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Knee Pain Treatment
Spinal Surgery Disorders
Treatment of Neurological Problems
Treatment of Knee replacement
Treatment of Joint And Muscle Problems
Treatment of Nerve And Muscle Disorders
Acl Reconstruction Procedure
Hip Replacement Surgery
Joint Dislocation Treatment
Knee Care Procedures
Joint Replacement Surgery
Ankle Pain Treatment
Treatment of Spondylosis
Arthritis And Pain Management Treatment
Treatment of Joint Dislocation
Treatment Of Disk Slip
Treatment Of Herniated Disc
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Clubfoot is a birth defect affecting babies and is characterized by deformity of the foot. A baby with clubfoot has his/her foot twisted. It can affect one or both the feet, which point inwards and may even appear upside down. The condition can affect one in 1,000 babies where the baby is normal and healthy otherwise. Depending on the severity of the condition, your baby will experience difficulty in walking or limping.
The foot or feet appear twisted or crooked due to shorter tissues that connect the muscles to bones. Doctors do not know the exact cause of the tendons and tissues being shorter than the typical length. However, there are certain known factors that increase the risk of clubfoot in babies. They are:
- Family history- A baby is more likely to have a clubfoot if both or one of the parents has clubfoot.
- Congenital conditions- If your baby is born with a medical condition like spina bifida, he/she may have clubfoot as one of the symptoms.
- Lifestyle choices- A person who smokes during pregnancy and has a family history of clubfoot, is at greater risk of giving birth to a baby with clubfoot.
- Less amniotic fluid- Amniotic fluid surrounds the fetus in the womb. Therefore, low level of amniotic fluid may increase the chance of clubfoot in your baby.
The clubfoot does not cause any pain to your baby when he or she is small. However, it will cause difficulties once the child grows up and starts to walk. The condition has been seen to affect more males than females and needs proper treatment.
Your doctor will able to spot and detect clubfoot in your baby during an ultrasound session and will prepare you for the same. Once your baby is born, his or her treatment can begin immediately. The standard treatment for clubfoot is called the Ponseti method. The Ponseti method is divided into stages that include-
- Casting- As babies have tender and soft tendons that can easily bend and be stretched, the doctor manipulates the foot into the correct position and puts a cast on it to keep it in place. This process continues for a few week. After the first few days, the previous cast is removed and the foot is put in a new position and is again put in a cast; this goes on for the next couple of weeks.
- Surgery- When the final casting comes off, a small surgery is performed to loosen the Achilles tendon at the back of the ankle. The procedure is generally performed under local anesthesia.
- Shoe Brace- After a successful surgery, your baby is required to wear a special type of shoe brace that is attached to his/her leg with a bar. This is required for preventing the recurrence of clubfoot. Your baby needs to wear the shoe brace for at least 3 months after surgery and after that, wearing the shoe brace only during nighttime till the age of 4-5 years should suffice.
However, if the Ponseti method does not yield the desired results, major surgery is carried out at the age of 6 months and one year. In clubfoot cases, there is a 20 percent chance of recurrence that needs to be treated again with casting and surgery.
All babies treated with the Ponseti method go on to have a normal childhood and learn to walk and play like other healthy children.
Bones make up the skeletal framework of the body. They are a type of connective tissues and are made up of calcium. Their main function is to provide support and to protect our internal organs. When a bone in our body breaks, it is said to be a fracture.
Fracture occurs when an external force is exerted on a part of the body making the bones break. This breakage can be caused by reasons ranging from traumatic to medical. Traumatic causes include accidents, falls, and injuries, whereas medical conditions include osteoporosis and cancer of different types.
There are various types of fractures that affect individuals. The main types are closed and compound fractures. In a closed fracture, the broken bone does not pierce through the skin. In a compound fracture, the bone is broken down into pieces, thereby resulting in internal bleeding and infection. However, the most common type of fracture in children is the greenstick fracture. It is defined as a small and slender crack affecting children because their bones are more flexible and soft compared to that of adults.
When it comes to fractures in children, parents are advised to follow certain first aid measures to ensure faster healing and repairing.
- Immobilisation- The most important step in first aid for fracture is immobilizing the fractured portion. Do not move your child from his or her place unless there is a paramedic.
- Stop the bleeding- If the fracture has pierced the skin and has resulted in heavy bleeding, then you should put pressure on the wound with a sterile cloth. This should stop the bleeding.
- Put ice packs- If your child is in pain, put ice packs on the injured area. However, wrap the ice in cloth first and then put the pack on the wound to prevent swelling and to reduce pain.
- Provide support- If the fracture has taken place in the child's limb, provide support to him/her by placing a pillow under the leg. Try to comfort your child and do not panic in front of him/her.
- Use a splint- It is important to splint the injured area and know the basic steps involved in making a splint. For a splint, you can use a wooden scale or a folded magazine. Place the splints above and below the fractured area. Use gauze or tape to keep the splints in place. Do not put the tape or gauze directly over the fractured region. It is important to note that you do not move or realign the broken bone, causing further pain to your children.
After providing proper first aid care to your child, you should immediately call for an ambulance and take him or her to a doctor. Whatever you do, do not panic in front of your child and comfort him/her. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
This is a very common condition seen in toddlers. When the legs are brought together then there is a gap at the level of the knee. It happens because of inward bowing of thigh bone or tibia. The deformity may appear to increase on standing.
