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Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
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Treatment of Childhood Infections
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Congenital Ear Problem Treatment
Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome In Adolesce
Treatment of Thyroid Disease in Children
Cleft Lip Treatment
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Patient Review Highlights
Sometimes, the groin and scrotum swell due to the buildup of water like fluid in one or both the testicles. This is known as hydrocele. This condition is not at all painful, but can be uncomfortable at times. In newborn babies, there is an opening between the abdomen and the scrotum; it naturally closes with the passage of time, therefore it’s generally nothing to worry about.
Symptoms of hydrocele:
Scrotum can get enlarged at times
Swelling and redness are common in hydrocele
Also, pressure can be felt at the base of your child’s penis
How does in occur in babies?
When you are in the last stage of your pregnancy, the baby’s testicles descend from its abdomen to the scrotum. So the fluid in the sac stays within the scrotum and the opening closes naturally after some time.
Can it be treated?
This condition is not usually hazardous to health and is treated usually, if there is immense pain. It can also cut out the blood supply; in this case, it has to be treated as soon as possible. If your child experiences such symptoms, you should take him to a doctor for a physical examination. During this examination, the doctor will shine light near the scrotum.
If it appears as a solid mass, then the assumption is that there is no watery fluid; hence, hydrocele has not occurred. There is a procedure in which the hydrocele is burst open with a small needle, but sometimes, it might relapse. In such a case, surgery is the only reliable option. These symptoms can also persist if your child is diagnosed with hernia. Hence, in such a situation, a surgery would solve both the conditions.
Sometimes, during consumption of certain food items many children get itchy throat, eyes, ears, asthma, sneezing, rashes, diarrhea and eczema. This can be due to food intolerance in children. It is a form of allergic disease in children. Every 1 out of 10 children suffer from food intolerance. These days, food allergies are becoming more and more common in children who are allergic to nuts, milk and eggs. In some cases it can also be life threatening. This condition is known as anaphylaxis. Milk and egg allergies are more common throughout the world.
Symptoms of food intolerance:
Your bowels start becoming irritable.
Stomach starts to ache.
Cough and cold is a common symptom.
Itchy skin rash
Causes of food intolerance in children:
There are enzymes in your body, which help you to digest the food you consume. Some enzymes in your body are insufficient; which further causes food intolerance in children. For instance, lactose intolerance causes spasms, stomach aches, diarrhea and so on so forth.
Food intolerance can also be caused due to chemicals, such as chemicals present in coffee, tea, cheese and chocolates.
Some food products can also cause food intolerance such as undercooked beans containing aflatoxins can cause extreme stomach infections in children.
Some children are also intolerant to certain food products which have salicylates such as majority of fruits, vegetables, herbs and also additives. Processed food contains a high amount of salicylates.
Children can be allergic to antioxidants like artificial food coloring, artificial flavoring and preservatives.
What to do if you think your child has food intolerance?
Take your child for a skin prick test. In this test, the skin is pricked with a thin needle and when the blood oozes out, supplements of different food products are put in that area. If that particular area becomes reddish and begins to itch, your child has allergy to that certain food product
A blood test should be done. It verifies the level of lgE present in your blood and finds out if your child is suffering from food intolerance or not.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Iron is an essential nutrient and mineral that is required by adults and children alike. Iron helps move oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body and helps muscles store and use oxygen. It is especially important for children because it aids development and prevents anaemia. Untreated iron deficiency in children can cause physical and mental delays. It can lead to less healthy red blood cells in the child's blood stream which will cause a delay in the growth of physical and mental faculties.
Risk factors for iron deficiency in children
Infants and children at highest risk of iron deficiency include:
- Babies who are born prematurely or have a low birth weight
- Babies who drink cow's milk before age 1
- Breast-fed babies who aren't given complementary foods containing iron after age 6 months
- Babies who drink formula that isn't fortified with iron
- Children ages 1 to 5 who drink more than 24 ounces (710 milliliters) of cow's milk, goat's milk or soy milk a day
- Children who have certain health conditions, such as chronic infections or restricted diets
- Children ages 1 to 5 who have been exposed to lead
- Adolescent girls also are at higher risk of iron deficiency because their bodies lose iron during menstruation.
Symptoms of iron deficiency anaemia
The signs and symptoms of iron deficiency anaemia in children may include:
- Pale skin
- Fatigue or weakness
- Slow cognitive and social development
- Inflammation of the tongue
- Difficulty maintaining body temperature
- Increased likelihood of infections
- Unusual cravings for non-nutritive substances, such as ice, dirt or pure starch
Prevent iron deficiency in children
Take steps to prevent iron deficiency in your child by paying attention to his or her diet. For example:
- Breast-feed or use iron-fortified formula. Breast-feeding until your child is age 1 is recommended. If you don't breast-feed, use iron-fortified infant formula.
