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Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
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I am amazed that he is such a sweet doctor, even though he is so busy all the time. I was shocked to experience the symptoms of polycystic ovary synDrome. In the very first sitting, Dr Sagar Bumb clearly told us the problem and the what the treatment procedure will be in future. The friendliness of staff is the best in the Dr Bumb Nursing Home. Even after my treatmentwith my old doctor, I never felt so much relief, but he has treated me completely.
Never once that I felt that he is getting impatient, rather he has always responded to my each and every doubt with immense patience. I was quite depressed due to my condition, but Dr Sagar Bumb guided me to change my attitude. I feel strange that I am suffering from painful sexual intercourse. As someone I knew, consulted this Sagar Bumb and they referred us. My case was extremely serious, but he really handled it very nicely.
Thanks to Dr Sagar for the perfect advice as I was not able to conceive. I was quite depressed due to this problem. The doctor gave me perfect guidance and prescription whcih helped me deal with my situation. The complete process of the treatment was so painless and quick, and i am so relieved that I chose to consult him. I must say he is one of a known gynaecologist in the city.
The thing that worries people the most about treatments to avoid pregnancy is its side effects post the treatment. after being assured I took the treatment from dr sagar Bumb at his clinic Dr Bumb Nursing Home in Pune. Jis treatment proved to be the best for me as it had no sider effects or gave no problems post it. I am very thankful to his staff too for making me comfortable.
He is not just friendly, but also is very motivating. The overall outlook of the Dr Bumb Nursing Home was very nice. I owe him a big thanks for making me fine again. i was having the issue of no periods. I read about the Sagar Bumb on one of the social media platform. Dr Sagar Bumb has expert knowledge in the field.
It was getting very difficult for me to cope us with my infertility. I am so thankful that Dr Sagar has given me the best treatment and I am now finally able to get back to my normal self. The Dr Bumb Nursing Home is designed in such a manner that all requirements of patients are taken care of.
Am associated with Dr bumb sir since last 8 years. He is a very knowledgeable, skillful and polite person. Surgerwise also he is one of the best in pune. His hospital caters to all needs of patients in field of obstetrics, gynaec, infertility as well as good laprascopic centre.
Dr Sagar Bumb did my abortion some months before at Dr Bumb Nursing Home in Pune. He is a very good doctor and a wonderful person. He helped me a lot in my treatment.
It is likely for you to experience abnormal vaginal bleeding between your periods during one point in life. Vaginal bleeding is termed abnormal when you are not expecting your periods, when your menstrual flow is heavier or lighter than normal, and at times when it is not expected such as during pregnancy, or after menopause. Abnormal vaginal bleeding may result from a wide range of causes. It does not always indicate a serious or severe condition.
The different possible causes are discussed below:
- Bleeding during pregnancy is not very normal and it indicates some complications in pregnancy. Spotting or light bleeding is common, but it is important for you to evaluate any form of bleeding by a doctor. Heavy vaginal bleeding occurring before 12 weeks during pregnancy indicates severe problems. Heavy vaginal bleeding that occurs after 12 weeks also indicates a problem like placenta previa.
- Ovulation can result in mid-cycle bleeding.
- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition, which interferes with normal ovulation, and may result in abnormal bleeding.
- Certain medicines, including birth control pills may cause abnormal vaginal bleeding. Minor bleeding between your periods is likely during the first few months of using birth control pills. Bleeding may also occur, if you do not take the pills at a fixed time regularly.
- An intrauterine device (IUD) also increases the chances of heavy periods and spotting.
- Certain infections occurring in your pelvic organs such as the uterus, vagina, Fallopian tubes, cervix, and ovaries causes abnormal vaginal bleeding. The bleeding is more likely to occur after sexual intercourse and douching. These infections are commonly caused by sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
- Pelvic inflammatory disease (PTD) leads to infection and inflammation of your uterus, ovaries, or Fallopian tubes. This might be another cause of abnormal vaginal bleeding.