Daily requirement of calcium
The optimal primary nutritional source during the first year of life is human milk. Premature infants have higher calcium requirements than full-term infants while in the nursery. These may be met by using human milk fortified with additional minerals or with specially designed formulas for premature infants. Around 6 months of age when weaning foods are started, food items rich in calcium should be added. Readymade formulas are fortified with calcium but one must remember that the bioavailability of calcium from human milk is greater than that from infant formulas or cow's milk. Hence breastfeeding should be encouraged. In children age 2-8 years the daily requirement is around 800 mg/d. In children 9- to 18-year-olds the daily requirement is 1,200-1,500 mg/day.
Some of the common items that are rich in calcium are.
|Food Item||Quantity||Amount of Calcium in each serving|
|Milk||1 cup (240 ml)||300 mg|
|Cheddar cheese||1.5 oz (42 g)||300 mg|
|Spinach cooked||1/2 cup (90 g)||120 mg|
|Sardines or salmon with bones||20 Sardines (240 g)||50 mg|
|Sweet potatoes||1/2 cup (160 g)||44 mg|
Babies younger than 1-year-old need 400 IU of vitamin D a day. Kids older than 1 year need 600 IU or more of vitamin D a day. Our bodies make vitamin D when our skin is exposed to the sun. The recommended exposure to sunlight is at least 30 min every day. There are various fortified food items that have vitamin D. Also medicines are available which can provide the daily requirement of Vitamin D
Physiological genu varus. In most of the toddlers, the legs are curved inwards. They should improve over a period of time. The legs should straighten by 2 yrs. The child should be investigated if the deformity is severe; the deformity is only in one leg, if the child complains of pain and if the child appears unusually short. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
The hip joint is a ball and socket joint made up of the round head of thigh bone (femoral head) with the cup shaped socket (acetabulum) of the pelvis and Perthe’s Disease is an affliction of the hip joints in growing children. It is much more common in boys than girls, and occurs most commonly in children aged between 4 to 10 years. The cause of this problem is still unidentified.
- The blood supply to part of the femoral head is disturbed, causing loss of bone cells.
- Softening and collapse of the affected bone
- Re-establishment of the blood supply, repair and remodeling of the femoral head.
- Limping is the most common symptom. The limp may become more persistent and pain may develop. Examination of the child by the orthopaedic surgeon generally shows restriction of hip movement. The nature of Perthes disease is variable. Severity depends on the child’s age, and the extent of femoral head involvement. Older children, girls, and those with greater involvement of the femoral head are likely to require more complex treatment. Treatment aims to reduce pain and stiffness, and prevent femoral head deformity.
- All children need regular review by the orthopaedic surgeon through the duration of the disease. Not all children require active treatment. Many will make a good recovery with only symptomatic treatment. This may involve restriction of activity such as running and high impact sports. Swimming is encouraged. Some children may require exercise in slings and springs, or the application of plaster casts to the lower limbs. Some children will require surgical management.
- Children with Perthes Disease are otherwise healthy, but may be affected by physical restrictions. By middle age, one third of those affected have no symptoms, one third have intermittent hip pain, and one third would develop arthritis requiring treatment.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Lateral epicondylitis, which is the medical name for tennis elbow, is a condition wherein the tendon in the upper arm develops a tear due to repeated motions. This is a very painful condition and can make your daily life difficult. It usually tends to affect your dominant arm i.e. the arm that you use the most.
Who does it affect and why does it happen?
As mentioned earlier, tennis elbow occurs due to repetitive similar movements of the elbows, forearms and wrists over a prolonged period. The common name for this condition came due to repeated occurrences with tennis players although it can happen to players of other sports as well as people in other profession too. Some of the people who are most susceptible to this could be from the following fields:
- Sporting activities such as squash, tennis, fencing, cricket and many other sports where repeated arms movements are required.
- Musicians playing certain instruments
- Knitting work
- Chefs and waiters
- Road and construction workers
- A slow exacerbation of pain over a period and gradual worsening can be a major symptom.
- In certain cases, the pain may manifest suddenly which will make any movement very difficult.
- Moving your arm may become very difficult, especially during any up or down movement of the arm.
- In some cases, the pain may be experienced only when shaking objects or actions wherein squeezing or hard gripping is required.
- Performing daily activities such as a tooth brush, trying to open jars or even trying to use a knife or fork can get extremely difficult.
How it can be treated?
Most treatment methods include keeping the elbow in a resting position and giving it time to heal automatically. However, some medication may also be given to relieve pain and quicken healing. Some of these are mentioned below.
- Elbow straps: These fix the elbow in a comfortable position and don’t allow it to move helping it heal on its own.
- Ice treatment : This is the most common home treatment prescribed to relieve pain. You can use homemade icepacks or even buy gel pack, which can then be held against the area to relieve pain.
- Painkillers: Ibuprofen and aspirin can be used to lessen the pain, although it is advisable to consult your doctors first.
- Various physical therapies: Physiotherapy, acupuncture or specific doctor recommended exercises could be done to not only relieve pain but also quicken healing and to strengthen the tendons and the muscles of that area.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!