- Encourage a balanced diet. When you begin serving your baby solids, typically between ages 4 months and 6 months, feed him or her foods with added iron, such as iron-fortified baby cereal. For older children, good sources of iron include red meat, chicken, fish, beans and dark green leafy vegetables. Between ages 1 and 5, don't allow your child to drink more than 24 ounces (710 milliliters) of milk a day.
- Enhance absorption. Vitamin C helps promote the absorption of dietary iron. You can help your child absorb iron by offering foods rich in vitamin C, such as melon, strawberries, kiwi, broccoli, tomatoes and potatoes.
- Consider iron supplements. If your baby was born prematurely or with a low birth weight or you're breast-feeding a baby older than 4 months and he or she isn't eating two or more servings a day of iron-rich foods, talk to your child's doctor about oral iron supplements.
Make sure that you watch out for the tell tale signs of iron deficiency and take the necessary precautions to avoid the same. If you wish to discuss about any specific child related problem, you can consult a specilized pediatrician and ask a free question.
i am experiencing a Severe lower abdomen pain n lower back pain with a heavy White watery discharge which is continuous from yesterday morning m using a sanitary pad to avoid the wetness n feeling very low I have taken tab. Buscopan but no improvement.
A baby should be breastfeed for at least the first few months after birth. Breastfeeding has a number of benefits for both the mother and child. Apart from being the best source of nutrition for the baby, it also helps the mother and child bond.
Here are a few benefits of breastfeeding your baby.
- Nutrition: No formula can be compared to the nutrition provided by a mother’s milk. The first milk produced by a mother’s breasts is known as colostrum which is rich in antibodies and proteins. Breast milk is made up of the perfect mix of proteins, vitamins and essential fats. It is also easier to digest as compared to formula feeds.
- Immunity boost: A mother’s milk is rich in antibodies and helps strengthen the newborn child’s immunity. These antibodies also help lower the baby’s risk of developing asthma or allergies later in life. Babies that are breastfed are also said to have a lower risk of suffering from ear infections, respiratory problems and diarrhoea. It also plays an important role in lowering chances of sudden infant death syndrome. Breastfeeding is also said to protect babies from certain types of cancer in infancy and later stages,
- Bonding: While being breastfed, a baby is held close to the mother and has skin to skin contact. This makes the baby feel secure and helps him or her to bond with the mother. For the mother, this process can also help fight postpartum depression and help reconnect with the baby.
- Healthy weight: Babies who are breastfed are said to be less likely to develop obesity. This is because breast milk has lower levels of insulin as compared to formula and babies who are breastfed have higher level of appetite and fat regulating hormone called leptin. As they grow, these babies put on a healthy amount of weight, but refrain from overeating and have healthier eating patterns. This helps maintain a healthy BMI and prevents diseases like diabetes etc.
- Boosts intelligence: Studies show that babies who were breastfed for the first six months have a higher IQ than those who were not. Thus, breastfeeding is said to play a significant role in cognitive development. There are two main reasons for this. Firstly, breast milk is said to fatty acids that are not available in formulas, Secondly, the emotional bonding between mother and child is also said to contribute towards boosting IQ levels. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a pediatrician.
Bedwetting or nocturnal enuresis, refers to the unintentional passage of urine during sleep. Enuresis is the medical term for wetting, whether in the clothing during the day or in bed at night. Another name for enuresis is urinary incontinence. For infants and young children, urination is involuntary. Wetting is normal for them. Usually, most of kids are dry by day 2-3 yrs and dry by night by 3-5 yrs. Daytime control is usually achieved first, while nighttime control comes later.
The age at which bladder control is expected varies considerably. Some parents expect dryness at a very early age, while others not until much later. Such a time line may reflect the culture and attitudes of the parents and caregivers.
Factors that affect the age at which wetting is considered a problem include the following:
- The child's gender: Bedwetting is more common in boys.
- The child's development and maturity
- The child's overall physical and emotional health. Chronic illness and/or emotional and physical abuse may predispose to bedwetting.
No one knows for sure what causes bed-wetting, but various factors may play a role:
- A small bladder: Your child's bladder may not be developed enough to hold urine produced during the night.
- Inability to recognize a full bladder: If the nerves that control the bladder are slow to mature, a full bladder may not wake your child, especially if your child is a deep sleeper.
- A hormone imbalance: During childhood, some kids don't produce enough anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) to slow nighttime urine production.
