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A broken bone or a crack in the commonly known as a fracture. Any bone in the arm can be broken, but common areas for fractures in the arm is wrist, specifically the distal radius, forearm bones (radius and ulna), elbow, humerus and shoulder.
What causes fracture in bones?
- Fall: Falling an outstretched hand or elbow is the most common cause of a broken arm.
- Sports injuries: Direct blows and injuries on the field or court are a common cause of all types of arm fractures.
- Significant trauma: Any of your arm bones can break during a car accident, bike accident or other direct trauma.
- Abuse: In children, a broken arm may be the result of child abuse.
How to identify?
An audible snap or cracking sound may be your first indication you've broken an arm.
Signs and symptoms include:
- Severe pain, which may increase with movement
- Deformity, such as a bent arm or wrist
- Inability to turn your arm from palm up to palm down or vice versa
When to see a doctor?
If you have enough pain in your arm that you can't use it normally, see a doctor right away and do the same for your child. Delay in diagnosis and treatment of a broken arm, especially for children who heal faster than adults do, can lead to poor healing and deformity.
A shoulder dislocation is a shoulder injury which is characterized by the upper arm bone popping out of the socket of your shoulder blade. The shoulder joint is the most mobile among all the joints in the body, making it the most prone to dislocation. The dislocation of the shoulder joint can either be partial or complete depending on the injury. In a partial dislocation, the head of the upper arm is partially shifted out of the socket whereas in a complete dislocation, the head comes out of the socket in its entirety.
The symptoms of shoulder dislocation are:
Excruciating pain in the shoulder region.
Mobility of the joint is greatly reduced.
There can be multiple ways in which a shoulder can be dislocated because of its ability to move and swing in all the directions. The fibrous tissues that connect the bones of your shoulder may also get stretched or torn. These injuries occur due to a sudden blow or a strong force exerted on the shoulder joint.
It is caused by:
Trauma to the Shoulder Joint: Hard blows to the shoulder joint such as one suffered from a vehicle accident can lead to shoulder dislocation.
Sports Injuries: In contact sports such as hockey and football, the sudden forceful contractions of the shoulder region may lead to dislocation of the shoulder.
Falls: Tripping or falling from an elevated place and landing on the shoulder can cause shoulder joint dislocation.
The treatments for shoulder dislocation are –
Medication: Medications such as pain relievers can be prescribed by the doctor to reduce pain.
Surgery: Surgery of the shoulder joint can help in treating chronic shoulder dislocations. Surgery is also required if the blood vessels or the nerves along the shoulder joint are damaged.
- Immobilization: This process involves attaching a sling or a splint to the affected area to prevent it from moving. This allows the shoulder joint to heal and recuperate faster.
Hip replacement surgery is a method wherein a defective hip joint is removed and replaced with an artificial hip joint. This procedure is only opted for after all the other treatments have failed to yield the desired effects. Hip replacement surgery removes damaged or diseased parts of a hip joint and replaces them with new, man-made parts. The goals of this surgery are to:
Help the hip joint work better
Improve walking and other movements.
Who Should Have Hip Replacement Surgery?
The most common reason for hip replacement is osteoarthritis in the hip joint. Your doctor might also suggest this surgery if you have:
Osteonecrosis (a disease that causes the bone in joints to die)
Injury of the hip joint
Bone tumors that break down the hip joint.
Your doctor will likely suggest other treatments first, including:
Walking aids, such as a cane
An exercise program
These treatments may decrease hip pain and improve function. Sometimes the pain remains and makes daily activities hard to do. In this case, your doctor may order an x ray to look at the damage to the joint. If the x ray shows damage and your hip joint hurts, you may need a hip replacement.
Hip replacement surgery is a procedure that can either be performed by traditional means or a minimally invasive procedure. The primary difference between the two procedures is the size of the incision. The procedure begins with the doctor administering local anesthesia, though in certain cases, general anesthesia is also administered.
An incision is then made along the hip and the muscles that are connected to the thigh bone are shifted, so that the hip joint is exposed.
An equipment is then used to remove the ball socket of the joint by cutting the thighbone.
The artificial joint is then fixed to the thighbone and it is allowed to adhere properly.