There are several other less common causes, which may result in abnormal vaginal bleeding. They include the following:
- An object present or inserted in the vagina
- Sexual abuse
- Uterine fibroids, which cause abnormally heavy periods
- Several structural problems like polyps and urethral prolapse
- Occurrence of cancer in your uterus, ovaries, vagina, or cervix
- Intense mental or emotional stress, and exercising in excess
- Several other health conditions and diseases such as diabetes or hyperthyroidism
It is important for you to consult a doctor on experiencing abnormal vaginal bleeding. It is very important to diagnose the condition properly and start with management measures at the earliest.
Cervical cancer can throw life completely off balance. It is one of the most common types of cancer affecting women worldwide. Lack of an early diagnosis makes this life threatening condition almost untreatable. A Pap smear also referred to as a Pap Test comes as a ray of hope for many women.
A Pap smear is a screening test that plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis and detection of cervical cancer in women. A Pap smear may further be used to point out any abnormalities in the cervical cells which may have a potential to turn malignant in the future. Doctors recommend all women (between 21-65 years of age) to undergo a pap smear to be on the safer side. While most women are advised to repeat the pap smear between every 3-5 years, women with the following conditions or ailments should be extra careful.
- Women who are HIV positive or those with a weak immune system.
- Those who have undergone an organ transplant.
- Any woman whose pap smear indicates the presence of precancerous cells.
- Women who had chemotherapy sessions.
The above mentioned conditions do not necessarily imply a 100% probability of cervical cancer. Consult your doctor and follow the necessary advice and precautions.
The procedure involved in a Pap smear
The Pap test is not a very tedious process and is often carried out in the doctor's clinic itself. The person to undergo the test is made to lie down on her back (the knees should be in a bent position). The physician then carefully inserts a speculum into the vagina. The main idea is to widen the vaginal walls so that the doctor can have a clear view of the cervix. Next, using a spatula, the doctor will collect samples of your cervical cells and send it for examination.
The significance of the Pap smear result
- A negative test indicates a healthy cervix with no precancerous cells.
- A positive result can, however, have many implications, such as there can be a condition known as dysplasia (minute alterations in the cervical cells). There may be some inflammation. However, the condition may be nothing to lose your sleep over. In many women, the condition heals by itself. A thorough investigation, (colonoscopy followed by a biopsy) may be needed if the problem persists for long.
Further, there can be
- Squamous intraepithelial lesion: This, unfortunately, indicates the presence of precancerous cells.
- Squamous cell cancer: As the name suggests, this more than often, confirms the presence of malignant or cancer cells.
- Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance: Here the squamous cells appear very flat and thin, growing on the cervical surface. The condition may not necessarily indicate something serious. The person concerned may require further tests for a better interpretation of the condition.
A Pap smear is for your good. Go for a Pap smear and also encourage women in your circle to indulge in this healthy practice. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
Clotting of blood during or after a pregnancy is fairly common these days. While the reasons for these are numerous, the driving reason behind this being that the mother is weak after such an ordeal and it is, therefore, likely to affect her health. In pregnant women, blood clots tend to form in the deep veins present in the legs or near the pelvic area. The condition is known as Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT). One of the main concerns for people suffering from Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) is the occurrence of Pulmonary Embolism (PE), which is a life threating diseases and is caused when a DVT breaks and travels to the blood vessels connected to the lungs.
The symptoms of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
According to the data published on “Centre for Disease Control and Prevention” website, from a recent survey conducted it has been estimated that almost 900,000 people suffer from Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) every year in the United States i.e. 2 in every 1000 people suffer from this life-threatening disease.
This disease although life threatening can be taken into account by proper medical care at the early stages and therefore patients are advised to look out for any or all of the following symptoms-
- The patient is experiencing pain, swelling or tenderness in one of their legs, although both might have been affected.
- You have noticed a change in skin colour, and it has taken a reddish shade.
- There is a warm sensation in and around the area of the clot.
- The veins on your legs are appearing larger than they should.
Although all of these are proven symptoms for Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT), it is common to have discomfort from swelling legs during pregnancy and does not always mean that the patient has symptoms of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT). If you are having the slightest thought that it may be a case of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT), you should immediately contact your GP, midwife, or call your maternity unit.
Treatment for Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
When a patient is suffering from Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) and she is pregnant, anticoagulants, which is a medicine that prevents clotting of blood, is administered to them. While not all anticoagulants are safe to use during pregnancy, quite a few are. It is highly advisable that a doctor or medical practitioner is consulted before taking any further step.
