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Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
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After returning from a outstation trip of 4 days, my daughter of 3yrs had vomtings, and I gave unidron (ondansetron oral solution) of 5ml at one night. The vomiting stopped and from the next day, she is refusing to have food. She is having 1 or 2 spoons and telling me, im getting vomiting, I dont want to eat. Im giving only that 2 or 3 spoons of rice, she doesnt vomit. If I forcibly try to feed her, shes behaving as if, she is yet to vomit. This is the situation from 3 to 4 days. Previously I dont have any problem with her food. If she feels hungry she used to ask me n eat. Now she dont want to eat. What should I do? She is not having food, so she is feeling low and she wants to sleep. What should I do?
Mere bête ko cold ki problem h wo jab bhi rota h to use cough honi shuru ho jati h or phir vomit hone lagti h iska koi proper solution bataiye use Abhi blood me allergy batai h or Dr. NE septilin Himalayan ka diya h continuing pilane ka bola h 1year tak.
My daughter age 4 months - triple polio vaccination a week ago. A bubo near the injection position and red mark. How to get rid of it ?
Mera baby 1 and half month ka hai mere doodh se uska pet nahi bhar raha hai main har tarah se kosish kar ke dekh chuki hu kya karu use dabba ka milk dena par raha hai lunch upaye bataya pls.
Do babies have body pain due to continuous travelling? If yes what should I do? My baby is 5 and half months old and we are suppose to travel a lot! Please help me.
The skin of a newborn baby is very fragile. It is thin and has low pigmentation. It takes quite some time (about a year) for the epidermis to develop and function effectively. Once the baby turns one, the skin gets thicker and more immune to skin problems. Here are some common skin problems found in almost every infant.
1 Diaper rash
Diaper rash is the development of red and inflamed skin in the area under the diaper. It is recommended to check the diaper for any wetness at regular intervals, and to change it when required. The diaper should not be too tight or left on too long. Applying a diaper rash ointment and keeping the area dry and open whenever possible can help in relieving your baby from the problem.
2 Baby acne
Development of acne/pimples on the skin of an infant is a common occurrence. It is advised to not to apply anything on it. It mostly resolves on its own in a couple of days.
3 Prickly heat
Prickly heat rashes are the rashes which develop on the face, neck, back or the bottom of the baby because of heat. To deal with this situation you should try to keep the infant cool and dry (not let him/her sweat) and ensure that they wear loose and comfortable clothes made of cotton.
Rashes that develop on the scalp, eyebrows, cheeks, chest, and/or neck of a newborn baby (up to 6 months), are known as seborrhea. It appears to be gruesome, but does not bother the baby. It is recommended to use mild baby shampoo and creams to get rid of the problem. If there is no improvement, see a dermatologist.
20% of the babies suffer from a very itchy skin rash known as 'eczema'. The affected area of the skin may turn red, ooze pus or crust over. It can be a result of an irritation caused due to sweating in a hot weather or due to the drying up of skin in a cold weather. Some clothing, specifically wool can even trigger this skin condition in a baby. A dermatologist or a pediatrician should be consulted in order to know what should be done.
My child is only 5 month age. Some issue on his head like dandruff. Please help me. I lived in delhi.
Sir mere abhi 7 month complete hua h and doctor is saying baby ulta h.so what should I do ki baby up position cheek ho jay.
I have baby on Jan 1, his age is 2 & half months. After delivery I have my periods on Feb 14. In this month till I don't have periods. Am also having thyroid and pcod. Now am also feeding my baby. How I can regulate my periods.
You might think, as a parent, that if you behave strictly then your child will become well-behaved. But research and studies have shown that the opposite happens. Strict parenting leads to children who behave worse than others and they suffer from low self-esteem.
Some other reasons why being strict is harmful:
- Never learning self-regulation: Responsibility and self-discipline have to be learned by the children themselves. When you put harsh limits on them, they never learn self-regulation. If they think the limits don’t sound too harsh, they will learn to accept them. But the limits placed on them should never be controlling. If this happens, children see themselves as being controlled and no one enjoys being controlled.
- Instilling fear: If you are being authoritarian (parenting in which there are high demands and low sympathy) instead of empathetic, then your children will become scared of you. You are instilling the power of fear in them. This triggers a vicious chain of events. When you yell, they will yell as well.
- Anger and depression: Authoritarian parenting often leads to children believing a part of them is unacceptable. They feel that their parents would not understand. It makes them susceptible to anger management issues and depression.
- Blindly obeying those in power: Children raised up in strict households start thinking power is always right. They learn to obey blindly. This makes them vulnerable to peer pressure. They also never learn to take responsibility for their actions.
- Rebelling: Children tend to be angrier and become rebellious when they have strict parents. The need to break free and not conform to the non-empathetic limits that forces them to act out. They might even nurture thoughts about leaving home and running away.
- Lying: Strict parenting creates excellent liars. Children learn to lie when they are in trouble. They think lies will placate their parents and they can get away with anything.
- Damage to parent-child relationship: If you are strict and you don’t change your authoritarian ways, then it damages your relationship with your children. Natural empathy is lacking in strict parents. You don’t understand your child, and your child doesn’t feel like sharing their lives with you. It creates a divide between the parent and child. Children never quite get over this as they grow older. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
What is ADHD?
ADHD, also called attention-deficit disorder, is a behavior disorder, usually first diagnosed in childhood, that is characterized by inattention, impulsivity, and, in some cases, hyperactivity. These symptoms usually occur together; however, one may occur without the other(s).
The symptoms of hyperactivity, when present, are almost always apparent by the age of 7 and may be present in very young preschoolers. Inattention or attention-deficit may not be evident until a child faces the expectations of elementary school.
What are the different types of ADHD?
