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Diagnostic X- Ray
Bone Densitometry Procedure
Uterine Artery Embolization
Interventional Diagnostic Procedures
Angiography Radial Approach
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Becoming a mum can lay down a whole lot of stress on you. But now you know that your brain is going to help you with all the adjustment s! ah ah a relief you get when your baby gives you a hug by kissing your cheecks the joy you get is amazing and gratitude to the almighty creater
With the recent number of breast cancer cases on the rise, it is important that we should get the examination done on a regular basis as a preventive measure. Even if someone is suffering from it, it is important that we should make an effort and learn about.
If you have breast cancer then a surgery will be part of your treatment. Based on the condition, surgery will be carried out due to any of the following reasons:
- To remove the cancerous tissues from the breast
- To reconstruct the breast once the cancer is removed
- To check whether the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes below the arm
- To treat symptoms of cancer that has progressed to an advanced stage
Breast cancer surgery may be classified into two types
- Mastectomy: Mastectomy involves removing the entire breast; tissues in the adjoining region may also be removed. A double mastectomy is a procedure where both the breasts are removed.
- Breast-conserving surgery: In this surgery, only parts of the breast affected by cancer are removed. The area of the breast that is to be removed will depend on the severity of the cancer. Some healthy tissues may also be removed in this surgery.
Usually, if a woman is in the initial stages of cancer then she may opt for the latter as it entails removing parts of the breast. They may also undergo radiation therapy along with these surgeries.
For checking if the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes below the arm, the lymph nodes are removed from the body. Once they are removed, they are studied under a microscope to check if it has spread, if yes then the extent of their damage. This procedure is carried out along with the surgery to remove the cancer.
Once the mastectomy procedure is completed, you can opt for a breast reconstruction surgery to rebuild the area. You may opt for this procedure at the time of breast cancer removal or at a later stage. If you are considering breast reconstruction surgery then you should discuss it with your surgeon.
Surgery is sometimes not used to treat cancer, but in slowing the progression of cancer or even reducing its symptoms.It is important you talk to your surgeon before the procedure to understand the goal of the surgery. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Are you experiencing excruciating headache? you probably didn't know but you could be suffering from brain aneurysms. It is described as bulge formation in the blood vessel in the brain. It is a totally asymptomatic condition as one does not display any symptoms until the bulge vessel ruptures which may result in blood releasing in the skull which may further lead to a stroke. The bulge is often formed in the gaps between the tissues covering the brain and brain itself.
Most common treatment options for ruptured aneurysm
There are two common treatment options for a ruptured brain aneurysm endovascular coiling and surgical clipping. Both these procedures have certain risk factors, therefore it is best to discuss the details with a neurologist. The endovascular coiling is a less invasive process where the surgeon inserts a hollow tube or catheter into an artery and threads it through the body to reach an aneurysm. Then a guide wire is sent to push a soft platinum wire through the catheter. This coils up and disrupts the flow of blood into the aneurysm and leads to blood clotting. The clotting is essential in sealing off the aneurysm from the artery.
The surgical clipping is a process used for closing off the aneurysm, and a section of the skull is required to be removed for assessing the affected part. It also helps in locating the blood vessel that is responsible for the problem. Finally, a metal clip is placed on the neck of the aneurysm to stop the flow of blood. Though endovascular coiling is less invasive and said to be safer, adequate post-treatment care is necessary to minimize risks.
To treat larger aneurysms, a treatment called flow diverters may be useful. Since, the treatment is decided based on the size, location, apperance and your health condition, your doctor will be the best person to take the final call.
Other procedures to treat symptoms
Other than the surgical procedures several treatments might be prescribed to treat the symptoms and to manage complications. A few commonly advised treatments are:
- Pain relievers: To manage headaches
- Calcium channel blockers: One of the most common complications that may arise with an aneurysm is calcium entering the walls of blood vessels which may result in narrowing of walls. Calcium channel blockers are medications may be prescribed by the doctors to deal with the complication
- Anti seizure medications: Medications such as levetiracetam, phenytoin, valproic acid, and others are prescribed to treat seizures associated with aneurysms
- Procedures to prevent stroke: An insufficient blood flow may result in a stroke and to prevent it, the drug vasopressor is injected intravenously, or angioplasty is performed.
- Rehabilitative therapy: Damage to the brain may require the patient to undergo several physical and occupational therapy.