- Stress: Stressful events, such as becoming a big brother or sister, starting a new school, or sleeping away from home, may trigger bed-wetting.
- Urinary tract infection: This infection can make it difficult for your child to control urination.
- Sleep apnea: Sometimes bed-wetting is a sign of obstructive sleep apnea, a condition in which the child's breathing is interrupted during sleep.
- Diabetes: For a child who's usually dry at night, bed-wetting may be the first sign of diabetes.
A structural problem in the urinary tract or nervous system. Rarely, bed-wetting is related to a defect in the child's neurological system or urinary system.
- Wetting during the day
- Frequency, urgency, or burning on urination
- Straining, dribbling, or other unusual symptoms with urination
- Cloudy or pinkish urine, or blood stains on underpants or pajamas
- Soiling, being unable to control bowel movements
Most kids are fully toilet trained by age 5, but there's really no target date for developing complete bladder control. Between the ages of 5 and 7, bed-wetting remains a problem for some children. After 7 years of age, a small number of children still wet the bed.
When to see a doctor: Most children outgrow bed-wetting on their own, but some need a little help. In other cases, bed-wetting may be a sign of an underlying condition that needs medical attention.
Consult your child's doctor if:
- Your child still wets the bed after age 7
- Your child starts to wet the bed after a few months or more of being dry at night
- Bed-wetting is accompanied by painful urination, unusual thirst, pink or red urine, hard stools, or snoring
- Self-Care at Home
Here are some tips for helping your child stop wetting the bed. These are techniques that are most often successful
- Reduce evening fluid intake.
- The child should urinate in the toilet before bedtime.
- A system of sticker charts and rewards works for some children.
- Make sure the child has safe and easy access to the toilet.
Some believe that you should avoid using diapers or pull-ups at home because they can interfere with the motivation to wake up and use the toilet. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a pediatrician.
The role of parents in language development of children is a primary one. Basically, it will be a one way communication as babies will not respond, but that should not deter you from speaking to them. It has been shown that talking to children early on helps them to talk faster and learn more words. The number of words a child hears is directly proportional to the amount of vocabulary he/she will be able to master.
6 ways to help your baby learn speaking:
- Let them listen a lot: Children learn speaking by listening first. So more and more words they will listen, so do they will speak. Make sure your child comes in contact with children in the peer group and plays with them as with the help of their friends they can learn many words.
- Read a book: You should start reading to your child as early as possible. The type of book is not as important as you may use, various touch and feel books such as graphic novels. Initially, you may start with board books and then move on to picture books and finally to story books. It helps in increasing the child's vocabulary.
- Talk as much as you can: Part of a child's ears and brain that respond to sound are developed since birth, so even though talking to your baby may not make much sense, talking to them enhances their development of speech. The infant absorbs the words which facilitates speaking.
- Look for cues: If the child is interested in something such as a book or a toy, then engage with the child on that subject. Encourage him/her to ask questions and interact as much as possible. These interactions help in enhancing the child's language skills.
- Limit television: Using television to teach vocabulary to your child is not as effective as talking directly. The primary reason is that characters in television do not react to your child's cues. This does not allow the child interact, which results in reduced language learning.
- Treat ear infections early: It is important to treat ear infections early as this causes hearing problems which in turn delays language learning. Consulting a pediatrician to get treatment for ear infections of your child is advisable. You should see to it that the child is being administered medications at regular intervals.
Depression in children is not a very uncommon phenomenon. But if the feeling of sadness persists over a period of time with little or no change to their behavior, then it can be seen as a symptom of depression. Children who are suffering from depression need immediate and utmost care as negligence may cause severe long term effects on the child. Read on to find more about them.
Symptoms that indicate childhood depression vary. Some of the different symptoms which indicate depression are:
- Social withdrawal
- Feeling of worthlessness
- Difficulty in concentrating
- Reduced ability to function during events
- Continuous feelings of sadness
- Physical complaints
- Depression in children can be caused due to the combination of a multitude of reasons.
- Children from a family history of depression are more likely to be suffering from depression. âSimilarly, if the parents suffer from depression then it is more than likely that the child will also suffer from depression.
- Children from conflicted families or children and teens who are prone to substance or alcohol abuse can suffer from depression.
- Reasons such as physical health, environment, genetic vulnerability or biochemical disturbance can lead to depression.
The treatment process of depression in children is similar to that of adults and can be treated with psychotherapy and medication. If your child is depressed consult a general physician who after his or her diagnosis may refer you to a psychiatrist. The medical specialist will recommend psychotherapy.
In some instances, a child suffering from depression maybe be suicidal. Parents are advised to be vigilant and observe certain behavioral changes that the child may have adapted to or suddenly switched to.
