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Treatment of Sleep Disturbance
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My son is 5 years old and has a bad cough which gets worse during night time sleep. The cough is so bad that it feels like he is barking. We have visited our family doctor but his medicines have not helped at all. What treatment should we do.
Sinusitis in Children
What are sinuses?
The sinuses are cavities, or air-filled spaces, near the nasal passage. Like the nasal passage, the sinuses are lined with mucous membranes. There are four different types of sinuses:
Ethmoid sinus. Located inside the face, around the area of the bridge of the nose. This sinus is present at birth, and continues to grow.
Maxillary sinus. Located inside the face, around the area of the cheeks. This sinus is also present at birth, and continues to grow.
Frontal sinus. Located inside the face, in the area of the forehead. This sinus does not develop until around 7 years of age.
Sphenoid sinus. Located deep in the face, behind the nose. This sinus does not develop until adolescence.
How the Sinuses Work?
A basic knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the nose and sinuses is necessary to understand nasal and sinus disorders.
The nose and sinuses are a part of the upper respiratory tract. The three-dimensional anatomy of this area is complex. The function of the nose in addition to smell is to warm, humidify and filter air that passes through it. The external nose consists of a bony and cartilaginous framework. The nostrils, or anterior nares, form the external opening to the nose. The nasal septum is a midline internal structure that separates the left and right nasal cavities. It is composed of cartilage and bone. A deviated nasal septum can cause nasal obstruction.
There are four sets of paired sinuses. The maxillary sinuses are located beneath the cheeks and under the eyes. The frontal sinuses are above the eyes behind the forehead. The ethmoid sinuses are honeycomb-shaped sinuses located between the eyes, and the sphenoid sinuses are located behind the nose and below the brain. Each of these sinuses is an enclosed space that drains through an ostium, or opening, into the nose. The sinuses are lined by mucosa that is similar to the lining of the nose. These ostia can become blocked by inflammation or swelling of the mucosa as well as by tumors or bony structures.
The lateral nasal wall internally contains the three turbinate bones. These scroll-like structures are covered in a mucous membrane that contains vascular channels that can swell under certain conditions, such as allergy or inflammation. The tear duct or nasolacrimal duct drains tears from the eyes into the nose where it enters beneath the inferior turbinate. Blockage of this duct from injury or disease causes excess tearing of the eye, or epiphora. The middle meatus is a space under the middle turbinate. Within the middle meatus is the osteomeatal complex, which is the common pathway for the drainage of the maxillary (cheek) sinus, frontal (forehead) sinus and anterior ethmoid sinus. Inflammation or swelling of these key areas may cause blockage of the sinuses.
The superior turbinate is a small structure located high in the nose. Behind the superior turbinate is the opening of the sphenoid sinus, located near the back portion of the septum. The pituitary gland is located directly above and behind the sphenoid sinus. Pituitary surgery is performed through the sphenoid sinus.
What is sinusitis?
Sinusitis is an infection of the sinuses near the nose. These infections usually occur after a cold or after an allergic inflammation. There are four types of sinusitis:
Acute. Symptoms of this type of infection last less than four weeks and get better with the appropriate treatment.
Subacute. This type of infection does not get better with treatment initially, and symptoms last 4 to 12 weeks.
Chronic. This type of infection happens with repeated acute infections or with previous infections that were inadequately treated. These symptoms last 12 weeks or longer.
Recurrent acute. Four or more episodes of acute sinusitis a year.
What causes sinusitis?
Sometimes, a sinus infection happens after an upper respiratory infection (URI) or common cold. The URI causes inflammation of the nasal passages that can block the opening of the paranasal sinuses, and result in a sinus infection. Allergies can also lead to sinusitis because of the swelling of the nasal tissue and increased production of mucus. There are other possible conditions that can block the normal flow of secretions out of the sinuses and can lead to sinusitis including the following:
Abnormalities in the structure of the nose
Infections from a tooth
Trauma to the nose
Foreign objects stuck in the nose
When the flow of secretions from the sinuses is blocked, bacteria may begin to grow. This leads to a sinus infection, or sinusitis. The most common bacteria that cause acute sinusitis include the following:
Treatment for chronic sinusitis must be aimed at different bacteria, such as pseudomonas (gram-negative rods), because there are more often the culprit.
What are the symptoms of sinusitis?
The symptoms of sinusitis depend greatly on the age of the child. The following are the most common symptoms of sinusitis. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:
Lasts longer than seven to 10 days
Discharge is usually thick green or yellow, but can be clear
Occasional daytime cough
Swelling around the eyes
Usually no headaches younger than 5 years of age
Older children and adults
Runny nose or cold symptoms lasting longer than seven to 10 days
Drip in the throat from the nose
Swelling around the eye, often worse in the morning
The symptoms of sinusitis may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Always see your child's health care provider for a diagnosis.