If you suffer from the condition, it is advised to keep a check on the blood pressure and quit smoking as they can help in reducing the risks associated with aneurysms.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
I want to know about disk pain. i am suffering from this pain from very long . please suggest me good treatment
I am 63 year old. I am having sciatica, back pain and numbness in both legs. I do not have BP and my sugar level is with in limit. As per CT scan report the impression are as follows: Lumbar Spondylitis with Disc herniation at L4-5, L3-4 levels and disc bulge at L5-S1 level. Canal stenosis at L4-5 level. Cervical spondylosis - Decreased height of C5 and C6. Vertebral bodies with end plate irregularities at C4-C7 levels. Disc bulge at C3-4 level. Disc herniation with canal stenosis at C4-5, C5-6 and C6-7 levels. Can it be cured with Homeopathy.
Peripheral arterial disease or commonly known as PAD is a common cardiovascular disease. Despite having the power to cause painful symptoms and severe health risks, it is overlooked by many. This particular arterial disease may lead to life-threatening consequences if left untreated for long. Read on to know more about the condition.
What is PAD?
PAD refers to the situation where in the peripheral arteries to the arms, head, stomach, and legs become narrow. Often referred to as the peripheral vascular disease, here, the arteries start to grow narrower due to the slow but constant buildup of fatty deposits on the artery walls. Though it can affect all the arteries in a person’s body, except those that supply blood to the heart, in the majority of cases, it affects the arteries in the leg.
What are the threats it poses?
PAD is indeed a life-threatening disease, as the blockages, it creates in the peripheral arteries prevent normal blood circulation to the different organs, legs, and brain. And when the blood flow is restricted, or the vital organs of the body fail to receive necessary blood flow, then the legs, brain and all the vital organs suffer severe damage. And when PAD continues to harm the blood flow for a long time, then it leads to tissue infection or tissue death, which is known as gangrene.
Additional health issues it causes
PAD also creates various other health concerns, such as atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease of fatty materials’ build up. In the case of atherosclerosis, the entire blood circulatory system gets damaged, including the arteries leading to the heart. The risk of blood clot build ups and vascular inflammation are also common additional threats posed by the fatty deposits.
Depending on the part of the body that is affected, the PAD symptoms vary from one to another. However, painful cramping in the muscles of one’s legs is the most common symptom of this condition. The pain, originating in the legs often goes up to the muscles in the thighs or hips too. Except this, weakness or numbness in the legs, ulcers or open sores on the feet or legs, skin color changing into bluish or pale are some of the other symptoms of PAD.
The peripheral arterial disease can be diagnosed easily, painlessly and straightforwardly under proper medical attention. Both prescribed medications and a lifestyle change are considered to be the best treatment for controlling PAD. Including a healthy diet and adopting a healthy lifestyle have often been successful in preventing PAD in its early stage.
The moment any signs or symptoms of PAD is noticed one should not be late in seeking immediate medical attention.
Breast Augmentation is the most popular plastic surgery procedure performed worldwide.
Breast augmentation can enhance your appearance and your self-confidence, enlarging your breasts and making them more proportional with the rest of your body. Breast augmentation can also be used to correct differences in the size of your breasts or sagging breasts, which can occur after pregnancy and breastfeeding.
There are many choices and options in breast augmentation, which require careful planning to individualize what are the best options for you. All of these choices have advantages and disadvantages, which you should understand before you make a decision with your surgeon.
Breast augmentation does not correct severely drooping breasts. If you want your breasts to look fuller and to be lifted due to sagging, a breast lift may be required in conjunction with breast augmentation. Breast lifting can often be done at the same time as your augmentation or may require a separate operation. Your plastic surgeon will assist you in making this decision.
Most patients choose silicone implants rather than saline implants because they have a more natural look and feel. Modern silicone implants are substantially different from the old type of silicone implants used in the 1970s and 80s. Another advantage of the cohesive gel silicone implants is that they are made in a variety of round and tear-drop shapes, which means it is easier to choose an implant to achieve the breast shape that you desire.
Misinformation emerged about silicone in the late 80's and early 90's. The effects of silicone implants have since been studied extensively these claims were made, looking at 100,000s of women with breast implants. In June 1999, The Institute of Medicine at the National Academy of Sciences in the U.S.A. released a report, which confirmed that there is no increased risk of the development of cancer, immunologic or neurological problems associated with the use of silicone breast implants, which had been claimed in the late 80's. Patients with implants can breastfeed normally as there is no effect on breast milk.
Breast augmentation surgery requires a general anaesthetic, with the operation taking 1-2 hours, and is usually performed as a day-stay or overnight-stay procedure.
Implants are placed either behind the breast tissue or under the pectoralis muscle on the chest wall. Breast implants placed underneath the muscle have a more natural shape, a lower chance of capsular contracture (hardening) of the implant, and it is easier for mammography. There is also a choice of incision - in the crease under the breast, under the areola or in the armpit, all of which have advantages and disadvantages, which you should discuss with your surgeon.