How to prevent Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
Like all diseases around the world, Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) is too a preventable one if the certain Do’s and Don’ts are kept in mind. Below is a list of certain things to keep in mind, in order to prevent Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)-
- Being active and moving around regularly, will keep the blood circulation normal.
- Beware of your family history and consult your doctor with the same.
- Look out for symptoms and contact your doctor at once if you see one.
Every disease is preventable and curable. It is on us, what we choose to do with it, succumb to it, or stand up and fight it. Look out for the above-mentioned points and you will be at a safe distance from the clutches of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT).
When you are pregnant, the need to watch your health is significantly higher. It is not just a question of your health, but of the developing baby also. This makes it extremely significant as different bacteria and viruses could affect the baby’s development and even lead to complications with pregnancy and childbirth.
The flu, short for influenza, is a mild viral infection that affects the upper airways, including the nose, throat, and sinuses. The usual symptoms include nose blockage, runny nose, sore throat, sneezing, cough, heavy headed feeling. It is caused by a virus and therefore there is no remedy for it. It has to run its course which usually takes about 7 days, and the body will fight off the infection on its own.
Symptomatic treatment including paracetamol and adequate hydration can help live through the flu. Though it is common in any weather, the winters increase the risk.
Another increased risk factor is the reduced immune levels in a pregnant woman, making them more prone to catching the flu. This could lead to complications like pneumonia which might require hospitalisation and prolonged treatment with antibiotics. The baby could also be at risk of miscarriage, low birth weight, and premature birth.
Symptoms: If you do catch the flu during your pregnancy, you will notice the following symptoms a headache, runny nose, fatigue, sore throat, shortness of breath, coughing, sudden chills or fever, diarrhoea or vomiting, and body aches, and loss of appetite.
Management: If you suspect that you could have the flu, contact the doctor immediately. Taking safe antiviral medications can help reduce the duration of the illness and reduce pain and suffering. In addition, getting plenty of rest and drinking lots of fluids can help recovery. Acetaminophen can help manage the fever, while Robitussin and guaifenesin can help manage the cough.
Prevention: If you are planning for pregnancy or are already pregnant, it makes great sense to get vaccinated for the flu. This can help prevent a flu attack and sail through pregnancy smoothly. In addition to protecting the mother, the flu vaccine also transmits the virus to the newborn, which gets immunity for up to 6 months of life. The vaccine also has a beneficial effect on the newborn.
It is safe to get the flu vaccine during pregnancy, though taking it in the early months is advisable. It is also safe during breastfeeding with no harmful effects documented. In addition, some healthy habits like regularly washing hands, eating healthy, getting adequate sleep, and keeping a safe distance from people with flu can help prevent flu attack.
While prevention is the best solution, if contracted, the flu can be managed well by seeking immediate medical attention.
Breast cancer is a medical condition that refers to the uncontrolled growth of cells in the breast. These cells can be like small tumours or lumps. The tumour can be malignant if it is found that the cells are growing into surrounding tissues or are spreading. It occurs mostly in women.
Breast cancers can originate from any part of the breast. Most of these cancerous growths start in the milk-carrying ducts. There are also cancerous growths in the glands that produce milk. These are known as lobular cancers. In rare cases, cancer may also start from the breast tissues. These are known as sarcomas and lymphomas.
Here are some of the ways to get prevented from the possibility of developing breast cancer:
- Check your weight: It is important that you maintain a healthy weight. You don’t need do follow the hard and fast dieting charts or starve. But eat a balanced diet and exercise a bit to maintain a stable and healthy weight throughout. Being obese or overweight increases the chance of developing breast cancer.
- Be Active: A sedentary lifestyle devoid of activities is something that invites diseases. It has been found that women who are physically active and exercise for at least 30 minutes a day are at a low risk of developing breast cancer.
- Don’t avoid fruits and vegetables: It is important for you to have a balanced diet. Include lots of leafy vegetables and fruits in your diet to avoid the possibility of developing any form of cancer. Don’t drink excessive alcohol on regular basis. Remember a healthy diet is a key to a healthy life.
- Don’t Smoke: Smoking increases the chance of developing heart diseases, stroke and 15 types of cancers. It also increases the risk for breast cancer.