How is sinusitis diagnosed?
Generally, your child's health care provider can diagnose sinusitis based on your child's symptoms and physical examination. In some cases additional tests may be performed to confirm the diagnosis. These may include:
Sinus X-rays. Diagnostic test which uses invisible electromagnetic energy beams to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film. (X-rays are not typically used, but may help assist in the diagnosis.)
Computed tomography (also called CT or CAT scan). A diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a combination of X-rays and computer technology to produce horizontal, or axial, images (often called slices) of the body. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are more detailed than general X-rays.
Cultures from the sinuses. Laboratory tests that involve the growing of bacteria or other microorganisms to aid in diagnosis.
What is the treatment for sinusitis?
Specific treatment for sinusitis will be determined by your child's health care provider based on:
Your child's age, overall health, and medical history
How sick he or she is
Your child's tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies
How long the condition is expected to last
Your opinion or preference
Treatment of sinusitis may include the following:
Antibiotics, as determined by your child's physician (antibiotics are usually given for at least 14 days)
Acetaminophen (for pain or discomfort)
Cool humidifier in your child's room
Nasal spray to reduce inflammation
Medications to treat GERD
Surgery to remove the adenoids
Antibiotics may not be given for the first 10 to 14 days, unless severe symptoms develop, such as: fever, facial pain or tenderness, or swelling around the eye. Surgery should be considered only if other treatments have failed.
You may need to take your child to an allergist/immunologist, particularly if he or she has chronic or recurrent sinusitis or has had sinus surgery, but still experience sinusitis.
Antihistamines do not help the symptoms of sinusitis unless it is caused by an allergy.
I am suffering from severe headaches most of the time. No sinus problem. Headaches only during hard work, tension, etc, During tensions I get headache, eye sight move slowly. This started before 3 months, due to lot of family problems.
I am 47 year old female. Suffering from chronic sinusitis with fungal infection and asthma for past about 10 years. How can I keep my illness in control with out antibiotics or steroids.
I was surfing from chest pain and short breathe from 6 month. I got my test .it was showing asthma kind of. My igE is 1700. Now I felling well after proper med. But when I stop medicine then again same problem comes. I know side effect of med. Pls till me how to cure properly. Also I want to start gym again with whey protein, chicken and eggs. I used to eat 10 eggs a day. Will eating eggs also will effect me? Pls help.
I am suffer from cold cough .in morning pain in my throat so pls tell me possible medicine to get out from this problem.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease or COPD for short is a respiratory disease that makes it increasingly difficult to breathe; the lungs stop functioning properly. There are mainly two categories of COPD which are emphysema and chronic bronchitis. The primary reason for COPD is longstanding exposure to substances such as cigarette smoke, chemical fumes and air pollutants that damage the lungs gradually.
Initially, the symptoms of COPD may be really mild but over time it may become extremely severe. These include symptoms such as:
- Shortness of breath
- Coughing with mucous formation
- Wheezing or gasping
- Tightness in the chest
- Feeling tired constantly after doing normal daily activities or after exercising.
In the long run, the damages can prove to be permanent.
Of the two subtypes mentioned, bronchitis is when the airways become inflamed as well as narrowed. People suffering from bronchitis tend to produce sputum which is basically a combination of mucus and saliva.
And the other subtype, Emphysema is the condition when the air sacs in the lungs become affected. The air sacs degenerate and become baggy with lots of holes in it. This, in turn, traps air. This narrows the airways making it difficult to breathe. In COPD, there is a narrowing of the lungs because:
- The lining of the airway becomes inflamed
- The lining of the airways which is elastic flops
- The tissues of the lungs become damaged so there is an exertion on the airway.
COPD, in the long run, can lead to a number of health complications such as heart disorders, lung cancer, respiratory infections, depression and high blood pressure. COPD is treatable but not curable because it is a life-long condition. The following are some of the treatment methods for COPD:
- Oxygen Therapy- If you are experiencing low levels of oxygen then opting for a portable oxygen unit will be extremely beneficial.
- Medication- Bronchodilators help in relaxing the airway muscles for comfortable breathing. These medications are usually taken via an inhaler. Other medications include corticosteroids, theophylline, vaccines and antibiotics/antivirals.
- Surgery- Surgery is usually advised as the last step when the COPD condition has become so severe that all other methods of treatment have failed. This is, more possible, in the case of emphysema. There are mainly two surgical methods: one is bullectomy when the surgeons remove the damaged air sacs. The other method is lung volume reduction which removes the lung tissues that have become damaged.
Adopting certain lifestyle changes can provide relief for the time being. Such alterations include:
- Quit smoking immediately, if you haven’t already.
- Try to avoid passive smoking as much as possible. Passive smoking is as damaging as firsthand smoking.
- Give your body the daily dose of nutrition so that the immune system doesn’t falter as well.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!