Three major types of ADHD include the following:
ADHD, combined type. This, the most common type of ADHD, is characterized by impulsive and hyperactive behaviors as well as inattention and distractibility.
ADHD, impulsive/hyperactive type. This, the least common type of ADHD, is characterized by impulsive and hyperactive behaviors without inattention and distractibility.
ADHD, inattentive and distractible type. This type of ADHD is characterized predominately by inattention and distractibility without hyperactivity.
What causes attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?
ADHD is one of the most researched areas in child and adolescent mental health. However, the precise cause of the disorder is still unknown. Available evidence suggests that ADHD is genetic. It is a brain-based biological disorder. Low levels of dopamine (a brain chemical), which is a neurotransmitter (a type of brain chemical), are found in children with ADHD. Brain imaging studies using PET scanners (positron emission tomography; a form of brain imaging that makes it possible to observe the human brain at work) show that brain metabolism in children with ADHD is lower in the areas of the brain that control attention, social judgment, and movement.
Who is affected by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?
Estimates suggest that about 4% to 12% of children have ADHD. Boys are 2 to 3 times more likely to have ADHD of the hyperactive or combined type than girls.
Many parents of children with ADHD experienced symptoms of ADHD when they were younger. ADHD is commonly found in brothers and sisters within the same family. Most families seek help when their child's symptoms begin to interfere with learning and adjustment to the expectations of school and age-appropriate activities.
What are the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?
The following are the most common symptoms of ADHD. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. The 3 categories of symptoms of ADHD include the following:
Short attention span for age (difficulty sustaining attention)
Difficulty listening to others
Difficulty attending to details
Poor organizational skills for age
Poor study skills for age
Often interrupts others
Has difficulty waiting for his or her turn in school and/or social games
Tends to blurt out answers instead of waiting to be called upon
Takes frequent risks, and often without thinking before acting
Seems to be in constant motion; runs or climbs, at times with no apparent goal except motion
Has difficulty remaining in his/her seat even when it is expected
Fidgets with hands or squirms when in his or her seat; fidgeting excessively
Has difficulty engaging in quiet activities
Loses or forgets things repeatedly and often
Inability to stay on task; shifts from one task to another without bringing any to completion
The symptoms of ADHD may resemble other medical conditions or behavior problems. Keep in mind that many of these symptoms may occur in children and teens who do not have ADHD. A key element in diagnosis is that the symptoms must significantly impair adaptive functioning in both home and school environments. Always consult your child's doctor for a diagnosis.
How is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosed?
ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed behavior disorder of childhood. A pediatrician, child psychiatrist, or a qualified mental health professional usually identifies ADHD in children. A detailed history of the child's behavior from parents and teachers, observations of the child's behavior, and psychoeducational testing contribute to making the diagnosis of ADHD. Because ADHD is a group of symptoms, diagnosis depends on evaluating results from several different sources, including physical, neurological, and psychological testing. Certain tests may be used to rule out other conditions, and some may be used to test intelligence and certain skill sets. Consult your child's doctor for more information.
Treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Specific treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder will be determined by your child's doctor based on:
Your child's age, overall health, and medical history
Extent of your child's symptoms
Your child's tolerance for specific medications or therapies
Expectations for the course of the condition
Your opinion or preference
Major components of treatment for children with ADHD include parental support and education in behavioral training, appropriate school placement, and medication. Treatment with a psychostimulant is highly effective in most children with ADHD.
Treatment may include:
Psychostimulant medications. These medications are used for their ability to balance chemicals in the brain that prohibit the child from maintaining attention and controlling impulses. They help "stimulate" or help the brain to focus and may be used to reduce the major characteristics of ADHD.
Medications that are commonly used to treat ADHD include the following:
Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Metadate, Concerta, Methylin)
Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine, Dextrostat)
A mixture of amphetamine salts (Adderall)
Atomoxetine (Strattera). A nonstimulant SNRI (selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) medication with benefits for related mood symptoms.
Psychostimulants have been used to treat childhood behavior disorders since the 1930s and have been widely studied. Traditional immediate release stimulants take effect in the body quickly, work for 1 to 4 hours, and then are eliminated from the body. Many long-acting stimulant medications are also available, lasting 8 to 9 hours, and requiring 1 daily dosing. Doses of stimulant medications need to be timed to match the child's school schedule to help the child pay attention for a longer period of time and improve classroom performance. The common side effects of stimulants may include, but are not limited to, the following:
Rebound activation (when the effect of the stimulant wears off, hyperactive and impulsive behaviors may increase for a short period of time)
Most side effects of stimulant use are mild, decrease with regular use, and respond to dose changes. Always discuss potential side effects with your child's doctor.
Antidepressant medications may also be administered for children and adolescents with ADHD to help improve attention while decreasing aggression, anxiety, and/or depression.
Psychosocial treatments. Parenting children with ADHD may be difficult and can present challenges that create stress within the family. Classes in behavior management skills for parents can help reduce stress for all family members. Training in behavior management skills for parents usually occurs in a group setting which encourages parent-to-parent support. Behavior management skills may include the following:
Contingent attention (responding to the child with positive attention when desired behaviors occur; withholding attention when undesired behaviors occur)
Teachers may also be taught behavior management skills to use in the classroom setting. Training for teachers usually includes use of daily behavior reports that communicate in-school behaviors to parents.
Behavior management techniques tend to improve targeted behaviors (such as completing school work or keeping the child's hands to himself or herself), but are not usually helpful in reducing overall inattention, hyperactivity, or impulsivity.
Prevention of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Preventive measures to reduce the incidence of ADHD in children are not known at this time. However, early detection and intervention can reduce the severity of symptoms, decrease the interference of behavioral symptoms on school functioning, enhance the child's normal growth and development, and improve the quality of life experienced by children or adolescents with ADHD.