Following the surgery, it is important to have restricted light activities, with no lifting or heavy duties for 7-10 days. Most patients may drive again and return to work within 7 days after the surgery. Heavy activities and sport should not be undertaken for 3-4 weeks following the surgery. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
The cancer which forms in the cells of the breasts is breast cancer. It is one of the most common forms of cancer to affect women after skin cancer. Support for breast cancer awareness and proper funding for research on the issue has ensured that proper awareness is created for getting it diagnosed properly and then carry out the treatment in an appropriate manner. Fortunately, due to the fact that people all around have become aware of how cancer occurs, what are symptoms which they should be aware of and then for the doctors, what should be the ideal way for exact diagnosis, so that they can treat patients and help them recover, survival rates have increased dramatically and thus number of deaths associated with it is on the decline.
Types of breast cancer
There are different types of Breast Cancer, some are more common than others. Some of the most common types are detailed below:
- Invasive ductal carcinoma: This type of breast cancer starts in a duct of the breast and grows into the tissue surrounding it. It is one of the most common forms of breast cancer. Around 80% of invasive breast cancers are invasive ductal carcinoma.
- Invasive lobular carcinoma: Invasive lobular carcinoma begins in the milk producing glands of the breast and spreads all around with time.
Now let’s take a look at some of the less common types of breast cancer:
- Mucinous carcinoma: The mucus producing cancer cells generally give rise to mucinous carcinoma.
- Inflammatory breast cancer: When a woman suffers from inflammatory breast cancer, the skin of the breast would appear red and she would feel warm. The changes occur because the cancer cells block the lymph vessels.
- Paget’s disease of the nipple: This type of cancer begins in the ducts of the breast, getting spread to the nipple and the region surrounding the nipple. Women affected by this type of cancer can easily notice crusting and reddish tinge around the nipple.
Signs & symptoms of breast cancer
After having looked at the different types of breast cancer, let us now come to the main topic of discussion, the signs and symptoms of breast cancer.
- The different signs and symptoms of breast cancer are discussed below:
- A change in size or shape of the breast
- A lump or if an area feels thicker in comparison to the rest of the breast, then it’s a clear indication of cancer.
- A woman could feel that there is chance of breast cancer, if the texture of the skin changes.
- There will be a reddish tinge or rash on the skin or the area around the nipple, to suggest that breast cancer is a possibility.
- If you realize that liquid is oozing out from the nipple, even without getting it squeezed, then that is also a clear symptom for cancer.
- If you feel that area either in the armpit or around the collarbone, is swollen, it’s a signal for breast cancer.
What is ECMO?
Like dialysis for unfunctional kidney, Ecmo for unfunctional lung.
Ecmo stands for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. It is a method of giving oxygen for the body when icu pateint lungs and/or heart are not able to supply oxygen on their own.
Why ICU pateint put on ECMO?
Doctors place ICU patients on ECMO when patients are not able to supply oxygen to the body.
When a patient’s lungs fail, he/she first is intubated (breathing tube) and hooked up to a ventilator (breathing machine).
However, sometimes lungs are so damaged that providing oxygen through intubation is not enough.
This is when doctors turn to v-v ecmo.
A heart can fail for many reasons including heart attack, pulmonary embolism, bad valve disease, or worsening heart failure. When a heart fails, doctors try to fix the underlying problem. They may also start medications (called ionotropes) to help improve the pump function of the heart. If medications are not enough, doctors will turn to v-a ecmo.
How long can someone stay on ecmo?
That is a complicated question. Due to the risks of ecmo discussed above, doctors try to keep patients on ecmo for as short a time as possible. Often patient will be on ecmo for several days up to 1-2 weeks. Every day, several blood and imaging tests are done to determine if a patient is ready to come off ecmo. As the technology of ecmo improves, hopefully side effects will decrease and patients can remain on ecmo for longer periods of time.
What is the difference between ecmo and a ventilator (breathing machine)?
Both ecmo and a ventilator aim to provide oxygen to the body when the patient’s own lungs and breathing are failing. The ventilator assists the patient’s own lungs by pushing oxygen with pressure into the lungs. Ecmo instead provides oxygen directly via a catheter placed in a patient’s vein or artery. We almost always try oxygenating a patient with a ventilator first. However, when a patient’s lungs are too sick for this, we turn to ecmo to assist in providing oxygen to the body. V-v ecmo provides oxygen through a vein. This blood then has to travel to the heart and be pumped around the rest of the body through arteries. Therefore, with v-v ecmo or with a ventilator, a patient must have a well-functioning heart to get the oxygen pumped throughout the body. V-a ecmo has the additional advantage of pumping blood directly to arteries. This “by-passes” the heart and is therefore the method of ecmo we use when a patient’s heart is failing.