rashes (Learn more about to maintain the skin health)
Breast cancer if not diagnosed and treated at an early stage may turn out to be fatal. Ayurveda offers promising cures for breast cancer.
A few of the Ayurvedic remedies are mentioned below:
- Include foods, which are well supplied with vitamin D in your diet. Researches show that women with less amount of vitamin D in their bodies are more likely to develop breast cancer. Consider including foods like eggs, orange juice, dairy products and fish like salmon in your diet.
- Drink more of green tea as it has anti cancer properties.
- Exercises like walking, yoga, meditation and certain breast exercises can help you to relax the pain sensation, reduce stress and also get cured.
- Incorporate bitter gourd in your diet. Researches show that bitter gourd can kill those cancer cells, which cause breast cancer.
- Ayurvedic herbs like Ashwagandha, tulsi, curcumin have certain properties that can destroy cancer cells.
Since, breast cancer has less survival rates, it is absolutely essential for you to visit an Ayurvedic practitioner if you wish to get cured through Ayurvedic treatment.
My father has gone through operation for blood clot near brain. He is 85 years old. Within 7 days they discharged my father. His sugar nd bp S still high. He S not having solid food. He have liquid food Tht too 2 to 3 spoon. Is there any chance of recovery.
Hello Doctor I have degenerative disc disease after a fall down a flight of stairs in 2013. I sometimes have difficulty in breathing while asleep at night and develop colds frequently, is this due to the lumbar fracture? Also is inability to fill bladder a symptom of disc injury? Thank you for your time Doctor.
Am 24 years old and facing disc bulge from past 4 years (L4, l5, l6) I have taken treatment with exercises, massages and Physio therapy. Which is best way to cure in a quick time.
I am a student and suffering from lumbar disc herniation since last two years or more treatments are being done but there have been no proper result but severe development in sciatic pain, numbness and feeling some effect on other leg also. And please suggest me some solution for this herniation.
I have slip disc problem in l4 n l5. Is it possible to get relief with problem by exercise only. I have this problem from last 5 years. My age is 30 years.
What is Bone cancer?
Bone cancer is malignant tumour of the bones which can spread to lungs or other parts of the body. It may have arisen primarily from the bone itself (primary bone cancer) or more commonly, may have spread to the bones (secondary bone cancer) from cancer of some other body organ like Breast cancer, Prostate cancer etc.
Primary bone cancer usually occurs in growing children and young adolescents, whereas, secondary bone cancer usually occurs in older age group. Usually, the patient experiences pain in the affected area, which over the time, gets worse and continuous. There may also be swelling in the involved region. It can cause weakening of bones resulting in fracture. Some patients may attribute these symptoms to any prior antecedent trauma. Unintentional weight loss may also be seen. Sometimes, these patients are wrongly being treated for infection, thus delaying the correct treatment which may have a bearing on the final outcome.
How common is bone cancer?
Secondary bone cancer is the most common type of bone cancer with bone being the third most common site of cancer spread (metastasis) from other organs. However, primary bone cancers are rare accounting for less than 1% of all cancers.
Causes of bone cancer?
There are no known environmental or other hereditary factors which cause bone cancer, however, certain patients are at a greater risk for bone cancer which include:
- Patients who have received prior radiation therapy
- Patients with a history of Paget’s Disease
- Patients with hereditary retinoblastoma - a type of eye cancer that most commonly affects very young children
- Patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome - a rare genetic condition
How is it diagnosed?
A patient suspected with bone cancer needs to be investigated thoroughly with blood tests, Xrays, MRI to look for local extent of disease. Since bone cancer can spread to lungs and other bones, staging of the disease is done either with whole body PET CT or a bone scan with CT Chest. Alongwith that, a biopsy (usually with a needle) is required to establish the diagnosis. It’s important to do biopsy from the correct site since wrong biopsy site can be detrimental in limb salvage and can result in amputation (cutting the limb). Therefore, it’s recommended that the biopsy should always be done by the surgeon (Orthopaedic Oncologist) who will be doing the final surgery for bone cancer.
Treatment of bone cancer is a multidisciplinary approach requiring an Orthopaedic Oncologist (Bone & Soft tissue tumour specialist), Medical Oncologist (Chemotherapy Specialist), Radiation Oncologist (Radiotherapy specialist) and Pathologist (Specialist in tissue diagnosis).
Usually in primary bone cancers, chemotherapy is given to the patient followed by surgery to remove the diseased bone which is further followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. Limb salvage surgery is possible nowadays for bone cancers in which the part of the bone involved with tumour is removed surgically (rather than cutting the whole limb) and the defect is reconstructed with artificial joint, thereby saving the limb. In some cases, the cancerous bone so removed is given very high dose of radiation so as to kill all the cancer cells and the sterilised bone so formed is fixed back to the parent bone with the help of plates and screws, a technique commonly called as Extra Corporeal Radiation Therapy (ECRT). In children, since the artificial joint will not grow as the child grows leading to unequal limb lengths over a period of time, the defect can be reconstructed with expandable joint which can be lengthened as the child grows which allows to maintain limb length equality at the time of skeletal maturity.
Is cure possible in bone cancer?
With the current chemotherapy regimes and advanced surgical technology, cure is possible in upto 70-75% patients with primary bone cancer. In patients with secondary bone cancer, cure can still be achieved depending upon the primary cancer and the extent of disease. In advanced cases also, a lot can be done to control the disease and give a quality of life to the patient.
Is it possible to prevent bone cancer?
Since the exact cause of bone cancer is not known, as of now it’s not possible to prevent bone cancer.
Whom to consult?
First chance is the best chance when it comes to curing bone cancers. So, it’s advisable to seek treatment from a trained Orthopaedic Oncologist when confronted with a bone cancer to achieve maximum beneficial outcome.