- Breastfeed your baby: It is mandatory for good health that you breastfeed your baby. Exclusive breastfeeding is best for the health of your baby as well as yours. It lowers the chances of developing breast cancer.
- Avoid Birth Control Pills: These pills have side-effects. They increase the risk of developing breast cancer. It also increases the chances of developing heart diseases and ovarian cancer.
- Avoid Post-Menopausal Hormones: Post-menopausal hormones have an adverse effect on the health. They increase the risk of some diseases while lowering the effects of other ones. It should be taken for a shorter period and its prolonged use must be avoided. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
The surgical procedure that is used for uterus removal of a female patient is known as a hysterectomy. From uterine fibroids to cancer in the uterus, there may be a variety of reasons for carrying out this procedure. Here is everything you need to know about the procedure and recovery.
Causes: There are a number of reasons for which one may have to undergo a hysterectomy. If uterine fibroids and other kinds of growth are causing severe pelvic pain and bleeding, then it may be required. This also applied to particularly painful endometriosis. Abnormal vaginal bleeding as well as severe and chronic pelvic pain, are enough of reasons by themselves for going in for this kind of surgery to remove the uterus. Also, when the uterus slides away from its normal position and slips into the vaginal canal, this signifies a condition known as Uterine Prolapse, which will also require treatment in the form of a hysterectomy. Andenomyosis is another reason why this surgery may be required, as this condition results in the thickening of the organ. Finally, if the patient is suffering from cervical or ovarian cancer, then the doctor may recommend this surgery to remove the uterus in case the tumour found has been tested as malignant.
Technique: There are various techniques that may be followed in the course of this surgery, depending on the location, the size and the severity of the condition and the growth that is associated with it.
- Open Surgery Hysterectomy: This involves an incision of six to seven inches, in the belly of the patient so as to act on the abdominal region. After recovery, there will be a visible scar on the stomach of the patient.
- MIP Hysterectomy: The various approaches for this technique include vaginal hysterectomy, laparoscopic hysterectomy, laparoscopic assisted vaginal hysterectomy, and robot assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy.
Risks: While this is mostly known as a low risk procedure, there may be various risks after the surgery including urinary incontinence, vaginal prolapse, formation of fistula where an abnormal link may form between the bladder and the vagina and finally, persistent pain. Infection, haemorrhage and blood clots may also happen in extreme cases.
Recovery: The female patient will automatically start menopause once this uterus removal procedure has been carried out. Usually, the doctor will ask you to refrain from lifting heavy weights for a few weeks after the surgery and also, to abstain from sex for a while. Most female patients reported complete cure of the problem following this surgery. Also, it is not common to find too many side effects after the surgery.
- Walking after a month.
- Simple streching exercises after a month.
- Plenty of fruits and vegetables in diet.
- Water intake around 6 to 7 glasses.
- Calcium supplements. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
When the delivery of a baby has to happen through a surgical process rather than normal child birth, the procedure is known as a Caesarean Section or a C-section. There are many reasons why one many need to go through this surgical procedure including complications during pregnancy and childbirth. One can also plan for a C-section beforehand by talking it through with a doctor who will recommend the same in case there are any complications and risks at play during the pregnancy. Read on to know more about the procedure.
Reasons: There are many reasons why a doctor may want to go in for a C-section. If the labour is not progressing properly, then a C-section may be required in order to extract the baby. This procedure may also be used in case the baby is not getting proper amount of oxygen which can put it in distress and lead to changes in the heartbeat. Also, if the baby is in an abnormal position like a breech position, then a C-section may be required. This procedure is also used when a woman is carrying twins or triplets. Other health concerns like high blood pressure and genital herpes or even HIV can lead to this procedure. Any mechanical obstruction like fibroids in the birth canal can also cause the doctor to resort to a C-section, while a patient who has delivered via C-section earlier may also be asked to do the same again.
Risks and complications: One has to remember that a C-section takes longer to recover from than normal childbirth and delivery would. Also, it does pose a few risks and complications that may arise during and after the procedure.
- Breathing issues: The babies who are born via C-section are more susceptible to a condition known transient tachypnea which is a breathing problem characterised by an abnormally fast rate of breathing in and out. Also, other respiratory distress syndromes may take over subsequently.