Some of the signs are mentioned below:
- Changes in eating, sleeping or activities
- Isolating oneself even from family
- Talking of suicide, feeling helpless or hopeless
- Increased risk taking behavior
- Substance abuse
- Giving away possessions
Sessions at first and then opt for antidepressant medication if no significant progress is seen. The best results often result from a combination of prescribed medication along with multiple sessions of psychotherapy.
Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease caused due to intolerance to the protein called gluten found in common foods like wheat, barley, and rye. The exact reason for the disease is not known, but gluten attacks the small finger-like projections in the intestine called the villi, which help absorb nutrients during the digestion, leading to malnourishment.
Onset of the disease is usually once the child has started on solid foods and can include diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, underweight, skin rashes, anemia, mouth sores, etc. Diagnosis usually happens with a detailed discussion and checking the level of antibodies against gluten in the blood. In rare cases, an intestinal biopsy may also be required. Once confirmed, the following are ways to manage celiac disease.
Dietary changes: Avoiding gluten-containing foods is the first step to treating celiac disease. These are common food substances like wheat and barley. In some cases, the entire family may choose to or need to take this diet, just to provide moral support to the child.
- Breads, cakes (made from wheat)
- Creamed or breaded vegetables
- Processed meats
- Dry roasted nuts (as agents used in processing could have wheat)
- Fried chicken
- French fries (that are coated in flour)
- Spreads, soft cheeses, and dips
- Salad dressings
- Gravies and sauces (including some tomato and meat sauces)
- Soup mixes and canned soups
- Crab or other seafood
- Malt or malt-flavored drinks (usually made from barley)
- Modified food starch (modified corn starch is OK; modified wheat starch is not)
- Nondairy creamer
- Soy sauce and soy sauce solids (may be fermented with wheat)
- Wheat-free products (may contain barley or rye flour)
- Yogurts containing wheat starch
Read the labels of foods to ensure they are free of gluten. Organic/natural food stores and health food stores contain wide range of gluten-free products that can be used with minimal effect on the child's food habits.
Eating out: Just because the child has celiac disease, eating out is not ruled out. Carefully choosing what to eat is suggested. Also, letting the chef know is a good idea, as most chefs will prepare something safer for the child.
Cross-contamination: Avoid cross-contamination: In schools or in cases where the child could potentially eat from other children's boxes, make sure the child is well informed and ensure he does not eat from other kids' lunch boxes. It is also a good idea to keep the class teacher and a couple of his close friends informed of the child's condition.
Most children are easy to educate and adapt well to the changes required, knowing very well that it is for their own good. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gastroenterologist.
Spitting up, refusing to try new foods and occasionally turning up their noses at feeding times, is normal but consistently refusing food and water, vomiting and allergies may indicate an underlying medical condition that requires attention. Common feeding problems that affect infants include sucking, prolonged chewing without swallowing, holding food in their mouth and grabbing food. Infants who are unable to close their mouths in order to keep food inside may also be said to be suffering from feeding problems.
Feeding problems could be triggered by medical conditions like a cleft palate, premature birth, respiratory problems, low birth weight etc. or by non-medical reasons such as the child’s feeling of being unloved or stressed. Symptoms of feeding problems vary from infant to infant. However, some of the common symptoms exhibited are:
Problems with chewing
Refusing to eat foods or drink liquids
Long feeding times
Coughing or gagging while feeding
Difficulty with breast or bottle feeding
Nasal stuffiness while eating
Recurring respiratory infections
Vomiting or excessive spitting up of food
Arching the back while feeding
Disinterest in feeding
Though feeding problems are minor in most cases, it is important to consult a doctor if this behaviour continues over a period of time. This is because the child may be suffering from an underlying medical condition or could be at an increased risk of suffering from dehydration, aspiration and lung problems. It could also lead to delayed physical and mental development, speech problems and cognitive issues.
Feeding problems are addressed in many different ways. The first step to dealing with feeding problems is to change the texture and temperature of food being given to the baby. In addition, try changing the posture of the baby while feeding.
In some cases, mouth exercises may be needed to strengthen the mouth muscles. Chewing exercises and tongue movement may also help reduce feeding problems.
Encourage your infant to try different types of food by including different textures in their daily meals. Alternating food textures and liquids can make it easier for the infant to swallow the food. Do not force your child to eat in a hurry but let him or her take their own time.
In cases where the infant is not gaining weight, the doctor may suggest nutritional changes and a specific diet to help gain weight. In emergency cases, hospitalisation may also be required and your baby may be given a feeding tube to ensure he or she receives adequate nutrition.