Once the joint is fixed, the ball of the thighbone is then put in the hip socket.
The fluids from the incision area are then allowed to drain.
The hip muscles are then put in place and the incision is closed.
After the surgery, the recovery stage begins. The period of hospital stay post-surgery usually lasts for 4-6 days. A drainage tube is attached to the bladder to get rid of waste products from the body. Physical therapy begins immediately after the surgery and you will be able to walk after a few days with walking aids. The physical therapy continues for a few months after the surgery.
It is advised to avoid activities that involve twisting your leg for at least half a year. You should also avoid crossing the leg along the mid portion of your body. Your physiotherapist will provide you with exercises that aid to help you recover. Avoid climbing stairs and sit on chairs that have strong back support.
A broken wrist is known as a wrist fracture and it may occur due to a variety of causes starting from undue pressure on the wrist which can result in an injury as well as debilitating conditions like arthritis, which makes the bones and joints prone to fractures. There are also non displaced breaks, which are stable kinds of fractures and in which, the wrist remains in its place. Let us find out more about the kinds of fractures and the procedures for treatment of the same.
Type of Fracture: The wrist is basically made up of eight small bones that connect the two long arm bones, which are known as the radius and ulna and create the forearm. The broken wrist can take place in any of these bones. A hand surgeon will generally take a look at this kind of fracture and determine whether it is displaced, stable or open. As discussed earlier, a wrist fracture can be of various types. While a non displaced wrist fracture is a more stable kind that does not really require much more than rest or medication, a displaced wrist fracture is a non stable kind where dislocation happens.
Other Factors: There are a variety of other factors that will be taken into consideration in order to repair this kind of a fracture. To begin with, the Orthopaedic specialist will consider your age and the kind of job, hobbies and other kinds of activities that you indulge in. Also, the doctor will try to ascertain whether or not you are in good health on an overall basis. The presence of other injuries will also be taken into account for this kind of an injury in there has been a bike or car accident that has caused the fracture.
Treatment: The method of treatment will vary as per the considerations listed above. A padded splint may be installed in order to align and support the bones and wrist respectively, so that there is ample relief from the acute pain as well. Further, an unstable fracture will require a cast as to support the entire forearm and give proper rest to the region so that the bone can grow back together and get aligned again. Surgery may also be required for very severe cases, and pins, screws, metals and plates may also be used depending on the exact location and type of fracture.
Recovery: Remember to move your fingers as much as you can so as to prevent them from getting stiff while they are held up in a splint or a cast.
Hand therapy will be helpful in gaining back motion and function of the wrist.
Broken bone is commonly known as bone fracture a d it occurs when an exorbitant amount of force is applied causing the bone to split or shatter. While some minor fractures lead to cracks and crannies, others may lead to complete breakage of the bones. Despite being hard, bones are formed in such a way that they can absorb pressure to only a certain extent, beyond which they break. Statistically, the incidence of broken bones are most common in children and in old age people.
Causes of Bone Fracture
Bone fracture can be caused due to a number of reasons; both intentional and accidental. Some of them include:
1. Accidents and injuries: Sports injuries, being hit by a car and tripping and falling are some of the typical episodes.
2. Old age: Diseases such as osteoporosis and brittle bone disease are common in aged people. As bones tend to become more fragile among the aged, they are at a greater chance of bone fractures.
Type of bone fractures
Primarily bone fractures are of four types, based on the way the bone splits. They are:
- Complete fracture: This type of fracture refers to a complete breakage of the bone wherein the fracture may occur at various parts of the bone.
- Incomplete fracture: In this type of fracture, the bone partially breaks instead of splitting entirely.
- Compound fractures: This is a type of a fracture wherein the bone breaks past the skin. It is also known as an open fracture.
- Simple fracture: In this type of a fracture, the bone breaks without causing an open wound on the skin.
Treatment of bone fractures
In case of a broken bone, the immediate course of action would be to reach for the first aid box. This can be done to stabilize the bone prior to hospitalization. Icing the injury, elevating the injured area to prevent further swelling and covering the wound with bandages are common measures. In many cases, people also make household splints (made of newspapers) to keep the bone stabilized. Hospitalization and especially surgery, can be also opted for in case of severe fractures.