- Surgical injuries: The doctor may accidentally nick the baby’s skin during the surgical process which involves the use of sharp instruments for making the incision.
- Inflammation risk: The uterus may undergo inflammation which may also lead to endometriosis as well as infections of the membrane which can cause fever and foul smelling vaginal discharge. The wound may also get infected.
- Bleeding: While some amount of bleeding is normal, this procedure can also lead to excessive bleeding in which case immediate medical intervention may be required. Also, the patient may suffer from blood clots inside the veins of the pelvic organs. These clots may also travel to the lungs and cause further complications. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
A bladder infection is a bacterial infection within the bladder. Some people call a bladder infection a urinary tract infection (UTI). This refers to a bacterial infection anywhere in the urinary tract, such as the bladder, kidneys, ureters, or the urethra. While most cases of bladder infection occur suddenly (acute), others may recur over the long term (chronic). Early treatment is key to preventing the spread of the infection.
What causes Bladder Infection?
Bacteria that enter through the urethra and travel into the bladder cause bladder infections. Normally, the body removes the bacteria by flushing them out during urination. Men have added protection with the prostate gland, which secretes protective hormones as a safeguard against bacteria. Still, sometimes bacteria can attach to the walls of the bladder and multiply quickly. This overwhelms the body’s ability to destroy them, resulting in a bladder infection.
Bacteria that enter through the urethra and travel into the bladder cause bladder infections. Normally, the body removes the bacteria by flushing them out during urination. Men have added protection with the prostate gland, which secretes protective hormones as a safeguard against bacteria. Still, sometimes bacteria can attach to the walls of the bladder and multiply quickly.
Other factors can increase the risk of bladder infections for both men and women. These include:
- Advanced age
- Insufficient fluid intake
- Surgical procedure within the urinary tract
- A urinary catheter
- Urinary obstruction, which is a blockage in the bladder or urethra
- Urinary tract abnormality, which is caused by birth defects or injuries
- Urinary retention, which means difficulty emptying the bladder
- Narrowed urethra
- Bowel incontinence
Symptoms for Bladder Infections
- Cloudy or bloody urine
- Urinating more often than usual
- Foul-smelling urine
- A frequent sensation of having to urinate, which is called urgency
- Cramping or pressure in the lower abdomen or lower back
Bladder infections can also cause back pain. This pain is associated with pain in the kidneys. Unlike muscular back pain, you might experience pain on both sides of your back or the middle of your back. Such symptoms mean the bladder infection has likely spread to the kidneys. A kidney infection can also cause a low fever. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.
Tying your tubes or tubal sterilisation is also known as Tubal Ligation a process that may be carried out due to number of reasons. This kind of permanent birth control also includes cutting or blocking of the fallopian tubes so as to avoid pregnancy. With the help of this procedure, one can block the path along which the sperm travels in order to reach the egg and fertilise it. This procedure can be done at any time including right after childbirth. Read on to know more about tubal ligation.
Reasons: There are many reasons why this procedure may be conducted. This is usually done to prevent pregnancy on a permanent basis. However, it is important to remember that this procedure may not suit everyone. One alternative procedure is a hysteroscopic sterilisation, which involves the placement of a small coil in the fallopian tubes through a path formed via the cervix. With the help of this insert, scar tissue is formed, thus effectively blocking and sealing off the tubes.
Risk of Damage to Organs: There are many risks that can be borne due to the procedure of tubal ligation. One of the main issues remains potential damage to the bowels which can lead to gastrointestinal complications in the long run. Also, the bladder and surrounding blood vessels may undergo such damage.
Medical History: This procedure can cause further complications like excessive bleeding and others, if you have had surgery in the pelvic and abdominal area earlier, as the wounds may suffer inflammation if the procedure is recent enough. Also, if you have a medical history of obesity or diabetes, then this can create further complications after the procedure.
Anaesthesia: One can also have an allergic reaction to the anaesthesia that has been used during the procedure, which can pose complications during the recovery period.
Infection: If the wound does not heal properly, then there is a chance of catching infections in the area which can lead to excessive bleeding, pain and fever along with other complications that have to do with the procedure and the organs at play.
Chronic Pain: There is a risk of going through long term and chronic pelvic or abdominal pain after this surgery. This can become a debilitating problem in the long run, for the patient.
Guarantee: This procedure cannot prevent sexually transmitted diseases. Also, one must remember that less than one out of 100 women who go through this procedure, actually get pregnant. Yet, if you are relatively young when the procedure happens, there are higher chances of the procedure failing to prevent pregnancy. Also, in such cases, the risk of ectopic pregnancy increases quite significantly. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.
Ankles, feet and fingers often swell a little in pregnancy as your body is holding more water than usual.
Towards the end of the day, the extra water tends to gather in the lowest parts of the body, especially if the weather is hot or if you have been standing a lot. The gradual swelling isn't harmful to you or your baby, but it can be uncomfortable.
Avoiding and Easing Swollen ankles:
- Avoid standing for long periods
- Wear comfortable shoes
- Do the foot exercises
Foot Exercises During Pregnancy:
You can do foot exercises sitting or standing. They improve blood circulation, reduce swelling in the ankles, and prevent cramp in the calf muscles:
Bend and stretch your foot up and down 30 times
Rotate your foot in a circle eight times one way and eight times the other way
Repeat with the other foot
When swelling can be serious:
You should seek medical attention immediately if your face, feet or hands swell up suddenly. A pregnancy condition called pre-eclampsia can cause sudden swelling, although most women with swelling don't have pre-ecplampsia.
If it happens to you, consult a gynaecologist, or hospital immediately. If you do have pre-eclampsia, you'll need to be monitored carefully, as the condition can be serious for both you and your baby.
The part of the woman’s reproductive system where the eggs are stored and released for fertilisation, are known as the ovaries. The ovaries also produce various hormones. When a female patient has to go through a procedure to remove the ovaries, this surgical procedure is known as an oophorectomy. The patient may have to go through this procedure for a number of reasons. Let us find out more about the procedure and the recovery of the patient thereafter.
Causes: There are a number of reasons as to why a patient may have to go through this procedure. One of the most common reasons include pelvic diseases like ovarian cancer which makes it imperative to remove the ovaries so that the cancer does not spread to any other part of the uterus or the rest of the body. Also, when the endometriosis becomes particularly painful and severe, the patient may have to go through a hysterectomy to remove the uterus and an oophorectomy to remove the ovaries. Most of the times, these two procedures go hand in hand. Also, when the patient is suffering from breast cancer, the doctor may deem it fit to remove the ovaries to stop the spread and growth of the cancer. Other hereditary diseases may also be treated with this procedure.
Preparation: In order to prepare for the surgery, one will need to go through a series of imaging tests like an ultrasound as well as an MRI scan which will help the doctor decide on the kind of procedure that needs to be carried out. Most doctors will ask you to stop eating at least a day before the surgery and to ingest a solution so that the intestines are properly cleaned out. Also, if you are taking any kind of medication, you will need to stop taking the same before the surgery.
Procedure: The procedure can be done either with one large incision or with multiple small incisions, depending on the area and the severity of the problem that is being treated. The surgeon will insert a small tube bearing a camera into this incision, which in turn will beam the images on to a screen in the operating theatre. The ovaries will be separated from the blood supply before the tissue surrounding them will be placed in a pouch. This pouch will be pulled out through the smaller incisions.
Recovery: How soon you recover depends on how soon you choose to sit up and start walking after the surgery. One can get back to normal life within a few weeks or a month after the surgery by taking small steps every day. Complete recovery takes about six weeks. f you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist and ask a free question.
Colposcopy is a procedure that is used to get a closer view of a women’s cervix, vagina and vulva. It is a procedure carried on to detect the presence of any abnormal cells on the cervix and nearby areas.
Why is Colposcopy done?
This procedure is carried out to see the problems in the vagina and cervix which may otherwise be not visible with a naked eye. A colposcopy is done when the Pap test results are abnormal. These abnormalities could be due to several reasons like viral infections namely human papillomavirus (HPV) infection or any other fungal (yeast), bacterial or protozoan (Trichomonas) infection. Atrophic vaginitis or natural cervical changes due to menopause can also lead to abnormal Pap test results. However one needs to be careful because these untreated cervical cell changes that lead to abnormal Pap tests can at times develop into precancerous or cancerous changes.
In case during colposcopy, an abnormal tissue is found in the problem areas, the doctor will remove a tiny sample of it and send it to the lab. This is normally known as a biopsy or cervical biopsy which is done from inside the opening of the cervix or endocervical canal.
Procedure for a colposcopy and biopsy
A colposcopy is normally a pain free procedure where at times some women might feel a slight tingling or burning sensation when the solution is applied. Biopsy might lead to a little discomfort like that of a sharp pinch or a menstrual cramp. During colposcopy a speculum or a small instrument is inserted into the vagina to spread apart the vaginal walls. In order to see the area more clearly the doctor dabs the cervix or vagina with a cotton swab dipped in vinegar (acetic acid) or Iodine (Lugol's solution). The solution is used to remove any kind of mucus and also makes the abnormal cells turn white in order to be clearly visible.
The doctor then uses a colposcope, a light magnifying device that looks like binoculars and has a bright light mounted to it. It also has a camera attached to it to take the videos or pictures of the cervix and vagina.
Biopsies are normally done by scraping away abnormal cells with a small brush or a small curette.
Results of colposcopy or cervical Biopsy
In case of Normal results the vinegar or iodine will not show the presence of any abnormal cells and the vagina and cervix look normal. But in case of abnormal results, there are abnormal tissues seen in the problem areas. It could also be a sore or a genital wart or infection in and around the vagina. The biopsy report would clarify whether it is cervical cancer or is likely to develop. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist and ask a free question.
Using contraceptive methods is the easiest method for a couple to avoid pregnancy and enjoy a tension free physical relationship. People have used birth control methods for thousands of years. Today, we have many safe and effective birth control methods available to us.
All of us who need birth control want to find the method that is best for us. If you're trying to choose, learning about each method may help you make your decision. Only you can decide what is best for you. Some contraceptives, such as condoms, will also protect a person from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
The methods can be categorised into temporary and permanent methods:
1. Withdrawal method: This involves removing the penis from the vagina before ejaculating. Ejaculation should be away from the introitus. However, it requires extreme self-control on the part of your man.
2. Barrier methods: These methods prevent sperm from entering the uterus. Barrier methods are removable. Types of barrier methods include:
a. Condom: This is the oldest barrier method. A condom is a thin tube that the man puts over his penis. This keeps the sperm from getting to the egg. Condoms are also called rubbers.
b. Female condom: This is like a condom, but it goes in the woman's vagina.
c. Diaphragm and cervical cap: These are put in the woman's vagina to cover the cervix
d. Contraceptive sponge: This is a sponge that is filled with spermicide and is put in the woman's vagina over the cervix.
Barrier methods can be easy to use and have few side effects.
3. Hormonal methods: These can only be used by women. Hormonal methods cause changes in the woman's reproductive cycle and include birth control pills, birth control patches, emergency contraception pill, Implants and so on. Unlike barrier methods, hormonal methods do not interfere with sex.
4. Intrauterine methods: In this method an object called an intrauterine device or IUD is put in the woman's uterus. There are two types of IUD: the copper IUD or an IUD with hormones implanted on it. The hormonal IUD has better protection against pregnancy but costs more. You need not do anything once it is inserted. Also, it is effective for up to 10 years.
Of course, the permanent methods are more effective for preventing pregnancy than the temporary methods. The decision to proceed with a permanent method should only be made if a person is absolutely sure that no more children are desired. The biggest problems after a permanent procedure is regret that it was done.
Sterilization is a permanent form of birth control that prevents a woman from getting pregnant. These procedures usually are not reversible.
a. A sterilization implant is a non-surgical method for permanently blocking the fallopian tubes. The doctor places a coil in each Fallopian tube through the vagina and uterus block each tube completely. It may take up to 3 months to completely block the tubes.
b.Tubal ligation is a surgical procedure in which a doctor cuts the fallopian tubes. This procedure blocks the path between the ovaries and the uterus. The sperm cannot reach the egg to fertilize it and the egg cannot reach the uterus.
c. Vasectomy is a surgical procedure that consists in cutting the tubes that carry sperm. This procedure blocks the path between the testes and the urethra due to which the sperm cannot leave the testes and hence cannot reach the egg. It can take as long as 3 months for the procedure to be fully effective.